North Oxford is a suburban part of the city of Oxford in England. It was owned for many centuries largely by St Johns College, the leafy roads of Woodstock Road to the west and Banbury Road to the east run north-south through the area, meeting at their southern ends to become St Giles Street. North Oxford is noted for its schools, especially its private schools and these include the Dragon School and Summer Fields, which are preparatory schools, and St Edwards School and the Oxford High School for Girls, which are secondary schools, as well as St. It includes Park Town, Norham Manor, and the parts of Walton Manor. Four of Oxford Universitys former womens colleges, Lady Margaret Hall, St Annes, St Hughs and Somerville are located in North Oxford. There are four graduate colleges, Green Templeton College, St Antonys, to the south of the college is the Cherwell Boathouse, a popular punting spot. Further south, bordering the Cherwell, are the University Parks, a large open area of ancient common land, Port Meadow, adjoining the River Isis is located to the west.
Much of the area contains excellent examples of late 19th century Victorian Gothic architecture. There are Regency-style houses built in the century in the crescents of Park Town, initially in the middle of the countryside. Central North Oxford between the city centre and Summertown, has described as the most desirable suburb of Oxford. It is popularly supposed that it was developed for the dons of the University once they were allowed to marry. However central North Oxford in particular includes many houses which were unaffordable by most dons. Today, many homes are occupied by rich London commuters, attracted by the good schools, a number of the larger houses are used by Oxford colleges and other educational establishments. At the northern extremity of North Oxford, which is approximately the line of the A40 are three suburbs and Cutteslowe and Wolvercote to the west of Woodstock Road, beyond the bypass is the village of Kidlington. Wolvercote Cemetery contains the grave of J. R. R. Tolkien, Cutteslowe Park is a large open area just to the north of this bypass.
North Oxford has attracted famous residents, such as the authors and academics J. R. R. Tolkien, Murdoch lived with her husband and fellow academic John Bayley, and the area was featured in the biographical film, Iris. T. E. Lawrence grew up in Polstead Road, North Oxford, and a constant sound of flushing runneth from windows whenceThe toothbrush too is airing in this new North Oxford air. Norham Manor Walton Manor Acland Hospital Cherwell Boathouse Oxford Ecohouse St Philip and St James Church Moreton Road Eleanor Chance, Alan, Elrington, C. R. eds
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west, the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich, other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds and Felixstowe, the county is low-lying with very few hills, and is largely arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, by the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region. The Angles became the folk and the south folk. Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, Suffolk was originally divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two, the eastern division was administered from Ipswich and the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk, Ipswich became a county borough.
A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk, Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, the county was divided into several local government districts, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, and Waveney. This act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk, in 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Councils bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee. The Boundary Committee consulted local bodies and reported in favour of the proposal and it was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath, other finds include traces of cremations and barrows.
The majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either arable or mixed, Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from clays to light sands. The continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains primarily an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling, well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene King and Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds
Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE was an Anglo-Irish novelist and philosopher, best known for her novels about good and evil, sexual relationships and the power of the unconscious. Her first published novel, Under the Net, was selected in 1998 as one of Modern Librarys 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century, in 1987, she was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. In 2008, The Times ranked Murdoch twelfth on a list of The 50 greatest British writers since 1945, Iris Murdoch was born in Phibsborough, Ireland, the daughter of Irene Alice and Wills John Hughes Murdoch. Her father, a servant, came from a mainly Presbyterian sheep farming family from Hillhall. In 1915, he enlisted as a soldier in King Edwards Horse and her mother had trained as a singer before Iris was born, and was from a middle class Church of Ireland family in Dublin. Iris Murdochs parents first met in Dublin when her father was on leave and were married in 1918, Iris was the couples only child. When she was a few weeks old the family moved to London, Murdoch was educated in progressive independent schools, entering the Froebel Demonstration School in 1925 and attending Badminton School in Bristol as a boarder from 1932 to 1938.
In 1938 she went up to Somerville College, with the intention of studying English, at Oxford she studied philosophy with Donald M. MacKinnon and attended Eduard Fraenkels seminars on Agamemnon. She was awarded a First Class Honours degree in 1942, after leaving Oxford she went to work in London for HM Treasury. In June 1944 she left the Treasury and went to work for the UNRRA, at first she was stationed in London at the agencys European Regional Office. In 1945 she was transferred first to Brussels, to Innsbruck, and finally to Graz and she left the UNRRA in 1946. From 1947 to 1948 Iris Murdoch studied philosophy as a postgraduate at Newnham College and she met Wittgenstein at Cambridge but did not hear him lecture, as he had left his Trinity College professorship before she arrived. In 1948 she became a fellow of St Annes College, the unusual romantic partnership lasted more than forty years until Murdochs death. Bayley thought that sex was inescapably ridiculous, Murdoch in contrast had multiple affairs with both men and women which, on discomposing occasions, witnessed for himself.
Iris Murdochs first novel, Under the Net, was published in 1954 and she had previously published essays on philosophy, and the first monograph about Jean-Paul Sartre published in English. She went on to produce 25 more novels and additional works of philosophy, as well as poetry, in 1976 she was named to the Commander of Order of the British Empire and in 1987 was made a Dame Commander of Order of the British Empire. She was awarded honorary degrees by the University of Bath, University of Cambridge and Kingston University and she was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1982. Her last novel, Jacksons Dilemma, was published in 1995, Iris Murdoch was diagnosed with Alzheimers disease in 1997 and died in 1999 in Oxford
Charlbury Road is a road in North Oxford, running to the east of and parallel with the Banbury Road. At the southern end of the road there is a junction with Bardwell Road,5 Charlbury Road is one of the Dragon School boarding houses. Linton Road crosses Charlbury Road about halfway up, garford Road leads east off the road. At the northern end is a junction with Belbroughton Road to the west, the main entrance to the Oxford High School, an academically selective private school for girls, is located here. Charlbury Road takes a right turn at this point and continues east to a new estate of houses. To the west running parallel with Charlbury Road is Northmoor Road, two of the most famous former residents are the Oxford academic and author Iris Murdoch and her husband and fellow academic John Bayley. The couple moved from Hamilton Road, north of Summertown, to Charlbury Road in 1989 and she wrote her novels here. The area is featured in the 2001 film Iris, based on the book by John Bayley after Iris Murdochs death from Alzheimers Disease, the road is favoured by senior academics.
The diplomat Sir Owen St Clair OMalley KCMG lived in Charlbury Road, Charlbury, a village in west Oxfordshire
Dame Penelope Alice Wilton, DBE is an English actress. She played the role of Harriet Jones in Doctor Who. Wilton has had a career on stage, receiving six Olivier Award nominations. She was nominated for Man and Superman, The Secret Rapture, The Deep Blue Sea, John Gabriel Borkman and The Chalk Garden, before winning the 2015 Olivier Award for Best Actress for Taken at Midnight. Her film appearances include Clockwise, Cry Freedom, Calendar Girls, Shaun of the Dead, Match Point, Pride & Prejudice, The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, The Girl and The BFG. Wilton was born in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, the daughter of Alice Travers, a tap dancer and former actress, and Clifford William Wilton and she is a niece of actors Bill Travers and Linden Travers and a cousin of the actor Richard Morant. She and her sisters and Linda, attended La Sagesse convent school in Newcastle upon Tyne and she attended the Drama Centre London from 1965 to 1968. Wilton began her career on stage in 1969 at the Nottingham Playhouse and her early roles included Cordelia in King Lear, both in Nottingham and at The Old Vic.
She had previously appeared in plays at the Royal Court Theatre. She played Ruth in the original 1974 London stage production of Alan Ayckbourns Norman Conquests trilogy and her television acting career began in 1972, playing Vivie Warren in Mrs. Warrens Profession opposite Robert Powell. She had several major TV roles, including two of the BBC Television Shakespeare productions and she did not become a household name until she appeared with Richard Briers in the 1984 BBC situation comedy, Ever Decreasing Circles, which ran for five years. She played Ann, long suffering wife of Martin, an obsessive, in 2005, Wilton guest starred as Harriet Jones for two episodes in the BBCs revival of the popular TV science-fiction series Doctor Who. This guest role was especially for her by the programmes chief writer and executive producer Russell T. Davies, with whom she had worked on Bob. The character of Jones returned as Prime Minister in the Doctor Who 2005 Christmas special The Christmas Invasion, since 2010, she has appeared as Isobel Crawley in the hit period drama Downton Abbey.
She was the castaway on BBC Radio 4s Desert Island Discs in April 2008, in December 2012 and February 2013, she was the narrator in Lin Coghlans dramatisation of Elizabeth Jane Howards The Cazalets, broadcast on BBC Radio. In 2012, she received a doctorate from the University of Hulls Scarborough Campus. Between 1975 and 1984, Wilton was married to the actor Daniel Massey and they had a daughter, born in 1977. Before this, the couple endured the trauma of a stillborn child, in 1991, Wilton married Ian Holm and they appeared together as Pod and Homily in the BBCs 1993 adaptation of The Borrowers
James Roy Horner was an American composer and orchestrator of film scores. He was known for the integration of choral and electronic elements in many of his film scores, and for his frequent use of motifs associated with Celtic music. His first major film score was for the 1979 film The Lady in Red, but did not establish himself as a mainstream composer until he worked on the 1982 film Star Trek II, The Wrath of Khan. Horner composed music for over 100 films, he won two Academy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, three Satellite Awards, and three Saturn Awards, and was nominated for three British Academy Film Awards. Horner was killed in a single-fatality crash of his Short Tucano turboprop aircraft at the age of 61, Horner was born in 1953 in Los Angeles, California, to Jewish immigrants. His father, Harry Horner, was born in Holíč, a part of Austria-Hungary and he immigrated to the United States in 1935 and worked as a set designer and art director. His mother, Joan Ruth, was born into a prominent Canadian family, Horners brother Christopher is a writer and documentary filmmaker.
James Horner started playing piano at the age of five and his early years were spent in London, where he attended the Royal College of Music. He returned to America, where he attended Verde Valley School in Sedona, after he earned a masters degree, he started work on his doctorate at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he studied with Paul Chihara, among others. After several scoring assignments with the American Film Institute in the 1970s, he finished teaching a course in theory at UCLA. Horner was a pilot, and owned several small airplanes. Horner began his career scoring films by working for B film director, Horners first composer credit was for Cormans Battle Beyond the Stars. From there, his works gained notice in Hollywood, which enabled him to take on larger projects, One of his first major film scores was for the 1979 film The Lady in Red. Horners major breakthrough came in 1982, when he had the chance to score the music to Star Trek II, The Wrath of Khan, Horner continued composing music for high-profile releases during the 1980s, including 48 Hrs.
Krull, Star Trek III, The Search for Spock, Cocoon, Aliens, *batteries not included, Glory and he frequently collaborated with film director Ron Howard, a partnership that began with Cocoon in 1985. Aliens earned Horner his first Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score in 1987, somewhere Out There, which he co-composed and co-wrote with Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil for An American Tail, was nominated that year for Best Original Song. A Dinosaurs Story, The Pagemaster, and Casper and Balto, Mighty Joe Young, Horners biggest financial and critical success would come with the score to the 1997 film Titanic. The album became the best-selling primarily orchestral soundtrack in history, selling over 27 million copies worldwide, at the 70th Academy Awards, Horner won Oscars for Best Original Dramatic Score and Best Original Song for My Heart Will Go On
Dame Judith Olivia Dench CH DBE FRSA, known as Judi Dench, is an English actress and author. Dench made her debut in 1957 with the Old Vic Company. Over the following few years she performed in several of Shakespeares plays in such roles as Ophelia in Hamlet, Juliet in Romeo and Juliet and Lady Macbeth in Macbeth. Although most of her work during this period was in theatre, she branched into film work. She drew strong reviews for her role in the musical Cabaret in 1968. Over the next two decades, Dench established herself as one of the most significant British theatre performers, working for the National Theatre Company and the Royal Shakespeare Company. She achieved success in television during this period, in the series A Fine Romance from 1981 until 1984 and she has received the BAFTA Fellowship and the Special Olivier Award. In June 2011, she received a fellowship from the British Film Institute, Dench is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. Dench was born in Heworth, North Riding of Yorkshire and her mother, Eleanora Olive, was born in Dublin, Ireland.
Her father, Reginald Arthur Dench, a doctor, was born in Dorset and moved to Dublin and he met Denchs mother while he was studying medicine at Trinity College, Dublin. Dench attended The Mount School, a Quaker independent secondary school in York and her brothers, one of whom was actor Jeffery Dench, were born in Tyldesley, Lancashire. Her niece, Emma Dench, is a Roman historian and professor previously at Birkbeck, University of London, and currently at Harvard University. In Britain, Dench has developed a reputation as one of the greatest actresses of the period, primarily through her work in theatre. She has more than once been named one in polls for Britains best actor. Through her parents, Dench had regular contact with the theatre and her father, a physician, was the GP for the York theatre, and her mother was its wardrobe mistress. Actors often stayed in the Dench household, during these years, Judi Dench was involved on a non-professional basis in the first three productions of the modern revival of the York Mystery Plays in the 1950s.
In 1957, in one of the last productions in which she appeared during this period, she played the role of the Virgin Mary, performed on a fixed stage in the Museum Gardens. Though she initially trained as a set designer, she became interested in school as her brother Jeff attended the Central School of Speech
Academy Award for Best Actress
The Academy Award for Best Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered a performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held in 1929 with Janet Gaynor receiving the award for her roles in 7th Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise. Currently, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the branch of AMPAS. In the first three years of the awards, actresses were nominated as the best in their categories, at that time, all of their work during the qualifying period was listed after the award. The following year, this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actress is nominated for a performance in a single film. Starting with the 9th ceremony held in 1937, the category was officially limited to five nominations per year, one actress has been nominated posthumously, Jeanne Eagels. Only three film characters have been nominated more than once in this category, elizabeth I of England, Leslie Crosbie in The Letter, and Esther Blodgett in A Star is Born.
Six women on the list have received an Honorary Academy Award for their acting, they are Greta Garbo, Barbara Stanwyck, Mary Pickford, Deborah Kerr, Gena Rowlands, since its inception, the award has been given to 74 actresses. Katharine Hepburn has won the most awards in this category, with four Oscars, meryl Streep, who has a total of 20 Oscar nominations, has been nominated in this category on 16 occasions, resulting in two awards. As of the 2017 ceremony, Emma Stone is the most recent winner in category for her role as Mia Dolan in La La Land. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of release in Los Angeles County. For the first five ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned twelve months from August 1 to July 31, for the 6th ceremony held in 1934, the eligibility period lasted from August 1,1932 to December 31,1933
He played the lead detective DI Humphrey Goodman in Death in Paradise, taking over the role April 2013 for the shows third series and leaving it in February 2017 in the sixth series. Marshall was born in Bath and moved with his family to Hong Kong and to Canada. Upon his return to the U. K. Marshall made an early appearance on the police series The Bill. In 2003 he appeared in the film Love Actually as Colin Frissell, in 2004 Marshall appeared as DS Luke Stone in the police drama series Murder City. From 2005 to 2011, Marshall appeared on TV and in print for BT Retail adverts and he played Dave in the BBC comedy series Citizen Khan in 2012. Since departing his full-time role in My Family in 2003, Marshall has returned twice, the first time was for one episode in season five in 2004 and the second was for a Comic Relief special in 2005. In an interview, he claimed that playing the part of Nick was awkward and he finished working on the film Heist at the end of 2006, which aired in April 2008 on BBC Four.
During the summer of 2008, Marshall appeared at Trafalgar Studios in the first UK run of Neil LaButes play Fat Pig and he became a regular playing the character Ethan on the series Traffic Light in 2011. In April 2013, it was announced that Marshall would be joining the cast of BBC drama Death In Paradise as the new lead detective. His character was introduced in the first episode of the series which aired on 14 January 2014, with his first case being to solve the murder of his predecessor. In January 2017 it was leaked that Marshall would be leaving the series citing the pressures it placed upon his family, Marshall starred as Tom Sanger alongside Annelise Hesme in the 2015 independent British romantic comedy Sparks & Embers. He appeared in the film Death at a Funeral as a student of pharmaceuticals who inadvertently drugged a member of the family, Marshall lives in Long Barton with his wife Hannah, his son Thomas and his daughter, Elsie. Marshall suffered head injuries after being hit by a car in Bristol in 2008, the accident happened in the early hours of 28 April 2008 as he enjoyed a night out with friends in Bristol city centre.
He was taken to Bristol Royal Infirmary where a scan revealed head injuries and he made a full recovery and began his performances in the play Fat Pig three weeks later, as scheduled. Marshall supports Aston Villa and has said that a card from the club helped him through his accident, Marshall was charged with failing to provide a breath test in October 2011, after police stopped his car in the Tesco car park in Wells, Somerset. Marshall had failed a breath test at the scene, and refused to provide a sample at the police station. He pleaded guilty and was disqualified from driving for 6 months, chicane No More I Sleep 2002 – British Comedy Awards – Best Newcomer Kris Marshall at the Internet Movie Database BBC Comedy profile
Timothy Lancaster West, CBE is an English film and television actor. West was born in Bradford, the son of Olive and he was educated at the John Lyon School, Harrow on the Hill, at Bristol Grammar School, where he was a classmate of Julian Glover, and at Regent Street Polytechnic. West worked as a furniture salesman and as a recording technician. West played repertory seasons in Newquay, Northampton, other screen roles have included Nicholas and Alexandra, The Day of the Jackal, The Thirty Nine Steps, Cry Freedom and Luc Bessons The Messenger, The Story of Joan of Arc. In Richard Eyres Iris he plays Maurice and his son Samuel West plays Maurice as a young man, West starred as patriarch Bradley Hardacre in Granada TVs satirical Northern super-soap Brass over three seasons. West appeared in the series Miss Marple in 1985, and made an appearance as Professor Furie in A Very Peculiar Practice in 1986. In 1997, he played Gloucester in the BBC television production of King Lear, from 2001 to 2003, he played the grumpy and frequently volatile Andrew in the BBC drama series Bedtime.
At Christmas 2007, he joined Not Going Out as Geoffrey Adams and he reprised this role in two episodes of series three, Geoffrey Whitehead played the role in seasons. In 2011, he appeared alongside John Simm and Jim Broadbent in BBC series Exile, in February 2013, West joined the cast of ITV soap Coronation Street, playing Eric Babbage. He joined the cast of EastEnders in 2013, playing Stan Carter from January 2014 and he filmed his final scenes for EastEnders in February 2015. He was co-artistic director of the Old Vic Theatre from 1980–81 and he was Director-in-Residence at the University of Western Australia in 1982. In 2004, he toured Australia with the Carl Rosa Opera Company as Director of the production of H. M. S, singing the role of Sir Joseph Porter. He was replaced in the role by Dennis Olsen for the Perth. West is married to the actress Prunella Scales, with whom he has two boys, one of their sons, Samuel West, is an actor. The Guardian crossword setter Biggles referred to Wests 50th wedding anniversary in its prize crossword puzzle on 26 October 2013, West and Scales are both prominent supporters of the Labour Party.
They are patrons of the Lace Market Theatre in Nottingham, and of Conway Hall Sunday Concerts programme, West is an Ambassador of SOS Childrens Villages, an international orphan charity providing homes and mothers for orphaned and abandoned children. He currently supports the charitys annual World Orphan Week campaign which takes place each February, West is patron of the National Piers Society, a charity dedicated to preserving and promoting seaside piers. He and Prunella Scales are patrons of Avon Navigation Trust, the charity that runs the River Avon from Stratford-upon-Avon to Tewkesbury and they both support ANT by attending the Stratford River Festival every year
Kate Elizabeth Winslet, CBE, is an English actress and singer. Winslet is the recipient of an Academy Award, an AACTA Award, three BAFTA Awards, a BIFA Award, four Golden Globe Awards, a Grammy Award, a Primetime Emmy Award, and three Screen Actors Guild Awards. She is the youngest person to receive six Academy Award nominations, with seven nominations in total, in addition, she has won awards from the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts and European Film Academy, among others, and the Honorary César Award in 2012. Brought up in Berkshire, Winslet studied drama from childhood and began her career in British television in 1991 and she made her film debut in Heavenly Creatures, for which she received praise. She garnered recognition for her role in Sense and Sensibility before achieving global stardom with the epic romance Titanic. Winslets performances in Iris, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Finding Neverland, Little Children, Revolutionary Road, The Dressmaker, in 2008, film critic David Edelstein described her as the best English-speaking film actress of her generation.
Winslets greatest commercial successes since Titanic include the romantic comedy The Holiday, the animated film Flushed Away, in addition to acting, Winslet has narrated documentaries and childrens books. She was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children in 2000 for narrating Listen to the Storyteller and she has provided her vocals to soundtracks of her films, including the single What If from Christmas Carol, The Movie. Divorced from two directors, Jim Threapleton and Sam Mendes, Winslet is currently married to businessman Ned Rocknroll. Kate Elizabeth Winslet was born in Reading, England to Sally Anne, a barmaid, and Roger John Winslet and she has two sisters and Anna, and one brother, Joss Winslet. Winslet began studying drama at the age of 11 at the Redroofs Theatre School, a independent school in Maidenhead, Berkshire. At the age of 12, Winslet appeared in an advertisement directed by filmmaker Tim Pope for Sugar Puffs cereal. Pope said her naturalism was there from the start, Winslet made her television debut with a co-starring role in the BBC childrens science fiction serial Dark Season.
This role was followed by appearances in the made-for-TV film Anglo-Saxon Attitudes in 1992, the sitcom Get Back, in 1992, Winslet attended a casting call for Peter Jacksons Heavenly Creatures in London. Winslet auditioned for the role of Juliet Hulme, a teenager who assists in the murder of the mother of her best friend, Pauline Parker. The film included Winslets singing debut, and her a version of Sono Andati. The film was released to reviews in 1994 and won Jackson. Winslet was awarded the Empire Award and London Film Critics Circle Award for British Actress of the Year for her performance, the Washington Post writer Desson Thomson commented, As Juliet, Winslet is a bright-eyed ball of fire, lighting up every scene she’s in
The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal.
The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts.
The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael