2001 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 10 November 2001. All 150 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 seats in the 76-member Senate were up for election; the incumbent Liberal Party of Australia led by Prime Minister of Australia John Howard and coalition partner the National Party of Australia led by John Anderson defeated the opposition Australian Labor Party led by Kim Beazley. Independents: Peter Andren, Tony Windsor, Bob Katter The Nationals had candidates in 14 seats where three-cornered-contests existed, with 87.34% of preferences favouring the Liberal Party. The Democrats contested 145 electorates with preferences favouring Labor; the Greens contested 145 electorates with preferences favouring Labor. One Nation contested 120 electorates with preferences favouring the Liberal/National Coalition; the following table indicates seats. It compares the election results with the previous margins, taking into account redistributions in New South Wales, Western Australia, South Australia and both territories.
As a result, it includes the seats of Macarthur and Parramatta, which were held by Liberal members but had notional Labor margins. The table does not include the new seat of Hasluck. Throughout much of 2001, the Coalition had been trailing Labor in opinion polls, thanks to dissatisfaction with the government's economic reform programme and high petrol prices; the opposition Australian Labor Party had won a majority of the two-party-preferred vote at the previous election and had won a series of state and territory elections. Labor recorded positive swings in two by-elections, taking the Queensland seat of Ryan and coming close in Aston; the September 11 attacks, the Children Overboard and Tampa affairs, were strong influences in the minds of voters at the election, focusing debate around the issues of border protection and national security. Polls swung toward the coalition after the "Tampa" controversy but before the 11 September attacks. In fact, voter concern with terrorism in the aftermath of September 11 was noted, with the rise in the combined primary votes of the major parties from 79.61% at the previous election in 1998, to 81.17% at this election.
There would be further increases in the combined major party primary vote in 2004 and 2007. Another major issue was the collapse of the country's second-biggest airline Ansett Australia and the question of whether it should be given a bailout; the Coalition was opposed to any bailout. However, Labor supported a bailout, because the company's collapse was about to result in the biggest mass job loss in Australian history, whilst arguing that the government was responsible for allowing Ansett to be taken over by Air New Zealand, a move which had caused Ansett's failure. Although the two-party preferred result was reasonably close, the ALP recorded its lowest primary vote since 1934. Political scientists have suggested that television coverage has subtly transformed the political system, with a spotlight on leaders rather than parties, thereby making for more of an American presidential-style system. In this election, television news focused on international issues terrorism and asylum seekers.
Minor parties were ignored as the two main parties monopolised the media's attention. The election was depicted as a horse-race between Howard and Beazley, with Howard running ahead and therefore being given more coverage than his Labor rival; the election-eve Newspoll forecast that the Liberal/National Coalition would get 53 percent of the two-party-preferred vote. Candidates of the Australian federal election, 2001 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2001–2004 Members of the Australian Senate, 2002–2005 Australian Electoral Commission Results University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 AEC 2PP vote AustralianPolitics.com election details Preference flows – ABC
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Social commentary is the act of using rhetorical means to provide commentary on issues in a society. This is done with the idea of implementing or promoting change by informing the general populace about a given problem and appealing to people's sense of justice. Social commentary can be practiced through all forms of communication, from printed form, to conversations to computerized communication. Two examples of strong and bitter social commentary are the writings of Jonathan Swift and Martin Luther. Swift exposed and decried the appalling poverty in Ireland at the time, viewed as the fault of the British government. Martin Luther decried corruption in the Catholic Church, including what today would be termed pedophilia. Examples of social commentators from the lower social strata are Will Rogers; this list is far from exhaustive. Examples of social commentary may be found in any form of communication. Artistic works of all mediums are defined by what they say about society. Despite being wordless, the memorable image of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 may be considered one of the most profound commentaries of the power of the individual.
Inspiration for some artists can come from issues. Deborah Silverman, Professor of History and Art History at the University of California in Los Angeles, states that the "Analysis of particular visual forms expands to an interpretation of art and artists as carriers of cultural history in the crucible of modernity." This notion has been present in art throughout time. An example is Vincent Van Gogh's 1885 painting'The Potato Eaters'; this picture depicts a group of poverty stricken people gathered in a small room around a table. Vincent Van Gogh created this piece of artwork. A modern example is street art known as graffiti. With an international reputation and political activist Banksy is known to produce street art that raises public issues such as slave Labour, loss of childhood and the effects of war. Social commentary photography's purpose is to "expose social issues on ethics, religious, the way of life, how people live and other similarities." Sometimes this includes the harsh reality of society such as homelessness, discrimination and defenceless children.
"Social Commentary artists try their best to create artworks in order to convey messages to the community." Due to the fact that the photos are of real life situations, the contents can be perceived to be more confronting than other visual forms of social commentary. An example are the works of war photographer James Nachtwey. James Nachtwey's works include the Rwanda Genocide, the Somalia famine and the Jakarta Riots and the September 11 attacks in 2001, just to name a few. Most public speaking constitutes social commentary of some form. Many sermons will offer religious solutions. Many politicians may speak in a similar fashion – in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar one can see Mark Antony's funeral speech as a commentary; the larger audience offered by radio and television has diminished the significance of public speaking as a means of social commentary. The United Nations General Assembly is one of the biggest global organisations that focus of planet Earth and humans; the United Nations General Assembly strive to make the Earth a better place, however without the input of many passionate individuals the UNGA would not be able to achieve this.
Influential public speakers such as Pope Francis, Malala Yousafzai, President Barack Obama and Queen Elizabeth II, comment of society's issues. This allows the UNGA to address them accordingly. Allegorical fictional works such as Animal Farm contain a social commentary and one can find some degree of social commentary in any novel. To Kill a Mockingbird can be interpreted as a commentary on racial issues given the date of its publication. Another example of social commentary is Thomas More's Utopia in which he uses the Utopia to satirize the values of 16th century Britain. Social commentaries have been searched for in fantasy novels such as The Lord of the Rings, though such connections require much conjecture. Directly speaking to a topic in the social discourse in writing by defining the audience, the bounds of the topic, the presenting facts and opinions based on the author and on another's perspective. Fictional works in these mediums have a similar scope to that of their literary counterparts and documentaries to the non-fiction works described above.
Television and films use powerful images to enhance their message, for example, Michael Moore's films utilise this to great effect in promoting his political beliefs. Some examples of films include Inc.. The Story of Stuff featuring Annie Leonard, Morgan Spurlock's Super Size Me, and to a lesser degree, the prominent Italian exploitation film Cannibal Holocaust uses graphic violence, shocking imagery, underlying topics in anthropology to express Ruggero Deodato's distaste for modern society – more – what it has become. West Indian calypsonians participate annually in songwriting competitions with the common use of double entendre and metaphor as well as monikers to avoid legal complications. An early radio monologist was the American Will Rogers, with sharp and good-humored observations upon society during the 1920s and 1930s. Current American monologists include: There are a number of discussion shows that do not have a call in segments, but which sometimes have discussions with personages of current interest.
In the United States of America, some such shows include: Jay Leno Da
Macquarie University is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Sydney. Established as a verdant university, Macquarie has five faculties, as well as the Macquarie University Hospital and the Macquarie Graduate School of Management, which are located on the university's main campus in suburban Sydney; the university is the first in Australia to align its degree system with the Bologna Accord. The idea of founding a third university in Sydney was flagged in the early 1960s when the New South Wales Government formed a committee of enquiry into higher education to deal with a perceived emergency in university enrollments in New South Wales. During this enquiry, the Senate of the University of Sydney put in a submission which highlighted'the immediate need to establish a third university in the metropolitan area'. After much debate a future campus location was selected in what was a semi-rural part of North Ryde, it was decided that the future university be named after Lachlan Macquarie, an important early governor of the colony of New South Wales.
Macquarie University was formally established in 1964 with the passage of the Macquarie University Act 1964 by the New South Wales parliament. The initial concept of the campus was to create a new high technology corridor, similar to the area surrounding Stanford University in Palo Alto, the goal being to provide for interaction between industry and the new university; the academic core was designed in the Brutalist style and developed by the renowned town planner Walter Abraham who oversaw the next 20 years of planning and development for the university. A committee appointed to advise the state government on the establishment of the new university at North Ryde nominated Abraham as the architect-planner; the fledgling Macquarie University Council decided that planning for the campus would be done within the university, rather than by consultants, this led to the establishment of the architect-planners office. The first Vice-Chancellor of Macquarie University, Alexander George Mitchell, was selected by the University Council which met for the first time on 17 June 1964.
Members of the first university council included: Colonel Sir Edward Ford OBE, David Paver Mellor, Rae Else-Mitchell QC and Sir Walter Scott. The university first opened to students on 6 March 1967 with more students than anticipated; the Australian Universities Commission had allowed for 510 effective full-time students but Macquarie had 956 enrolments and 622 EFTS. Between 1968 and 1969, enrolment at Macquarie increased with an extra 1200 EFTS, with 100 new academic staff employed. 1969 saw the establishment of the Macquarie Graduate School of Management. Macquarie grew during the seventies and eighties with rapid expansion in courses offered, student numbers and development of the site. In 1972, the university established the third law school in Sydney. In their book Liberality of Opportunity, Bruce Mansfield and Mark Hutchinson describe the founding of Macquarie University as'an act of faith and a great experiment'. An additional topic considered in this book is the science reform movement of the late 1970s that resulted in the introduction of a named science degree, thus facilitating the subsequent inclusion of other named degrees in addition to the traditional BA.
An alternative view on this topic is given by theoretical physicist John Ward. After over a decade of service, the first Vice Chancellor Professor Mitchell was succeeded by Professor Edwin Webb in December 1975. Professor Webb was required to steer the university through one of its most difficult periods as the value of universities were debated and the governments introduced significant funding cuts. Professor Webb left the university in 1986 and was succeeded by Di Yerbury, the first female Vice-Chancellor in Australia. Professor Yerbury would go on to hold the position of Vice-Chancellor for nearly 20 years. In 1990 the university absorbed the Institute of Early Childhood Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education, under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989. L Professor Steven Schwartz replaced Di Yerbury at the beginning of 2006. Yerbury's departure was attended with much controversy, including a "bitter dispute" with Schwartz, disputed ownership of university artworks worth $13 million and Yerbury's salary package.
In August 2006, Professor Schwartz expressed concern about the actions of Yerbury in a letter to university auditors. Yerbury denied any wrongdoing and claimed the artworks were hers. During 2007, Macquarie University restructured its student organisation after an audit raised questions about management of hundreds of thousands of dollars in funds by student organisations At the centre of the investigation was Victor Ma, president of the Macquarie University Students' Council, involved in a high-profile case of student election fixing at the University of Sydney; the university Council resolved to remove Ma from his position. Vice-Chancellor Schwartz cited an urgent need to reform Macquarie's main student bodies. However, Ma denied any wrongdoing and labelled the controversy a case of'character assassination'; the Federal Court ordered on 23 May 2007. Following the dissolution of Macquarie University Union Ltd, the outgoing student organisation was replaced with a new wholly owned subsidiary company of the university, known as U@MQ Ltd.
The new student organisation lacked a true student representative union.
University of Technology Sydney
The University of Technology Sydney is a public research university located in Sydney, Australia. Although its origins are said to trace back to the 1870s, the university was founded in its current form in 1988; as of 2018, UTS enrolls 45,930 students, including 33,070 undergraduate and 12,860 postgraduate students through its 9 faculties and schools. The university is regarded as one of the world's leading young universities, ranked 1st in Australia and 10th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings. UTS is a member of the Australian Technology Network, the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning and the Association of Commonwealth Universities; the University of Technology Sydney originates from the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts, established in 1833. In the 1870s, the School formed the Workingman's College, taken over by the NSW government to form, in 1882, the Sydney Technical College. In 1940 the NSW Parliament passed an Act to establish an Institute of Technology, which in 1964 led to the establishment of the New South Wales Institute of Technology.
In 1968, the NSW Institute of Technology amalgamated with the NSW Institute of Business Studies. In 1976 NSWIT established the first law school in NSW outside the university sector; the Haymarket campus opened in 1985. On 8 October 1987 university status was granted to NSWIT, followed by the passing of the University of Technology, Act 1987, it was reconstituted as the University of Technology Sydney in 1988, along with the incorporation of the School of Design of the former Sydney College of the Arts. In 1989, the University of Technology, Act 1989 formed UTS by absorbing the Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education and the Institute of Technical and Adult Teacher Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. An academic Structure of nine faculties and 25 schools was established in 1991; the School of Design was housed at a campus in Balmain, which closed at the end of 1994, with the school moved to a new building at the city campus. The environmental and biomedical science schools were located on a campus at St Leonards, closed in 2006, which relocated to the city campus following a redevelopment.
The Kuring-Gai campus closed at the end of 2015, with classes and facilities moved into the main Haymarket campus. This marked the consolidation of UTS into a single unified campus in the Sydney CBD; the UTS city campus is located at the southern border of Sydney’s central business district, close to Central Station and Railway Square. The UTS Tower is the nucleus of the city campus, fronting on to Broadway; the campus has been transformed since 2008 by the university’s City Campus Master Plan, a $1 billion-plus investment in new buildings and facilities, major upgrades and refurbishments. The campus consists of five distinct precincts. Broadway and Blackfriars are located at the city campus, while precincts at Moore Park and Botany integrate specialist facilities with surrounding industry organisations. Broadway is home to the faculties of Science, Health and Social Sciences, Engineering and IT, Design and Building. Haymarket includes the faculties of Business and Transdisciplinary Innovation, as well as the UTS Library, two lecture theatres in the Powerhouse Museum.
The Blackfriars precinct in Chippendale contains the Blackfriars Children's Centre and research and innovation teams while the Moore Park precinct features sports facilities within the Rugby Australia Building and the Botany precinct consists of the specialist research facility UTS Tech Lab. The UTS Tower on Broadway is an example of brutalist architecture with square and block concrete designs. Completed and opened in 1979 by then-Premier Neville Wran, the Tower housed the NSW Institute of Technology, which transformed to become UTS in the late 1980s. In October 2006, the UTS Tower was voted the ugliest building in Sydney in a poll hosted by The Sydney Morning Herald, receiving 22% of the total vote; the Tower is the largest campus building, in terms of both floor space. Other notable buildings in the Broadway precinct include: Building 2, UTS Central, under construction and is intended as a central hub for the campus. Set to open in mid-2019, the 17-storey building is encased in glass and will include the new UTS Library, the Faculty of Law, the Hive Super Lab, three collaborative theatres, student spaces and a food court.
It was designed by FJMT in association with Lacoste & Stevenson and DJRD. Building 3, the Bon Marche Building, which dates to the 1890s and was named after the Parisian department store Le Bon Marché. A department store operated by Marcus Clark & Co, the building now accommodates specialist facilities for the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Building 7, or the Vicki Sara Building, home to Faculty of Science administration and specialist facilities, the Graduate School of Health. Designed by architects Durbach Block Jaggers, in association with BVN Architecture, it has been awarded a 6 Star Green Star Design and As-Built rating, certified by the Green Building Council of Australia, includes many sustainable features including a rooftop garden with stormwater collection and recycled building materials. Building 10 on Jones St colloquially known as ‘the Fairfax Building’ as it accommodated the printing facilities for the Fairfax-owned Sydney Morning Herald, it was home to the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games, before being incorporated within the UTS campus in the early 2000s.
City of Bankstown
The City of Bankstown was a local government area in the south-west region of Sydney, centred on the suburb of Bankstown. In 2006, the NSW government released a planning strategy for Metropolitan Sydney, known as the City of Cities plan for Sydney; the plan identified Bankstown as a'major centre' for the south west Sydney region. Bankstown Airport was identified as a'specialist centre' and the Hume Highway as part of a potential transport corridor. Under the most recent Draft Metropolitan Strategy for Sydney released in 2013, the NSW Government has reaffirmed Bankstown as a major centre, Bankstown Airport as a specialised centre; the last Mayor of the City of Bankstown Council was a member of the Labor Party. A 2015 review of local government boundaries by the NSW Government Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal recommended that the City of Bankstown merge with the City of Canterbury to form a new council with an area of 110 square kilometres and support a population of 351,000. On 12 May 2016, the NSW Government announced that Bankstown would merge with neighbour City of Canterbury to be known as Canterbury-Bankstown Council.
Suburbs and localities in the former local government area were: At the 2011 Census, there were 182,352 people in the Bankstown local government area, of these 49.3% were male and 50.7% were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 0.8% of the population. The median age of people in the City of Bankstown was 35 years, lower than the national median of 37 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 21.7% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 13.7% of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 52.1% were married and 11.0% were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the City of Bankstown between the 2001 Census and the 2006 Census was 3.43%. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same periods, being 5.78% and 8.32% population growth in Bankstown local government area was 75% of the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Bankstown was lower than the national average.
At the 2011 Census, the proportion of residents in the Bankstown local government area who stated their ancestry as Lebanese, was in excess of eight times the national average. The proportion of residents who stated an affiliation with Islam was in excess of eleven times the national average. Meanwhile, as at the Census date, the area was linguistically diverse, with Arabic or Vietnamese languages spoken in 30% of households, both languages seven times the national averages. Bankstown City Council was composed of twelve Councillors elected proportionally as four separate wards, each electing three Councillors. All Councillors were elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor was elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent and last election was held on 8 September 2012, the makeup of the Council prior to its abolition was as follows: The last Council, elected in 2012 prior to its abolition, in order of election by ward, was: District of Bankstown was named by Governor Hunter in 1797 in honour of botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who travelled to Australia with Captain James Cook in 1770.
The area was discovered during an expedition of the Georges River by George Bass and Matthew Flinders. The area of first European settlement along the river has been preserved as part of the Mirrumbeena Regional Reserve. Bankstown includes large areas of the Georges River National Park. Railway formed an important part of the development of Bankstown. After the extension of the railway from Belmore to Bankstown in the 1890s, rapid development of the area followed – so much so that the commercial centre of Bankstown moved from its former position in Irish Town on Liverpool Road to the vicinity of Bankstown railway station. In March 1895 a petition was submitted to the NSW Colonial Government by 109 residents of the Bankstown area, requesting the establishment of the "Municipal District of Bankstown" under the Municipalities Act, 1867; the petition was subsequently accepted and the Municipal District of Bankstown was proclaimed by Lieutenant Governor Sir Frederick Darley on 7 September 1895. The first six-member council, standing in one at-large constituency, was elected on 4 November 1895.
With the passing of the Local Government Act 1906, the council area became known as the Municipality of Bankstown. Bankstown's city status was proclaimed in 1980 in the presence of Queen Elizabeth II, becoming the "City of Bankstown". On 12 May 2016, the City of Bankstown was merged with the City of Canterbury to form the Canterbury-Bankstown Council; the Bankstown Bunker was an exact replica of the underground Ops rooms of wartime England, which directed Britain's air defence fighter plane attacks on the invading German Luftwaffe. Entrance to the bunker was obtained through a concrete passageway, well screened by a grassy slope. There were two points into to the bunker which were guarded by military police, access was gained via the bottom level; the walls of the bunker could withstand a direct hit from a 300 pounds bomb. It had all the attenuated fixtures necessary to run a top secret operational defence base, it consisted of one Homing Station. The bunker was equipped with its own code room, plotting rooms, two escape tunnels and a radio transmitter room.
In the centre of the bunker was a large room of about two stories in height. This was the main operations r
"Islamic fascism" known since 1990 as "Islamofascism", is a term drawing an analogy between the ideological characteristics of specific Islamist movements and a broad range of European fascist movements of the early 20th century, neofascist movements, or totalitarianism. The term "Islamofascism" is defined in the New Oxford American Dictionary as "a term equating some modern Islamic movements with the European fascist movements of the early twentieth century"; the earliest known use of the contiguous term Islamic Fascism dates to 1933 when Akhtar Ḥusayn Rā’ēpūrī, in an attack on Muḥammad Iqbāl, defined attempts to secure the independence of Pakistan as a form of Islamic fascism. Some analysts consider Manfred Halpern's use of the phrase'neo-Islamic totalitarianism' in his 1963 book The Politics of Social Change in the Middle East and North Africa, as a precursor to the concept of Islamofascism, in that he discusses Islamism as a new kind of fascism. Halpern's primary case was based on an analysis of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, he argued that such Islamic movements were an obstacle to the military regimes who were in his view representatives of a new middle class capable of modernizing the Middle East.
Halpern's work, commissioned by the United States Air Force from the Rand Corporation, arguably represents a mix of mid-Cold War analysis and orientalism. In 1978, Maxime Rodinson, a distinguished Marxist scholar of Islam, responded to French avant-garde enthusiasm for Khomeini's revolution in a three part article in Le Monde, by arguing that, in response to successive assaults by Crusaders, Mongols and Western imperialism, Islamic countries had come to feel embattled, the impoverished masses had come to think of their elites, linked to foreigners, as devoid of traditional piety. Both nationalism and socialism imported from the West were recast in religious terms, in a process of political Islamicization which would be devoid of the progressive side of nationalism and revert to what he called "a type of archaic fascism" characterized by policing the state to enforce a totalitarian moral and social order; the earliest example of the term "Islamofascism," according to William Safire, occurs in an article penned by the Scottish scholar and writer Malise Ruthven writing in 1990.
Ruthven used it to refer to the way in which traditional Arab dictatorships used religious appeals in order to stay in power. Malise Ruthven, Construing Islam as a Language, The Independent 8 September 1990. "Nevertheless there is. In contrast to the heirs of some other non-Western traditions, including Hinduism and Buddhism, Islamic societies seem to have found it hard to institutionalise divergences politically: authoritarian government, not to say Islamo-fascism, is the rule rather than the exception from Morocco to Pakistan." Ruthven doubts that he himself coined the term, stating that the attribution to him is due to the fact that internet search engines don't go back beyond 1990. As a neologism it was adopted broadly in the wake of the September 11 attacks to intimate that either all Muslims, or those Muslims who spoke of their social or political goals in terms of Islam, were fascists. Khalid Duran is credited with devising the phrase at that date, he used it in 2001 to characterize Islamism as a doctrine that would compel both a state and its citizens to adopt the religion of Islam, journalist Stephen Schwartz has claimed priority as the first Westerner to adopt the term in the aftermath of the attack on the World Trade Center in an article in The Spectator, where he used it to describe the Wahhabi ideology of Osama Bin Laden. and defined it as the "use of the faith of Islam as a cover for totalitarian ideology."
The term was sufficiently in vogue by 2002 to lead the cultural historian Richard Webster to remonstrate with its usage, in arguing that grouping many different political ideologies and insurgent groups and religious sects into one single idea of "Islamofascism" both grossly oversimplifies, induces us to ignore root causes, a key one of which, in his view, was'the history of Western colonialism in the Middle East, above all in Palestine'. Accounts differ as to. President George W. Bush introduced the term during his presidency. According to Safire, author Christopher Hitchens was responsible for its diffusion, while Valerie Scatamburlo d'Annibale argues that its popularization is due to the work of Eliot Cohen, former counselor to Condoleezza Rice, reputed to be "the most influential neocon in academe", it circulated in neoconservative circles for some years after 2001 and came into wider currency after President George W. Bush, still grappling to find a phrase that might identify the nature of the "evil" which would define the nature of his enemy in the War on Terror, stated in 2005 that Islamofascism was an ideology synonymous with Islamic radicalism and militant jihadism, which, he clarified, was decidedly distinct from the religion of Islam.
It moved into the mainstream in August 2006. After the arrest of Islamic terrorists suspected of preparing to blow up airlines, Bush once more alluded to "Islamic Fascists" a "toned-down" variant of the word, The public use of the neologism and the analogous Islamic fascism during the run-up to the U. S. 2006 mid-term elections with a specific focus group in mind, provoked an outcry, or storm of protest, was dropped from the president's rhetorical armory. Katha Pollitt, stating the principle that, "if the control the language, you control the debate", remarked that while the term looked "analytic", it was emotional and "intended to get us to think less and fear". David Ger