Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a high Human Development Index and are regarded as developed countries; as of 2017, the OECD member states collectively comprised 62.2% of global nominal GDP and 42.8% of global GDP at purchasing power parity. OECD is an official United Nations observer. In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan; this would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.
In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states. The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in France; the OECD is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates and had a total budget of €374 million in 2017. The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II, it started its operations on 16 April 1948, originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette in France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues. According to Yanis Varoufakis, the OEEC can be seen as a continental planning commission established by the victorious United States following the successful model of their planning commissions of the New Deal.
The economic philosophy these commission followed can be characterized as Keynesian. The lead in the organisation should be with a strong integration of the Germans. In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC. By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission, it would be a hard-fought task, after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were OEEC observers, on board as full members.
It would set to work straight away on bringing in Japan. Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC; the Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada, with Japan joining three years later; the official founding members are: During the next 12 years Japan, Finland and New Zealand joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country; the OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre, International Energy Agency, Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering. Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization". In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe to prepare market economy reforms.
In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition was established, in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia and Poland. This programme included a membership option for these countries; as a result of this, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South Korea became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000. In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey. In 1996, Estonia and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD. Slovenia applied for membership that same year. In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation; the EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states. Romania reaffirmed in 2
Ireland–Mexico relations refer to foreign relations between Ireland and Mexico. The relationship has been associated with the Irish migration to Mexico. Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization. During Spanish colonization of Mexico, several Spanish Viceroys were of Irish descent such as Juan O'Donojú, the last Spanish Viceroy. Since Mexican independence, many Irish have immigrated to Mexico and have contributed to its culture and development. During the Mexican–American War, many Irish immigrants in the United States abandoned their posts and joined Mexican forces because of what they felt was discrimination and persecution of their Catholic faith by non-Catholic Americans. One of the most popular Irish battalions during the war was that of the St. Patrick's Battalion which fought on the Mexican side during the Battle of Buena Vista and Battle of Churubusco in 1847, among others. On 10 January 1974, both nations established diplomatic relations.
At first, Mexico was accredited to Ireland from its embassy in London and Ireland was accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, DC. In 1990, both nations agreed to open resident diplomatic missions and in June 1991, Mexico opened its embassy on Raglan Road and Ireland followed suit by opening its embassy in Mexico City in September 1999; the Irish and Mexican presidents Michael D. Higgins and Enrique Peña Nieto held a bilateral meeting in Rome on 20 March 2013, the day after the papal inauguration of Pope Francis. Peña Nieto invited Higgins to visit Mexico, the Irish president began a four-day official visit on 19 October 2013 as part of a three-nation trip to Central America. In 2015, both nations celebrated 40 years since the establishment of diplomatic relations between both countries. Presidential and Prime Ministerial visits from Ireland to Mexico Taoiseach Albert Reynolds President Mary McAleese Taoiseach Bertie Ahern President Michael D. Higgins Presidential visits from Mexico to Ireland President Vicente Fox Both nations have signed several bilateral agreements such as an Agreement on the Avoidance of Double-Taxation and Tax Evasion.
There are direct flights between Cancún International Dublin Airport with TUI Airways. In 1997, Mexico signed a Free Trade Agreement with the European Union. Mexico was Ireland's 21st largest export market in 2007. In 2017, two-way trade between both nations amounted to $2 billion USD. Ireland's main exports to Mexico include: pharmaceutical and health products such as medicines and chemicals. In 2008, the Irish Government opened an Enterprise Ireland office in Mexico. Irish multinational companies such as Kerry Group and Smurfit Kappa operate in Mexico. Mexican multinational company Cemex operates in Ireland. In 2013, Europol claimed that "Mexican drug cartels are targeting Ireland and mainland Europe for their cocaine and cannabis trade" and that there was "evidence of Mexican cartels using Ireland as a staging post for bringing drug shipments into Europe." In 2016, it was revealed that Irish gangland leader Christy Kinahan was working with the Sinaloa cartel to import cocaine from Peru. Ireland has an embassy in Mexico City.
Mexico has an embassy in Dublin. Irish immigration to Mexico San Patricio, Jalisco Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs on diplomatic relations between Mexico and Ireland
Free trade is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports. In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties support protectionism, the opposite of free trade. Most nations are today members of the World Trade Organization multilateral trade agreements. Free trade is additionally exemplified by the European Economic Area and the Mercosur which have established open markets. However, most governments still impose some protectionist policies that are intended to support local employment, such as applying tariffs to imports or subsidies to exports. Governments may restrict free trade to limit exports of natural resources. Other barriers that may hinder trade include import quotas and non-tariff barriers, such as regulatory legislation. There is a broad consensus among economists that protectionism has a negative effect on economic growth and economic welfare while free trade and the reduction of trade barriers has a positive effect on economic growth.
However, liberalization of trade can cause significant and unequally distributed losses, the economic dislocation of workers in import-competing sectors. Free trade policies may promote the following features: Trade of goods without taxes or other trade barriers. Trade in services without taxes or other trade barriers; the absence of "trade-distorting" policies that give some firms, households, or factors of production an advantage over others. Unregulated access to markets. Unregulated access to market information. Inability of firms to distort markets through government-imposed monopoly or oligopoly power. Trade agreements which encourage free trade. Two simple ways to understand the proposed benefits of free trade are through David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage and by analyzing the impact of a tariff or import quota. An economic analysis using the law of supply and demand and the economic effects of a tax can be used to show the theoretical benefits and disadvantages of free trade.
Most economists would recommend that developing nations should set their tariff rates quite low, but the economist Ha-Joon Chang, a proponent of industrial policy, believes higher levels may be justified in developing nations because the productivity gap between them and developed nations today is much higher than what developed nations faced when they were at a similar level of technological development. Underdeveloped nations today, Chang believes, are weak players in a much more competitive system. Counterarguments to Chang's point of view are that the developing countries are able to adopt technologies from abroad whereas developed nations had to create new technologies themselves and that developing countries can sell to export markets far richer than any that existed in the 19th century. If the chief justification for a tariff is to stimulate infant industries, it must be high enough to allow domestic manufactured goods to compete with imported goods in order to be successful; this theory, known as import substitution industrialization, is considered ineffective for developing nations.
The chart at the right analyzes the effect of the imposition of an import tariff on some imaginary good. Prior to the tariff, the price of the good in the world market is Pworld; the tariff increases the domestic price to Ptariff. The higher price causes domestic production to increase from QS1 to QS2 and causes domestic consumption to decline from QC1 to QC2; this has three main effects on societal welfare. Consumers are made worse off. Producers are better off; the government has additional tax revenue. However, the loss to consumers is greater than the gains by the government; the magnitude of this societal loss is shown by the two pink triangles. Removing the tariff and having free trade would be a net gain for society. An identical analysis of this tariff from the perspective of a net producing country yields parallel results. From that country's perspective, the tariff leaves producers worse off and consumers better off, but the net loss to producers is larger than the benefit to consumers. Under similar analysis, export tariffs, import quotas and export quotas all yield nearly identical results.
Sometimes consumers are better off and producers worse off and sometimes consumers are worse off and producers are better off, but the imposition of trade restrictions causes a net loss to society because the losses from trade restrictions are larger than the gains from trade restrictions. Free trade creates winners and losers, but theory and empirical evidence show that the size of the winnings from free trade are larger than the losses. According to mainstream economics theory, the selective application of free trade agreements to some countries and tariffs on others can lead to economic inefficiency through the process of trade diversion, it is economically efficient for a good to be produced by the country, the lowest cost producer, but this does not always take place if a high cost producer has a free trade agreement while the low cost producer faces a high tariff. Applying free trade to the high cost producer and not the low cost producer as well can lead to trade diversion and a net economic loss.
This is why many economists place such high importance on negotiations for global tar
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of 29 km. The earthquake is referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan Earthquake and is known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, the Great Sendai Earthquake, the Great Tōhoku Earthquake, the 3.11 earthquake. It was the most powerful earthquake recorded in Japan, the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900; the earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves that may have reached heights of up to 40.5 metres in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture, which, in the Sendai area, traveled up to 10 km inland. The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm and 25 cm, increased earth's rotational speed by 1.8 µs per day, generated infrasound waves detected in perturbations of the low-orbiting GOCE satellite.
The earthquake caused sinking of part of Honshu's Pacific coast by up to a metre, but after about three years, the coast rose back and kept on rising to exceed its original height. The tsunami swept the Japanese mainland and killed over ten thousand people through drowning, though blunt trauma caused many deaths; the latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,897 deaths, 6,157 injured, 2,533 people missing across twenty prefectures, a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. A report by the National Police Agency of Japan on 10 September 2018 listed 121,778 buildings as "total collapsed", with a further 280,926 buildings "half collapsed", another 699,180 buildings "partially damaged"; the earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in north-eastern Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, a dam collapse.
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan." Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water. The tsunami caused nuclear accidents the level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex, the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. Many electrical generators were taken down, at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure resulting from the loss of electrical power. Residents within a 20 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and a 10 km radius of the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated. Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions.
The World Bank's estimated economic cost was US$235 billion, making it the costliest natural disaster in history. The 9.1-magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a shallow depth of 32 km, with its epicenter 72 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, lasting six minutes. The earthquake was reported as 7.9 Mw by the USGS before it was upgraded to 8.8 Mw to 8.9 Mw, finally to 9.0 Mw. On 11 July 2016, the USGS further upgraded the earthquake to 9.1. Sendai was the nearest major city to the earthquake, 130 km from the epicenter; the main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, with hundreds of aftershocks reported. One of the first major foreshocks was a 7.2 Mw event on 9 March 40 km from the epicenter of 11 March earthquake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 Mw. Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.4 Mw aftershock was reported at 15:08 JST, succeeded by a 7.9 Mw at 15:15 JST and a 7.7 Mw at 15:26 JST.
Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater have occurred since the initial quake, including one on 26 October 2013 of magnitude 7.1 Mw. Aftershocks follow Omori's law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake; the aftershocks could continue for years. This megathrust earthquake was a recurrence of the mechanism of the earlier 869 Sanriku earthquake, estimated as having a magnitude of at least 8.4 Mw, which created a large tsunami that inundated the Sendai plain. Three tsunami deposits have been identified within the Holocene sequence of the plain, all formed within the last 3,000 years, suggesting an 800 to 1,100 year recurrence interval for large tsunamigenic earthquakes. In 2001 it was reckoned that there was a high likelihood of a large tsunami hitting the Sendai plain as more than 1,100 years had elapsed. In 2007, the probability of an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 8.1–8.3 was estimated as 99% within the following 30 years.
This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northe