University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada on the grounds that surround Queens Park. It was founded by charter in 1827 as Kings College. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution, as a collegiate university, it comprises twelve colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, by a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University, the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey.
The universitys Hart House is an example of the North American student centre. The founding of a college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15,1827, a charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming from this time one College, with the style. For the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, the granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the colleges first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queens Park, under Strachans stewardship, Kings College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact.
Reformist politicians opposed the control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary, University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, while the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees, the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884, over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachans Trinity College in 1904.
The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991, the University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canadas first academic publishing house
Aberystwyth University is a public research university in Aberystwyth, Wales. Aberystwyth was a member institution of the former federal University of Wales. The university has almost 8,000 students studying across its six academic institutes, founded in 1872 as University College Wales, Aberystwyth, it became a founder member of the University of Wales in 1894 and changed its name to the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. In the mid-1990s, the university changed its name to the University of Wales. On 1 September 2007, the University of Wales ceased to be a federal university, Aberystwyth University is ranked 79th in The Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide for 2015, up from 93rd in 2014. Funded through public and private subscriptions, and with five regional committees guaranteeing funds for the first three years running costs, the University opened in October 1872 with 26 students, thomas Charles Edwards was the Principal. In October 1875, chapels in Wales raised the next tranche of funds from over 70,000 contributors, until 1894, when the college joined the University of Wales as a founder member, students applying to Aberystwyth sat the University of Londons entrance exams.
In 1885, after a fire in what is now known as Old College, the Gogerddan Estate was donated to the University and would become the location of Penglais Campus, the Universitys principal campus. Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1893, the University installed the Prince of Wales as Chancellor in 1896, the universitys Coat of Arms dates from the 1880s. The shield features two red dragons to symbolise Wales, and a book to symbolise learning. The crest, an eagle or phoenix above a flaming tower, the motto is Nid Byd, Byd Heb Wybodaeth. In the early 1900s the University added courses that included Law, Applied Mathematics, Pure Mathematics, the Department for International Politics, which Aberystwyth says is the oldest such department in the world, was founded in 1919. By 1977, there were eight Fellows of the Royal Society on the Universitys staff, including Gwendolen Rees, the Department of Sports and Exercise Science was established in 2000. Joint honours Psychology degrees were introduced in September 2007, and single honours Psychology in 2009, the Chancellor of the University is Sir Emyr Jones Parry GCMG, a distinguished former diplomat and Ambassador to the United Nations.
The Visitor of the University is an appointment made by the Privy Council, since July 2014, the holder of this office is The Honourable Mr Justice Roderick Evans QC. In 2011 the university appointed a new vice chancellor under whom the academic departments were restructured as larger subject-themed institutes, the Institute of Biological and Rural Sciences is a research and teaching centre at Aberystwyth University for the study of biological and rural sciences. IBERS brings together staff from the Institutes of Rural Sciences and Biological Sciences at Aberystwyth University, there is formal collaboration with the College of Natural Sciences in Bangor University. Aberystwyth says IBERS has a history of substantial investment in facilities
Bachelor of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in most common law jurisdictions. The LL. of the abbreviation for the degree is from the genitive plural legum, creating an abbreviation for a plural, especially from Latin, is often done by doubling the first letter, thus LL. B. Stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin, today in Canada the predominant first degree in common law is the Juris Doctor degree having replaced the LL. B. Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, the first academic degrees were all law degrees in medieval universities, and the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations of the first universities were the glossators of the 11th century, the first university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. The University of Bologna served as the model for law schools of the medieval age.
The bachelors degree originated at the University of Paris, whose system was implemented at Oxford, the arts designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics. On continental Europe the bachelors degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford, the teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practise law. The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford, with the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew. The apprenticeship programme for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the rules as the apprenticeship programmes for the trades.
The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until in the century, and even the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions. When law degrees were required by the English bar and bar associations in other common law countries, law students studied both canon law and civil law. Today, this is less common. In most common law countries, the Bachelor of Laws programme is generally entered directly after completion of secondary school, Masters courses are offered to university graduates, those who graduate from such courses are entitled to use the initials LL. M. Additionally, of the thirty-six Law Schools thirteen of those universities have started offering the Juris Doctor as a Graduate entry degree. Bangladesh is a common law country, like other Common Law countries, Bachelor of Laws degree is a condition precedent to practise as an Advocate in the Courts of Law of Bangladesh.
Both LL. B. and LL. B. degrees are offered in different Public, only seven Public Universities offer LL. B. degree
Georgetown is the capital of Guyana, located in Region 4, which is known as the Demerara-Mahaica region. It is the countrys largest urban centre and it is situated on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the mouth of the Demerara River and it was nicknamed Garden City of the Caribbean. Georgetown serves primarily as a retail and administrative centre and it serves as a financial services centre. The city recorded a population of 118,363 in the 2012 census, the city of Georgetown began as a small town in the 18th century. Originally, the capital of the Demerara-Essequibo colony was located on Borselen Island in the Demerara River under the administration of the Dutch and it was the French who made it a capital city when they colonized it in 1782. The French called the capital Longchamps, when the town was restored to the Dutch in 1784, it was renamed Stabroek after Nicolaas Geelvinck, Lord of Stabroek, and President of the Dutch West India Company. Eventually the town expanded and covered the estates of Vlissengen, La Bourgade and Eve Leary to the North and it was renamed Georgetown on 29 April 1812 in honour of King George III.
The ordinance provided that the districts of Georgetown shall be known by their own names. The supervision of Georgetown was to be done by a chosen by the Governor. Estimates of expenditure were to be prepared, by 1806 the owner of Vlissingen asked to be exempted from the responsibility of maintaining the road which is now called Camp Street, but the Court refused the request. In 1810 the maintenance of the roads in the area called Georgetown cost 11,000 guilders per annum, the governing body of Georgetown was once a Board of Police. The Board of Police was chosen by the governor and the Court of Policy and it came into existence as the result of disputes among various organisations which controlled the districts. The Board met monthly but what was discussed is not on the records between 1825 and 1837, newspapers in the colony were prohibited by law from reporting public matters. The post of Commisary of Police was not regarded as important, people elected to the Board invariably declined to attend meetings and never gave reasons for their refusal.
It was, decided that individuals elected to the Board were bound to serve for two years, or suffer a penalty of 1,000 guilders, the Board of Police was abolished when an ordinance was passed to establish a Mayor and Town Council. Georgetown gained official city status on 24 August 1842 during the reign of Queen Victoria, the names of Georgetowns wards and streets reflect the influence of the Dutch and English who administered the town at different periods of history. Cummingsburg was originally named Plantation La Bourgade by its first owner and it was laid out in streets and building lots by its second proprietor, Thomas Cuming, a Scotsman, from whom it gets its current name. He made a presentation of the Militia Parade Ground and Promenade Gardens to the town as a gift and it is noteworthy that Carmichael Street was named after General Hugh Lyle Carmichael who served as Governor from 1812 to 1813
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
International Women's Day
International Womens Day is celebrated on March 8 every year. It commemorates the movement for womens rights, the earliest Womens Day observance was held on February 28,1909 in New York and organized by the Socialist Party of America. On March 8,1917, in the capital of the Russian Empire and this was the beginning of the Russian Revolution. Seven days later, the Emperor of Russia Nicholas II abdicated, March 8 was declared a national holiday in Soviet Russia in 1917. The day was celebrated by the socialist movement and communist countries until it was adopted in 1975 by the United Nations. The earliest Womens Day observance was held on February 28,1909 in New York and it was called National womans day. It has been claimed that the event was commemorating a strike, the story that the day originated in a protest by women garment workers in New York on March 8,1857, has been described as a myth. In August 1910, an International Womens Conference was organized to precede the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, delegates agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights including suffrage for women.
The following year on March 19,1911 IWD was marked for the first time, by over a people in Austria, Germany. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire alone, there were 300 demonstrations, in Vienna, women paraded on the Ringstrasse and carried banners honouring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. Women demanded that they be given the right to vote and to public office. They protested against employment sex discrimination, americans continued to celebrate National Womens Day on the last Sunday in February. In 1913 Russian women observed their first International Womens Day on the last Saturday in February, although there were some women-led strikes and other protests in the years leading up to 1914, none of them happened on March 8. In 1914 International Womens Day was held on March 8, possibly because that day was a Sunday, the 1914 observance of the Day in Germany was dedicated to womens right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918. In London there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of womens suffrage on March 8,1914, sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square.
In 1917 demonstrations marking International Womens Day in Petrograd, Women in Saint Petersburg went on strike that day for Bread and Peace – demanding the end of World War I, an end to Russian food shortages, and the end of czarism. Leon Trotsky wrote,23 February was International Womans Day and meetings, but we did not imagine that this Womens Day would inaugurate the revolution. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date, but in morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… which led to mass strike
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays. These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea, in a wider sense, the mainland countries of Belize, Guyana and French Guiana are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15,1954, to October 10,2010, there was a known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations, the region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest.
The two most prevalent pronunciations of Caribbean are KARR-ə-BEE-ən, with the accent on the third syllable. The former pronunciation is the older of the two, although the variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer KARR-ə-BEE-ən while North American speakers more typically use kə-RIB-ee-ən, usage is split within Caribbean English itself. The word Caribbean has multiple uses and its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation, the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas accords the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea, to the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America, the Caribbean may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region.
For example, the known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are members of the Caribbean Community. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a member of the Caribbean Community. According to the ACS, the population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies, Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin and these islands include Aruba, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua
British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, since 1966 known as the independent nation of Guyana. Its indigenous people are the Arawak-speaking Lucayan, part of the Taino people, the first European to discover Guiana was Sir Walter Raleigh, an English explorer. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle there, starting in the early 17th century, in 1796, Great Britain took over these three colonies during hostilities with the French, who had occupied the Netherlands. Britain returned control to the Batavian Republic in 1802, but captured the colonies a year during the Napoleonic Wars, the colonies were officially ceded to the United Kingdom in 1814, and consolidated into a single colony in 1831. The colonys capital was at Georgetown, as the British developed the colony for sugarcane plantations, they imported many Africans as slave labour. The economy became more diversified since the late 19th century, but has relied on resource exploitation, Guyana became independent of the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966.
The Dutch West India Company founded a colony, Demerara. During the French Revolutionary Wars of the late 18th century, when the Netherlands were occupied by the French, a British expeditionary force was dispatched from its colony of Barbados to seize the colonies from the French-dominated Batavian Republic. The colonies surrendered without a struggle, initially very little changed, as the British agreed to allow the long-established laws of the colonies to remain in force. In 1802 Britain returned the colonies to the Batavian Republic under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens, after resuming hostilities with France in the Napoleonic Wars in 1803, Britain seized the colonies again less than a year later. The three colonies were ceded to the United Kingdom in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The UK continued separate administration of the colonies until 1822. In 1831, the administration Essequibo-Demerara and Berbice was combined, the economy of British Guiana was completely based on sugarcane production until the 1880s, when falling cane sugar prices stimulated a shift toward rice farming and forestry.
However, sugarcane remained a significant part of the economy, under the Dutch and economic activity was concentrated around sugarcane plantations lying inland from the coast. Under the British, cane planting expanded to coastal lands. Until the abolition of slavery in the British Empire, sugar planters depended almost exclusively on slave labour to produce sugar, Georgetown was the site of a significant slave rebellion in 1823. In the 1880s gold and diamond deposits were discovered in British Guiana, bauxite deposits proved more promising and would remain an important part of the economy. The colony did not develop any significant manufacturing industry, other than sugar factories, rice mills, the London-based Booker Group of companies dominated the economy of British Guiana
Demerara is a historical region in the Guianas on the north coast of South America which is now part of the country of Guyana. It was a Dutch colony until 1815 and a county of British Guiana from 1838 to 1966 and it was located about the lower courses of the Demerara River, and its main town was Georgetown. The name Demerara comes from a variant of the Arawak word Immenary or Dumaruni which means river of the letter wood, Demerara sugar is so named because originally it came from sugar cane fields in the colony of Demerara. In 1745, Demerara was separated from Essequibo, in 1782 the French took possession of the whole of the Dutch settlements, compelling Gov. Robert Kinston to surrender. The peace of Paris, which occurred in 1783, restored these territories to the Dutch, the British returned the colony to the Dutch in 1802 under the terms of the Peace of Amiens, but re-took control of it a year later. On 13 August 1814, the British combined the colonies of Demerara, on 20 November 1815, the colony was formally ceded to Britain by the Netherlands.
Large slave rebellions broke out in West Demerara in 1795 and on the East Coast of Demerara in 1823 and it attracted attention in Britain inside and outside Parliament to the terrible evil slavery and the need to abolish it. After serving four years of a form of slavery euphemistically called apprenticeship. On 21 July 1831, Demerara-Essequibo united with Berbice as British Guiana, in 1838, Demerara was made one of the three counties of Guiana, the other two being Berbice and Essequibo. In 1958, the county was abolished when Guiana was subdivided into districts, historical Demerara is part of the Guyanese administrative regions of Demerara-Mahaica, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, and Upper Demerara-Berbice. Sir James Douglas, Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, rev. Joseph Ketley, Congregational missionary, mid 19th century. John Edmonstone, a slave who taught Charles Darwin taxidermy. Shivnarine Chanderpaul, West Indies cricketer Roger Harper – Former member of the West Indies cricket team, carl Hooper – Former member of the West Indies cricket team.
Lance Gibbs – Former member of the West Indies cricket team, colin Croft – Former member of the West Indies cricket team. Codd John Murray Sir Benjamin dUrban Clive Lloyd – Most successful Captain West Indies cricket team, shivnarine Chanderpaul – Member of the West Indies cricket team and former captain. Roger Harper – Former member of the West Indies cricket team, carl Hooper – Former member of the West Indies cricket team. Lance Gibbs – Former member of the West Indies cricket team,1823, Jack Gladstone of Plantation Success 1823, Quamina of Plantation Success History of Guyana