Sacrament of Penance
By this sacrament Christians are freed from sins committed after Baptism. The sacrament of Penance is considered the way to be absolved from mortal sin. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation is known as Penance, the sacrament has four elements, three on the part of the penitent and one on the part of the minister of the sacrament. Catholics distinguish between two types of sin, mortal sins are a grave violation of Gods law that turns man away from God. Someone who is aware of having committed mortal sins must repent of having done so, every sin involves an unhealthy attachment to creatures, purification from which is called the temporal punishment for sin. The 1983 Code of Canon Law states, A priest alone is the minister of the sacrament of penance, to refer exclusively to priests in the more common English sense, Latin uses the word presbyter. In order to be able to be absolved validly from sin, the history of the sacrament of Penance dates back to the New Testament and the time of Jesus.
Cyrille Vogel collected a list of twelve major sins named in the New Testament and insanity Drunkenness and intemperance. This early way of penitential discipline received in modern times the name of public penance, mistakenly confused with public announcement of the excommunication because of a public and grave sin. Sometimes sinners did publicly speak about their sins, but testimonies of the early Church show that in most cases offences were known to the priest alone. When a penitent did publicly confess his/her sins, decision to do it was always by the initiative of the person. The public character of penance should be understood as prayerful participation and support given by the community to a sinner. Multiple discussions began in the 3rd century, time of persecutions, on how to exercise Church penance regarding grave sinners, e. g. lapsed Catholics. A controversy first resulted over Montanism, whose main supporter was Tertullian, there were arguments between Novatian and Pope Cornelius, and between St.
Cyprian and Pope Stephen I. Hippolytus of Rome criticised the popes, condemning them for being too easy to accept grave sinners back to the communion of the Church, the primary source of information on the canonical penance in this period are sermons of Augustine of Hippo and of Caesarius of Arles. Special canons were issued by regional, local Church councils on how to deal with the public penance, because of that it is called canonical penance. Acts of ancient councils of this show that no one who belonged to the order of penitents had access to Eucharistic communion – until the bishop reconciled him with the community of the Church. Canon 29 of the Council of Epaone in Gaul says, that from among penitents only apostates had to leave Sunday assembly together with catechumens, other penitents were present until the end but were denied communion in the table of the Lord
Ulster Scots dialects
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots, known as Ullans, generally refers to the dialects of Scots spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland. Some definitions of Ulster Scots may include Standard English spoken with an Ulster Scots accent and this is a situation like that of Lowland Scots and Scottish Standard English with words pronounced using the Ulster Scots phonemes closest to those of Standard English. Ulster Scots has been influenced by Hiberno-English, particularly Mid-Ulster English, as a result of the competing influences of English and Scots, varieties of Ulster Scots can be described as more English or more Scots. The earliest Scots writing in Ulster dates from time, and until the late 20th century. While once referred to as Scotch-Irish by several researchers, that has now superseded by the term Ulster Scots. Speakers usually refer to their vernacular as Braid Scots, Scotch or the hamely tongue, the term Hiberno-Scots is used, but it is usually used for the ethnic group rather than the vernacular.
During the middle of the 20th century, the linguist R. J. Gregg established the boundaries of Ulsters Scots-speaking areas based on information gathered from native speakers. Ulster Scots is spoken in east Antrim, north Down, north-east County Londonderry and it is spoken in the Laggan district and parts of the Finn Valley in east Donegal and in the south of Inishowen in north Donegal. Other estimates range from 35,000 in Northern Ireland, to a total of 100,000 including the Republic of Ireland. In the 2011 census of Northern Ireland,16,373 people stated that they can speak, read and understand Ulster Scots and 140,204 people reported having some ability in Ulster Scots. Enthusiasts such as Philip Robinson, the Ulster-Scots Language Society and supporters of an Ulster-Scots Academy are of the opinion that Ulster Scots is a language in its own right. That position has been criticised by the Ulster-Scots Agency, a BBC report stating, other linguists treat it as a variety of the Scots language, Caroline Macafee, for example, writes that Ulster Scots is clearly a dialect of Central Scots.
The Concise Ulster Dictionary writes that Ulster Scots is one dialect of Lowland Scots, the Northern Ireland Department of Culture and Leisure considers Ulster Scots to be the local variety of the Scots language. It has been said that its status varies between dialect and language, the North/South Co-operation Northern Ireland Order 1999, which gave effect to the implementation bodies incorporated the text of the agreement in its Schedule 1. The Good Friday Agreement recognises Ulster Scots as part of the wealth of the island of Ireland. This reflects the wording used in the St Andrews Agreement to refer to the enhancement and development of the Ulster Scots language, there is still controversy on the status of Ulster Scots. In the core areas of Scots settlement, Scots outnumbered English settlers by five or six to one, literature from shortly before the end of the unselfconscious tradition at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is almost identical with contemporary writing from Scotland. W. G.
Lyttle, writing in Paddy McQuillans Trip Tae Glesco, uses the typically Scots forms kent and begood, now replaced in Ulster by the more mainstream Anglic forms knew, knowed or knawed and begun
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland. The directly elected Dáil is by far the more powerful branch of the Oireachtas, the term oireachtas derives from the Old Irish word airech. Its first recorded use as the name of a body was within the Irish Free State. Dáil Éireann, the house, is directly elected under universal suffrage of all Irish and United Kingdom citizens who are resident. An election is held at least once in five years as required by law. However the house can usually be dissolved at any time at the request of the Taoiseach, Dáil elections occur under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The Dáil has had 166 members since 1981, the Seanad is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members selected in a number of ways. 43 senators are elected by councillors and parliamentarians,11 are appointed by the Taoiseach, the President of Ireland is directly elected once in every seven years, for a maximum of two terms.
However, if, as has occurred on a number of occasions, to become law, a bill must first be approved by both the Dáil and in most circumstances the Seanad, and signed into law by the President. Bills to amend the Constitution must be approved by the People in a prior to being presented to the President. The powers of the Seanad are in limited to delay rather than veto. It is the Dáil, that is the tier of the Irish legislature. The Oireachtas has exclusive power to, including a power vested in the Dáil of approving the financial resolutions relevant to the budget, the courts have allowed the Oireachtas to delegate limited legislative powers to other entities, such as Government Ministers. Propose changes to the constitution, which must be submitted to a referendum, allow international agreements to become part of the domestic law of the state. Pass certain laws having extraterritorial effect, when it considers a state of emergency to exist, almost any law it deems necessary, with imposition of capital punishment being the only absolutely excluded act in all circumstances.
Laws are invalid if, and to the extent that, they contradict the constitution, in the event of a conflict, EU law takes precedence over acts of the Oireachtas, as is common throughout the European Union. It may not retrospectively criminalise acts that were not illegal at the time they were committed and it may not enact any law providing for the imposition of the death penalty, even during a state of emergency. The Oireachtas has a number of joint committees that include members of both houses and this parliament governed the English-dominated part of Ireland, which at first was limited to Dublin and surrounding cities, but grew to include the entire island
Lent is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins and this event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches observe the Lenten season, in Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain luxuries in order to replicate the sacrifice of Jesus Christ’s journey into the desert for 40 days. Many Christians add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such as reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, the Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christs carrying the Cross and of his execution, are often observed. Throughout Christendom, some adherents mark the season with the abstention from the consumption of meat. The English word Lent is a form of the Old English word lenten, meaning spring season.
A dated term in German, lenz, is related, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the shorter form seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long. And may possibly have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring. The origin of the -en element is clear, it may simply be a suffix, or lencten may originally have been a compound of *laŋgo- long. In languages spoken where Christianity was earlier established, such as Greek and Latin, in modern, Greek the term is Σαρακοστή, derived from the earlier Τεσσαρακοστή, meaning fortieth. In other languages, the name used refers to the activity associated with the season, thus it is called fasting period in Czech and Norwegian, and it is called great fast in Polish and Russian. The terms used in Filipino are kuwaresma and Mahál na Araw, various Christian denominations calculate the 40 days of Lent differently. The way they observe Lent differs, in the Roman Rite, the definition of Lent varies according to different documents.
Lent ends on either Holy Thursday or Good Friday, though some sources try to reconcile this with the phrase forty days by excluding Sundays and extending Lent through Holy Saturday no official documents support this interpretation. The day for beginning the Lenten fast is the following Monday, the special Ash Wednesday fast is transferred to the first Friday of the Ambrosian Lent. The period of Lent observed in the Eastern Catholic Churches corresponds to that in churches of Eastern Christianity that have similar traditions. In the Byzantine Rite, i. e. the Eastern Orthodox Great Lent is the most important fasting season in the church year, Great Lent is broken only after the Paschal Divine Liturgy. The Eastern Orthodox Church maintains the traditional Churchs teaching on fasting, the rules for lenten fasting are the monastic rules
Dr. Charles Edward Herbert Orpen was an Irish physician and clergyman who founded the Claremont Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Glasnevin, Dublin. He was born in the city of Cork, the youngest of three sons, the family resided at Dungourney, in the county of Cork, for some years, where his father was vicar. After the death of his father it was decided that Charles should be educated for the medical profession and he was apprenticed to Dr. Gibbings, of Cork. He had to carry out an apprenticeship of five years with a Surgeon Todd, who took care of him in Dublin, before he could sit his exams. During his work at the Workhouse of the House of Industry in Dublin in 1816 and he selected a deaf and dumb boy, Thomas Collins, aged 10, for intensive tuition at his own home. In the following year, Dr Orpen carried out a demonstration at the Assembly Rooms in the Rotunda. The National Institution for Education of the Deaf and Dumb Poor in Ireland was formed shortly afterwards, the committee of this institution rented two rooms at the Penitentiary, Dublin, for the purpose of educating and boarding a small number of young deaf boys.
Orpen was an advocate of the method of Charles-Michel de lÉpée. In 1817, the committee rented a house paid for by the House of Industry in Brunswick Street, the news of Dr Orpens initiative led to a demand from rich parents anxious for their deaf children to receive education. The Committee issued an appeal for funds, and in 1819 purchased a large demesne called Claremont with a house near the village of Glasnevin. At this time female pupils were first admitted, in 1818 Orpen was appointed a medical inspector, which entailed visiting the homes of thousands of poor people in Dublin during the fever years of 1818/1819. He was shocked at their conditions and criticised the landlords for the unsanitary condition of their properties. He wrote a pamphlet based on his experiences, An Address to the Public on the State of the Poor in Dublin and he wrote some tracts for the society. In 1823 Dr. Orpen married Alicia Frances Coane, in 1848 they emigrated to South Africa, where Orpen became a pastor. He established a residence for old and sick ex-slaves and complained about the treatment of the people by the British.
He died in Port Elizabeth in 1856, several of his sons held government posts in South Africa
President of Ireland
The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces. The President holds office for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms, unless a candidate runs unopposed, the President is directly elected by the people. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion, the President acts as a representative of the Irish state. Former President Mary McAleese described the office as the guardian of the constitution, the Presidents official residence is Áras an Uachtaráin, which is located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin. The office was established by the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the current president is His Excellency Michael D Higgins, who was elected on 29 October 2011. His inauguration was held on 11 November 2011, President Higgins is a veteran left-wing politician and human rights campaigner. As a member of the Labour Party, he has served in both houses of the Oireachtas, President Higgins is a poet and speaks the Irish language fluently.
The Constitution of Ireland provides for a system of government. The President is formally one of three parts of the Oireachtas, which comprises Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, unlike most other parliamentary democracies, the President is not even the nominal chief executive. Rather, executive authority is vested in the Government. The Government is obliged, however, to keep the President generally informed on matters of domestic, most of the functions of the President may be carried out only in accordance with the strict instructions of the Constitution, or the binding advice of the Government. The President does, possess certain personal powers that may be exercised at his or her discretion, the main functions are prescribed by the Constitution, Appoints the government The President formally appoints the Taoiseach and other ministers, and accepts their resignations. The Taoiseach is appointed upon the nomination of the Dáil, ministers are dismissed on the advice of the Taoiseach and the Taoiseach must, unless there is a dissolution of the Dáil, resign upon losing the confidence of the house.
Appoints the judiciary The President appoints the judges to all Courts of the Republic of Ireland and dissolves the Dáil This power is exercised on the advice of the Taoiseach, government or Dáil approval is not needed. The President may only refuse a dissolution when a Taoiseach has lost the confidence of the Dáil, signs bills into law The President cannot veto a bill that the Dáil and the Seanad have adopted. However, he/she may refer it to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality, if the Supreme Court upholds the bill, the President must sign it. If, however, it is found to be unconstitutional, the President will decline to give assent, represents the state in foreign affairs This power is exercised only on the advice of the Government. The President accredits ambassadors and receives the letters of credence of foreign diplomats, ministers sign international treaties in the Presidents name
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British.
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly or by financing provision of services. The term is associated with a consensus that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income. Public policy when made in the publics interest and motivations can provide public services, Public service is a course that can be studied at a college or university. Examples of public services are the fire brigade, air force, Public services may be associated with fundamental human rights. The Volunteer Fire Dept. and Ambulance Corps, are institutions with the mission of servicing the community. A service is helping others with a specific need or want, service ranges from a doctor curing an illness, to a repair person, to a food pantry. Government agencies are not profit-oriented and their employees are motivated differently, studies of their work have found contrasting results including both higher levels of effort and fewer hours of work.
A survey in the UK found that private sector hiring managers do not credit government experience as much as private sector experience, Public workers tend to make less in wages when adjusting for education, although that difference is reduced when benefits and hours are included. Public workers have other benefits such as increased job security. A public service may sometimes have the characteristics of a public good, in most cases public services are services, i. e. they do not involve manufacturing of goods. They may be provided by local or national monopolies, especially in sectors which are natural monopolies and they may involve outputs that are hard to attribute to specific individual effort or hard to measure in terms of key characteristics such as quality. They often require high levels of training and education and they may attract people with a public service ethos who wish to give something to the wider public or community through their work. Historically, the provision of public services in developed countries usually began in the late nineteenth century, often with the municipal development of gas.
Later, governments began to other services such as electricity. In most developed countries such services are provided by local or national government, the biggest exceptions being the U. S. and the UK. Nonetheless, such privately provided public services are often strongly regulated, in developing countries public services tend to be much less well developed. For example, water services might only be available to the middle class. For political reasons the service is subsidized, which reduces the finance available for expansion to poorer communities
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%