click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Iridology

Iridology is an alternative medicine technique whose proponents claim that patterns and other characteristics of the iris can be examined to determine information about a patient's systemic health. Practitioners match their observations to iris charts, which divide the iris into zones that correspond to specific parts of the human body. Iridologists see the eyes as "windows" into the body's state of health. Iridologists claim they can use the charts to distinguish between healthy systems and organs in the body and those that are overactive, inflamed, or distressed. Iridologists claim this information demonstrates a patient's susceptibility towards certain illnesses, reflects past medical problems, or predicts health problems; as opposed to evidence-based medicine, iridology is not supported by quality research studies and is considered pseudoscience. The features of the iris are one of the most stable features on the human body throughout life; the stability of iris structures is the foundation of the biometric technology which uses iris recognition for identification purposes.

In 1979, Bernard Jensen, a leading American iridologist, two other iridology proponents failed to establish the basis of their practice when they examined photographs of the eyes of 143 patients in an attempt to determine which ones had kidney impairments. Of the patients, forty-eight had been diagnosed with kidney disease, the rest had normal kidney function. Based on their analysis of the patients' irises, the three iridologists could not detect which patients had kidney disease and which did not. Iridologists use equipment such as a flashlight and magnifying glass, cameras or slit-lamp microscopes to examine a patient's irises for tissue changes, as well as features such as specific pigment patterns and irregular stromal architecture; the markings and patterns are compared to an iris chart that correlates zones of the iris with parts of the body. Typical charts divide the iris into 80–90 zones. For example, the zone corresponding to the kidney is in the lower part of the iris, just before 6 o'clock.

There are minor variations between charts' associations between body areas of the iris. According to iridologists, details in the iris reflect changes in the tissues of the corresponding body organs. One prominent practitioner, Bernard Jensen, described it thus: "Nerve fibers in the iris respond to changes in body tissues by manifesting a reflex physiology that corresponds to specific tissue changes and locations." This would mean that a bodily condition translates to a noticeable change in the appearance of the iris, but this has been disproven through many studies. For example, acute inflammatory, chronic inflammatory and catarrhal signs may indicate involvement, maintenance, or healing of corresponding distant tissues, respectively. Other features that iridologists look for are contraction rings and Klumpenzellen, which may indicate various other health conditions, as interpreted in context; the first explicit description of iridological principles such as homolaterality are found in Chiromatica Medica, a famous work published in 1665 and reprinted in 1670 and 1691 by Philippus Meyeus.

The first use of the word Augendiagnostik began with Ignaz von Peczely, a 19th-century Hungarian physician, recognised as its founding father. The most common story is that he got the idea for this diagnostic tool after seeing similar streaks in the eyes of a man he was treating for a broken leg and the eyes of an owl whose leg von Peczely had broken many years before. At the First International Iridological Congress, Ignaz von Peczely's nephew, August von Peczely, dismissed this myth as apocryphal, maintained that such claims were irreproducible; the second'father' to iridology is thought to be Nils Liljequist from Sweden, who suffered from the outgrowth of his lymph nodes. After a round of medication made from iodine and quinine, he observed many differences in the colour of his iris; this observation inspired him to create and publish an atlas in 1893, which contained 258 black and white illustrations and 12 colour illustrations of the iris, known as the Diagnosis of the Eye. The German contribution in the field of natural healing is due to a minister Pastor Emanuel Felke, who developed a form of homeopathy for treating specific illnesses and described new iris signs in the early 1900s.

However, Pastor Felke was subject to bitter litigation. The Felke Institute in Gerlingen, was established as a leading center of iridological research and training. Iridology became better known in the United States in the 1950s, when Bernard Jensen, an American chiropractor, began giving classes in his own method; this is in direct relationship with Eduard Lahn and J Haskell Kritzer. Jensen emphasized the importance of the body's exposure to toxins, the use of natural foods as detoxifiers; the majority of medical doctors reject all the claims of all branches of iridology and label them as pseudoscience or quackery. Critics, including most practitioners of medicine, dismiss iridology given that published studies have indicated a lack of success for its claims. To date, clinical data does not support correlation between illness in the body and coinciding observable changes in the iris. In controlled experiments, practitioners of iridology have performed statistically no better than chance in determining the presence of a disease or condition through observation of the iris.

It has been pointed out that the premise of iridology is at odds with the fact that the iris does not u

1986–87 Cypriot Second Division

The 1986–87 Cypriot Second Division was the 32nd season of the Cypriot second-level football league. APEP FC won their 1st title. Fifteen teams participated in the 1986–87 Cypriot Second Division. All teams played against each other twice, once away; the team with the most points at the end of the season crowned champions. The first two teams were promoted to 1987–88 Cypriot First Division; the last two teams were relegated to the 1987–88 Cypriot Third Division. Teams promoted to 1986–87 Cypriot First Division Ethnikos Achna FC Omonia AradippouTeams promoted from 1985–86 Cypriot Third Division APEP FC Digenis Akritas Ipsona Onisilos Sotira Cypriot Second Division 1986–87 Cypriot First Division 1986–87 Cypriot Cup

Séadna Morey

Séadna Morey is an Irish hurler who plays as a left corner-back for the Clare senior team. Born in Sixmilebridge, County Clare, Morey first played competitive hurling whilst at school in St. Flannan's College, he arrived on the inter-county scene at the age of seventeen when he first linked up with the Clare minor team, before lining out with the under-21 side. He made his senior debut in the 2012 championship and became a regular member of the starting fifteen. A two-time Munster medalist in the minor grade and a three-time All-Ireland medalist in the under-21 grade, in 2013 he won a first All Ireland senior title. At club level Morey plays with Sixmilebridge. Morey attended NUI Galway. ClareAll-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship: 2013 All-Ireland Under-21 Hurling Championship: 2012, 2013, 2014 Munster Under-21 Hurling Championship: 2012, 2013, 2014 Munster Minor Hurling Championship: 2011, 2012SixmilebridgeClare Senior Hurling Championship: 2013 2015 2017 2019 Clare Under-21 Hurling Championship: 2013

Cotangent sheaf

In algebraic geometry, given a morphism f: X → S of schemes, the cotangent sheaf on X is the sheaf of O X -modules that represents S-derivations in the sense: for any O X -modules F, there is an isomorphism Hom O X ⁡ = Der S ⁡ that depends on F. In other words, the cotangent sheaf is characterized by the universal property: there is the differential d: O X → Ω X / S such that any S-derivation D: O X → F factors as D = α ∘ d with some α: Ω X / S → F. In the case X and S are affine schemes, the above definition means that Ω X / S is the module of Kähler differentials; the standard way to construct a cotangent sheaf is through a diagonal morphism The dual module of the cotangent sheaf on a scheme X is called the tangent sheaf on X and is sometimes denoted by Θ X. There are two important exact sequences: If S →T is a morphism of schemes f ∗ Ω S / T → Ω X / T → Ω X / S → 0. If Z is a closed subscheme of X with ideal sheaf I I / I 2 → Ω X / S ⊗ O X O Z → Ω Z / S → 0; the cotangent sheaf is related to smoothness of a variety or scheme.

For example, an algebraic variety is smooth of dimension n if and only if ΩX is a locally free sheaf of rank n. Let f: X → S be a morphism of schemes as in the introduction and Δ: X → X ×S X the diagonal morphism; the image of Δ is locally closed. Let I be the ideal sheaf of Δ in W. One puts: Ω X / S = Δ ∗ and checks this sheaf of modules satisfies the required universal property of a cotangent sheaf; the construction shows in particular. It is coherent if S is Noetherian and f is of finite type; the above definition means that the cotangent sheaf on X is the restriction to X of the conormal sheaf to the diagonal embedding of X over S. See also: bundle of principal parts; the cotangent sheaf on a projective space is related to the tautological line bundle O by the following exact sequence: writing P R n for the projective space over a ring R, 0 → Ω P R n / R → O P R n ⊕ → O P R n → 0. For this notion, see § 1 of A. Beilinson and V. Drinfeld, Quantization of Hitchin’s integrable system and Hecke eigensheaves There, the cotangent stack on an algebraic stack X is defined as the relative Spec of the symmetric algebra of the tangent sheaf on X.

See also: Hitchin fibration cotangent complex "Sheaf of differentials of a morphism". Hartshorne, Algebraic Geometry, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 52

Leonid Sazanov

Leonid A. Sazanov is a Professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria. Sazanov research explores the structure and function of large membrane protein complexes from the domain of bioenergetics; these molecular machines interconvert redox energy and proton motive force across biological membranes using a variety of mechanisms. Sazanov was educated at the Belarusian State University and Moscow State University where he was awarded a PhD in 1990. Sazanov is known for the discovery of the first atomic structure of respiratory complex I, using X-ray crystallography and the bacterial enzyme as a model, it is an entry point into the electron transport chain, responsible for most of the energy production in the cell. The complex I structure revealed many unexpected and unique features of this extravagantly elaborate membrane protein assembly. Sazanov went on to determine the first complete atomic structure of the larger mammalian mitochondrial complex I, using new cryogenic electron microscopy methods.

Sazanov research investigates the coupling mechanism of complex I using a combination of structural and biophysical techniques. He is interested in the structure and mechanism of other membrane-embedded molecular machines in mitochondria and bacteria. Sazanov served as program leader at the MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit and research associate at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, he has been a research fellow at Imperial College London and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Birmingham. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2019 and a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization in 2018

Sera Monastery

Sera Monastery is one of the "great three" Gelug university monasteries of Tibet, located 1.25 miles north of Lhasa and about 5 km north of the Jokhang. The other two are Drepung Monastery; the origin of its name is attributed to a fact that during construction, the hill behind the monastery was covered with blooming wild roses. The original Sera Monastery is responsible for some 19 hermitages, including four nunneries, which are all located in the foot hills north of Lhasa; the Sera Monastery, as a complex of structures with the Great Assembly Hall and three colleges, was founded in 1419 by Jamchen Chojey of Sakya Yeshe of Zel Gungtang, a disciple of Je Tsongkhapa. During the 1959 revolt in Lhasa, Sera monastery suffered severe damage, with its colleges destroyed and hundreds of monks killed. After the Dalai Lama took asylum in India, many of the monks of Sera who survived the attack moved to Bylakuppe in Mysore, India. After initial tribulations, they established a parallel Sera Monastery with Sera Me and Sera Je colleges and a Great Assembly Hall on similar lines to the original monastery, with help from the Government of India.

There are now 3000 or more monks living in Sera and this community has spread its missionary activities to several countries by establishing Dharma centres, propagating knowledge of Buddhism. Sera Monastery in Tibet and its counterpart in Mysore, India are noted for their debate sessions; the original Sera Monastery is a complex of structures founded in 1419 by Jamchen Chojey Sakya Yeshe of Zel Gungtang, a disciple of Je Tsongkhapa. Prior to establishing this monastery, assisted by his disciples, had set up hermitages at higher elevations above Sera Utsé Hermitage; the Sera complex is divided into two sectors by pathways. All the structures within this complex formed a clockwise pilgrimage circuit, starting with the colleges, followed by the hall, the dwelling units and ending at the hermitage of Tsongkhapa above the Great Assembly Hall; the Jé and Mé colleges were established to train monks, over a 20-year programme of tsennyi mtshan nyid grwa tshang, which concludes with a geshe degree. The Ngakpa college, which predated the other two colleges, was devoted to the practice of tantric ritual.

Before 1959, the administration of each college comprised an abbot with council of ten lamas for each college. Over the years, the monastery developed into a hermitage; the monastery was one of the finest locations in Tibet to witness the debate sessions, which were held according to a fixed schedule. The monastery was one of the largest in Lhasa. In 2008, Sera had 550 monks in residence; the history of the monastery is connected to Master Lama Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelukpa Order, the much venerated and learned guru in Buddhist scriptures. It was under his divine tutelage that his disciple Jetsun Kunkhen Lodroe Rinchen Senge established the Sera Jey Monastery complex in the early 15th century AD. Kunkhyen Lodroe Rinchen Senge served as a teacher in the Drepung Monastery before he formed the Sera Jey; the religious legend narrated for how the site was chosen was a clairvoyant vision that Tsongkhapa had in which he saw the full text of Prajnaparamita's 20 slokas on Shunyata captioned in the sky.

This psychic spell gave him a full insight into the Tsawasehrab text. Further, he perceived the "vision of a rain like "AA" characters descending from the sky", it was only 12 years that one of his pupils, Jamchen Choje, fulfilled the prophecy of his guru by establishing the Sera Je as a seat of learning knowledge of the complete teachings and practices of the Mahayana tradition. Providentially, the King Nedong Dagpa Gyaltsen supported the noble venture with required finances and in 1419, performed the foundation laying ceremony for construction of the monastery. Further detailing with regard to the building development including installing sacred images/idols and other objects of worship were completed according to the supreme wishes of great Lama Tsongkhapa; the monastery soon came to be known as "the Seat of Theckchen ling". Another version for the name'Sera' that came to be prefixed with'Monastery' was its location, surrounded by raspberry shrubs called'Sewa' in Tibetan, that formed like a'Rawa' in Tibetan, meaning "Fence".

The 14th Dalai Lama sought asylum there. During the month of March of the same year the Sera Jey Monastery had been destroyed by bombardment, which resulted in death of hundreds of monks, apart from destruction of ancient texts and loss of innumerable, invaluable and antique works of art. Many of those who survived this onslaught by the Chinese fled to India, under severe winter weather conditions, across the Himalayas. Following this mass exodus of people from Tibet, when they arrived in India, they were resettled at Bylakuppe near Mysore, Karnataka state among many other locations spread across the country, as one of the exclusive Tibetan establishments with ready assistance forthcoming from the Government of India, it was in 1