1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
The Spraberry Trend is a large oil field in the Permian Basin of West Texas, covering large parts of six counties, having a total area of 2,500 square miles. It is named for Abner Spraberry, the Dawson County farmer who owned the land containing the 1943 discovery well; the Spraberry Trend is itself part of a larger oil-producing region known as the Spraberry-Dean Play, within the Midland Basin. Discovery and development of the field began the postwar economic boom in the nearby city of Midland in the early 1950s; the oil in the Spraberry, proved difficult to recover. After about three years of enthusiastic drilling, during which most of the promising wells showed precipitous and mysterious production declines, the area was dubbed "the world's largest unrecoverable oil reserve."In 2007, the U. S. Department of Energy ranked The Spraberry Trend third in the United States by total proved reserves, seventh in total production. Estimated reserves for the entire Spraberry-Dean unit exceeded 10 billion barrels, by the end of 1994, the field had reported a total production of 924 million barrels.
The Spraberry Trend covers a large area – around 2,500 square miles – and includes portions of two Texas geographical regions, the Llano Estacado and the Edwards Plateau. As most defined, the Spraberry includes portions of Irion, Upton, Glasscock and Martin Counties, although the underlying geologic unit touches Dawson and Andrews Counties. Elevations are between 2,500 and 3,000 feet above sea level, the terrain varies from flat to rolling, with occasional canyons, known locally as "draws", cutting through the plateau. Drainage is to the east, via the Concho River to the Colorado River; the climate is semi-arid. Native vegetation includes scrub and grasslands, with trees such as cottonwoods along the watercourses. Aside from activities associated with oil production and storage, predominant land use in the area includes ranching and farming. All of the Spraberry Trend oil fields produce from a single enormous sedimentary unit known as the Spraberry Sand, which consists of complexly mixed fine sandstone and calcareous or silicate mudstone and siltstone, deposited in a deep water environment distinguished by channel systems and their associated submarine fans, all of Permian age.
The sands are interbedded with shales, pinch-out updip. Oil accumulated in stratigraphic traps as it migrated upward from source rocks until encountering impermeable barriers, either in the internal shaly members or the overlying impermeable formation. Unlike many of the oil-bearing rocks of West Texas, the low porosity and permeability hamper economic oil recovery; the rocks are fractured, further complicating hydrocarbon flow. Shaly rocks make up 87% of the Spraberry, with the oil-bearing sands and siltstones present sometimes in thin layers between them; the best-producing zone is at an average depth of 6,800 feet across the entire region, about 150 miles long by 70 wide. The first well drilled into the formation was by Seaboard Oil Company in 1943, on land owned by farmer Abner Spraberry in Dawson County. While the well bore showed an oil-bearing unit had been found, hence received Spraberry's name, it did not produce commercial quantities of oil; that changed in 1949, when the same company drilled well Lee 2-D, which produced 319 barrels per day – hardly a spectacular discovery, but enough to pique the interest of numerous independent operators looking for opportunity around Midland.
In 1950 and 1951, several other independent oil companies drilled productive wells separated by great distances, establishing that the formation was at least 150 miles long, beginning a frenzy of drilling in the region surrounding Midland. For most of the speculators and outside independent oil companies, most of the newly drilled wells behaved badly. In 1950, the cost of drilling and putting down 8,000 feet of steel casing required a well to produce 50,000 barrels just to break in the face of the low federally mandated price of $2.58/barrel. Local companies, skeptical of the Spraberry since the beginning of the boom did not suffer the losses of the outsiders who had come in expecting to profit in the huge oil play; the professional geologists could not agree on what was wrong: in October, 1951, a convention in Midland of hundreds of engineers and petroleum geologists reached no consensus on the issues with the field, although the peculiar and irregularly fractured nature of the oil-bearing rocks seemed to be a large part of the problem.
In May 1952, there were more than 1,630 Spraberry wells in the Midland basin, most drilled, but local enthusiasm had ended. In the following years, each operator developed its own methods of dealing with the unusual reservoir, began to employ a technique known as "hydrofracturing" – forcing water down wells at extreme pressure, causing the rocks to fracture further, resulting in increased oil flow; this was moderately successful, development of the Spraberry continued, albeit with diminished expectations for massive output. Yet another method of fracturing the rocks to increase production was to pump a mixture of soap and kerosene, followed by a coarse-grained sand under intense pressure. During the initial boom period the Spraberry promoters carried out an aggressive campaign to bring in outside investment, m
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was a Spanish soldier who played an important role in suppressing the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and who made two major expeditions from New Mexico into Texas. Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was born in 1631, he was a member of the wealthiest family in New Mexico. He had, at least, two siblings. At the age of twelve he went to New Mexico, he was to accompany several expeditions into what is now Texas, he was a member of the Diego de Guadalajara expedition of 1654 from Santa Fe to what is now San Angelo, where the three main tributaries of the Concho River converge. Domínguez rose in rank to lieutenant general and was appointed Maestro de Campo in New Mexico - second in command to the Governor, he was an able administrator, by the time of the Pueblo Revolt in 1680 was one of the most experienced and capable of the New Mexico militia leaders. When the Pueblo Revolt broke out, Domínguez advanced north from Isleta Pueblo to Cochiti, to the southwest of Santa Fe. However, he was forced to retreat to El Paso del Norte.
He was criticized for not being sufficiently aggressive in his action against the Pueblos. In 1681 a group of Jumano Indians came to El Paso asking for the Spanish to establish missions in their country; the Jumano chief Juan Sabeata had been understood Spanish ways. He was seeking protection for his people against the Apaches, whom he hoped the Spanish would engage in war. To gain the attention of the Spanish he said that thirty-six nations of Indians needed missions and claimed that a multi-colored cross had appeared above La Junta de los Ríos, at the junction of the Rio Conchos and Rio Grande near modern-day Presidio, Texas, he talked of wooden houses floating on the sea, which the Spanish took to refer to French ships. Three friars left at once for La Junta; the Governor Domingo Jironza Petriz de Cruzate sent Domínguez de Mendoza and Fray Nicolás López to explore the Jumano country and establish missions. He was instructed to explore for pearls; the expedition called the Mendoza Expedition, set off from El Paso on 15 December 1683, going down the Rio Grande to La Junta.
Fray Antonio de Acevedo was left there in charge of new missions. The rest of the expedition, joined by many Indians, followed Indian trails north to the Pecos River followed the Concho River downstream to its junction with the Colorado River, they spent six weeks on what Domínguez called the "glorious San Clemente" river, building a fort near the location of present-day Ballinger, Texas as defense against Apaches and hunting buffalo for hides and food. They baptized many of the friendly local people who visited their camp. Dominguez de Mendoza and the Jumano leader, Juan Sabeata, clashed early in the expedition. Sabeata, Dominguez said, was untruthful and spread false rumors of hostile Apaches to bring the expedition to a halt. Sabeata believed that the Spaniards were more interested in hunting buffalo than fighting Apache. Sabeata abandoned the expedition. A grand council of Indians envisioned by the Spanish never took place and the Spaniards returned to El Paso having collected 5,000 valuable buffalo hides.
On returning to La Junta de los Ríos, Domínguez took possession of the north bank of the Rio Grande in the name of Spain. Domínguez and López returned to El Paso, went on to Mexico City in 1685, where they made a strong case for sending soldiers and missionaries to the Jumano country. Domínguez and López were optimistic about the potential for setting up missions among the Jumanos. However, Governor Jironza was unable to help since his forces were tied up combating local insurrections by the Suma and the Manso Indians; the incursion into eastern Texas by Frenchman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1685 caused another distraction, so there was no immediate follow-up to Dominguez de Mendoza's expedition. Citations Sources Further reading
Tom Green County, Texas
Tom Green County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 110,224, its county seat is San Angelo. The county was created in 1874 and organized the following year. Tom Green County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was established by the state legislature on March 13, 1874, named after Thomas Green, a Confederate brigadier general. It comprised an area over 60,000 square miles; the original county seat was the town of Ben Ficklin. In 1882, flood waters of the Concho River drowned 65 people; the county seat was moved to San Angela. In 1883, the town's name was changed to San Angelo by the United States Post Office. Tom Green County has a narrow strip of land extending to the west; this unusual feature is because Reagan County to the west used to be part of Tom Green County, the state of Texas required that all counties have a contiguous land route to their county seat. Therefore, the small strip of land served to connect the two main regions.
In 1903, the residents of the western section voted to form their own county, while in the same vote it was decided that the connecting strip would remain as part of Tom Green County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,541 square miles, of which 1,522 square miles are land and 19 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 277 SH 208 Coke County Runnels County Concho County Schleicher County Irion County Reagan County Sterling County Menard County As of the census of 2000, 104,010 people, 39,503 households, 26,783 families resided in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 43,916 housing units at an average density of 29 per mi2; the racial makeup of the county was 50.76% White, 5.13% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 12.82% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. About 30.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, 13.2% were of German, 10.7% American, 8.2% English and 7.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.
Of the 39,503 households, 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were not families. About 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population age was distributed as 26.10% under the age of 18, 12.80% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,148, for a family was $39,482. Males had a median income of $27,949 versus $20,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,325. About 11.20% of families and 15.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
These school districts serve Tom Green County: Christoval ISD Grape Creek ISD Miles ISD San Angelo ISD Veribest ISD Wall ISD Water Valley ISD Howard College Angelo State University San Angelo Carlsbad Christoval Grape Creek Ben Ficklin Goodfellow AFB List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Tom Green County, Texas USS Tom Green County Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Tom Green County Tom Green County government's website Tom Green County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas County genealogy links at Rootsweb Entry for Tom Green from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. San Angelo LIVE! News, live events and music in San Angelo, the county seat of Tom Green County
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti