Seiko Epson Corporation, or simply Epson, is a Japanese electronics company and one of the worlds largest manufacturers of computer printers, and information and imaging related equipment. It is one of three companies of the Seiko Group, a name traditionally known for manufacturing Seiko timepieces since its founding. In 1968 the company moved its UK headquarters to Audenshaw, after acquiring the Jones Sewing Machine Company, Daiwa Kogyo was supported by an investment from the Hattori family and began as a manufacturer of watch parts for Daini Seikosha. The company started operation in a 2, 500-square-foot renovated miso storehouse with 22 employees, in 1943, Daini Seikosha established a factory in Suwa for manufacturing Seiko watches with Daiwa Kogyo. In 1959, the Suwa Factory of Daini Seikosha was split up, the forerunner of the Seiko Epson Corporation. The company has developed many timepiece technologies, the watches made by the company are sold through the Seiko Watch Corporation, a subsidiary of Seiko Holdings Corporation.
In 1961, Suwa Seikosha established a company called Shinshu Seiki Co. as a subsidiary to supply parts for Seiko watches. In September 1968, Shinshu Seiki launched the worlds first mini-printer, in June 1975, the name Epson was coined for the next generation of printers based on the EP-101 which was released to the public. In April of the same year Epson America Inc. was established to sell printers for Shinshu Seiki Co, in June 1978, the TX-80, eighty-column dot-matrix printer was released to the market, and was mainly used as a system printer for the Commodore PET Computer. After two years of development, an improved model, the MX-80, was launched in October 1980. It was soon described in the companys advertising as the best selling printer in the United States, in November 1985, Suwa Seikosha Co. Ltd. and the Epson Corporation merged to form Seiko Epson Corporation. Shortly after in 1994, Epson released the first high resolution color inkjet printer, newer models of the Stylus series employed Epson’s special DURABrite ink.
They had two hard drives, the HD850 and the HD860 MFM interface. The specifications are reference The WINN L. ROSCH Hardware bible 3rd addition SAMS publishing, in 1994 Epson started outsourcing sales reps to help sell their products in retail stores in the United States. In 1994 Epson started the Epson Weekend Warrior sales program, the purpose of the program was to help improve sales, improve retail sales reps knowledge of Epson products and to address Epson customer service in a retail environment. Reps were assigned on weekend shift, typically around 12–20 hours a week, Epson started the Weekend Warrior program with TMG Marketing, with Keystone Marketing Inc, to Mosaic, and now with Campaigners INC. The Mosaic contract expired with Epson on June 24,2007 and Epson is now represented by Campaigners, the sales reps of Campaigners, Inc. are not outsourced as Epson hired rack jobbers to ensure their retail customers displayed products properly. This frees up their regular sales force to concentrate on profitable sales solutions to VARs and system integrators, in June 2003, the company became public following their listing on the 1st section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange
Love Yourself is a song recorded by Canadian singer Justin Bieber for his fourth studio album Purpose. The song was released first as a single on November 9,2015. It was written by Ed Sheeran, Benny Blanco and kutti, an acoustic pop song, Love Yourself features an electric guitar and a brief flurry of trumpets as its main instrumentation. During the song, Bieber uses a tone in the lower registers. Lyrically, the song is a kiss-off to a narcissistic ex-lover who did the protagonist wrong, Love Yourself topped the charts in fifteen countries, including Australia, New Zealand, and Sweden. Love Yourself was nominated for two Grammy Awards, Song of the Year and Best Pop Solo Performance and it was the seventh-best-selling song of 2016 in the US. The music video for the song was released along with the Purpose and it features a couple doing an interpretive dance on their house. Bieber promoted the song with performances on TV shows, as well as awards shows throughout 2015-2016, on September 29,2015, Justin Bieber announced in an interview with Australias Sunrise morning show that British singer and songwriter Ed Sheeran had written a song for his then-upcoming album.
Later, during an interview for Capital FM, Bieber revealed details about the song, Its just me, basically that’s how I started, playing on the street with a guitar. ’ and telling the same story. In another interview for the radio network, he commented about the collaboration, stating. Just getting us together, you know, in the room cause we did a lot of it separate. He is a guy, super talented. Really good songwriter so just to be able to work with that calibre of songwriter was really, really awesome, in 2017, Sheeran revealed that Love Yourself was written for his third album ÷. He said in an interview that the track would have been scrapped before Bieber took the song, on November 9,2015 Love Yourself premiered on Beats 1 along with The Feeling. The song was made available on iTunes in the same day as a promotional single of Purpose. Love Yourself was written by Ed Sheeran, Benny Blanco and Justin Bieber, with production being done by Benny Blanco and it features background vocals by Sheeran.
Biebers vocals range from the note of B3 to B4 and it is an acoustic pop song, featuring just vocals, an electric guitar, and a brief flurry of trumpets, which was considered the most subdued and least electronic of Biebers new tracks. Lyrically, Love Yourself is a kiss-off to a narcissistic ex-lover who did the protagonist wrong, with Bieber singing in a snappy, and I like to admit that I was wrong
The Black Eyed Peas
The Black Eyed Peas is an American group, consisting of rappers will. i. am, apl. de. ap, and singer Fergie. Originally an alternative hip hop group, they changed their musical sound to pop and dance-pop music. Although the group was founded in Los Angeles in 1995, it was not until the release of their third album Elephunk in 2003 that they achieved record sales. Since that time, the group has sold an estimated 76 million records, according to Nielsen SoundScan, the Black Eyed Peas were the second-best-selling artist/group of all time for downloaded tracks, with over 42 million sales as of the end of 2011. Their first major hit was the 2003 single Where Is the Love, from Elephunk, which topped the charts in 13 countries, including the United Kingdom, where it spent seven weeks at number one and went on to become Britains biggest selling single of 2003. Another European hit single from the album was Shut Up. Their fourth album, Monkey Business, was an even bigger success, certified 4× Platinum in the U. S.
and spawning four singles, Dont Phunk with My Heart, Dont Lie, My Humps. I Gotta Feeling became the first single to more than one million downloads in the United Kingdom. The Black Eyed Peas were ranked 12th on Billboards Decade-End Chart Artist of the Decade, at the 52nd Grammy Awards ceremony, held in January 2010, they won three awards out of six nominations. In November 2010, they released the album The Beginning, in February 2011, the group performed at the Super Bowl XLV halftime show. The Black Eyed Peas date back to 1988, when eighth-graders William Adams and Allan Pineda met, the pair signed to Ruthless Records in 1992, catching the attention of Eazy-E manager Jerry Hellers nephew. Along with another friend of theirs, Dante Santiago, they called their trio Atban Klann, will 1X, apl. de. ap, Mookie Mook, DJ Motiv8, and Dante Santiago formed Atban Klann. Their debut album, Grass Roots, was never released due to Ruthless records founder Eazy-Es death, after Eazy-E died in 1995, Atban Klann reformed and changed their name to Black Eyed Pods, and Black Eyed Peas.
Dante Santiago was replaced with Jaime Gomez, and Kim Hill became a background singer. Unlike the gangsta rap sounds of Los Angeles-based hip hop acts at the time, after being signed to Interscope Records and releasing their debut, Behind the Front the group earned critical acclaim. One of the singles from the album was Joints & Jam, singer Sierra Swan joined in 1998, appearing on the 1998 song Fallin Up, before she left in 2000. Their second album, Bridging the Gap, produced the singles Weekends featuring Esthero, Hill left the band while producing the album, but was still featured on the album tracks for Hot and Tell Your Mama Come as well as in the video for Weekends. Their third album Elephunk began development on November 2,2001 and it was the first album to feature the vocals of current member Fergie
The group signed with Simon Cowells record label Syco Records after forming and finishing third in the seventh series of the British televised singing competition The X Factor in 2010. Their awards include six Brit Awards, four MTV Video Music Awards, eleven MTV Europe Music Awards, seven American Music Awards, according to Nick Gatfield, the chairman and chief executive of Sony Music Entertainment UK, One Direction represented a $50 million business empire by June 2012. They were proclaimed 2012s Top New Artist by Billboard, according to the Sunday Times Rich List, by April 2013, they had an estimated personal combined wealth of £25 million making them the second-wealthiest musicians in the UK under 30 years of age. In 2014, Forbes listed them the second-highest earning celebrities under 30, in June 2015, Forbes listed their earnings at $130 million for the previous twelve months, and ranked them the fourth highest earning celebrities in the world. In 2016 Forbes ranked them the second highest earning celebrities.
After the release of Four, One Direction became the first band in the US Billboard 200 history to have their first four albums debut at number one and their third album, Midnight Memories, was the biggest-selling album worldwide of 2013 despite being released in late November. The bands Where We Are Tour in support of Midnight Memories and Four, was the concert tour in 2014. In 2014, Billboard named One Direction Artist of the Year, the band is temporarily on a hiatus that began in January 2016, which is expected to last around 18 months. In 2010, Niall Horan, Zayn Malik, Liam Payne, Harry Styles, nicole Scherzinger, a guest judge, and Simon Cowell have both claimed to have come up with the idea of forming the band. In 2013, Cowell said that it took him 10 minutes to put together as a group. Subsequently, the group got together for two weeks to get to each other and to practice. Styles came up with the name One Direction, for their qualifying song at judges houses, and their first song as a group, One Direction sang an acoustic version of Torn.
Cowell commented that their performance convinced him that they were confident, like a gang of friends, within the first four weeks of the live shows, they were his last act in the competition. The group quickly gained popularity in the UK, shortly afterwards it was confirmed that One Direction had been signed by Cowell to a reported £2 million Syco Records record contract. Recording for their debut album began in January 2011, as they flew to Los Angeles to work with RedOne, a book licensed by One Direction, One Direction, Forever Young, was published by HarperCollins in February 2011, subsequently topping The Sunday Times Best Seller list. The same month, the boy band and other contestants from the series participated in the X Factor Live Tour, during the tour, the group performed for 500,000 people throughout the UK. After the tour concluded in April 2011, the group continued working on their debut album, recording took place in Stockholm and Los Angeles, as One Direction worked with producers Carl Falk, Savan Kotecha, Steve Mac, and Rami Yacoub, among others.
Subsequent singles, Gotta Be You and One Thing, peaked in the UK Singles Chart top ten, in November 2011, they signed a record deal with Columbia Records in North America
Happy (Pharrell Williams song)
Happy is a song written and performed by American singer and record producer Pharrell Williams, from the Despicable Me 2 soundtrack album. It served as the single from Williams second studio album. It was first released on November 21,2013, alongside a music video. The song was reissued on December 16,2013, by Back Lot Music under exclusive license to Columbia Records, Happy is a midtempo soul and neo soul song on which Williamss falsetto voice has been compared to Curtis Mayfield by critics. The song has been successful, peaking at No.1 in the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand. It was the song of 2014 in the United States with 6.45 million copies sold for the year. It reached No.1 in the UK on a three separate occasions and became the most downloaded song of all time in the UK in September 2014. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song, a live rendition of the song won the Grammy Award for Best Pop Solo Performance at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards. The music video for Happy was nominated for Best Male Video and Video of the Year at the 2014 MTV Video Music Awards and it won the Grammy Award for Best Music Video at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards The song was Billboards number-one single for 2014.
Happy was the most successful song of 2014, with 13.9 million units worldwide, Williams provided vocals for French duo Daft Punks 2013 album Random Access Memories, on the songs Lose Yourself to Dance and Get Lucky. After returning from the sessions in Paris, he attended a meeting with record label managers who said that the results were spectacular. They made Williams an offer to record his own album, to which he agreed quickly, on December 17,2013, it was announced that Williams had signed to Columbia Records and would release his second studio album in 2014. In a December 2013 press release, Rob Stringer, Chairman of Columbia Records, said When we excitedly partnered with Pharrell in January of this year, we felt it was his time again. Since then, Blurred Lines and Get Lucky have defined pop music in 2013, Happy was written and produced by Williams, with backing vocals by Rhea Dummett, Trevon Henderson, Ashley L. Lee, Shamika Hightower, Jasmine Murray and Terrence Rolle. The track was edited and arranged by Andrew Coleman and Mike Larson.
The song was mixed by Leslie Brathwaite at Music Box Studios in Atlanta. Happy plays for 3 minutes and 53 seconds in common time, the song is in the key of F major and it features a blue note. Williams sings the upper notes in falsetto, his vocal range spans from F4 to C6 and his singing on the track has been compared to that of Curtis Mayfield
Point of sale
The point of sale or point of purchase is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. It is the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or after provision of a service. After receiving payment, the merchant may issue a receipt for the transaction, which is usually printed, to calculate the amount owed by a customer, the merchant may use any of a variety of aids available, such as weighing scales, barcode scanners, and cash registers. To make a payment, payment terminals, touch screens, the point of sale is often referred to as the point of service because it is not just a point of sale but a point of return or customer order. Additionally, current POS terminal software may include features to cater for different functionality, such as inventory management, CRM, financials. Businesses are increasingly adopting POS systems and one of the most obvious, selling prices are linked to the product code of an item when adding stock, so the cashier merely needs to scan this code to process a sale.
If there is a change, this can be easily done through the inventory window. Other advantages include ability to implement various types of discounts, a loyalty scheme for customers and marketers will often refer to the area around the checkout instead as the point of purchase when they are discussing it from the retailers perspective. This is particularly the case when planning and designing the area as well as considering a marketing strategy. Nevertheless, it is the term POS system rather than retail management system that is in vogue among both end-users and vendors, early electronic cash registers were controlled with proprietary software and were limited in function and communication capability. This system was the first commercial use of technology, peer-to-peer communications, local area network simultaneous backup. By mid-1974, it was installed in Pathmark stores in New Jersey, one of the first microprocessor-controlled cash register systems was built by William Brobeck and Associates in 1974, for McDonalds Restaurants.
It used the Intel 8008, an early microprocessor. By pressing the button, a second or third order could be worked on while the first transaction was in progress, when the customer was ready to pay, the button would calculate the bill, including sales tax for almost any jurisdiction in the United States. This made it accurate for McDonalds and very convenient for the servers, up to eight devices were connected to one of two interconnected computers so that printed reports and taxes could be handled from any desired device by putting it into Manager Mode. In addition to the memory, accuracy was enhanced by having three copies of all important data with many numbers stored only as multiples of 3. Should one computer fail, the other could handle the entire store, in 1986, Gene Mosher introduced the first graphical point of sale software featuring a touchscreen interface under the ViewTouch trademark on the 16-bit Atari 520ST color computer. It featured a color touchscreen widget-driven interface that allowed configuration of widgets representing menu items without low level programming, the ViewTouch point of sale software was first demonstrated in public at Fall Comdex,1986, in Las Vegas Nevada to large crowds visiting the Atari Computer booth
The Miami Showband
The Miami Showband were one of the most successful and popular showbands in Ireland in the 1960s and 1970s. Led at first by singer Dickie Rock, and by Fran OToole, the band was established in Dublin in 1962 by impresario Tom Doherty. The groups first engagement was at the Palm Beach Ballroom in Portmarnock and they had four further number one hits over the next two years, Im Yours and From the Candy Store on the Corner, and Every Step of the Way and Wishing It Was You. Every Step of the Way was the first song by an Irish artist to go straight in as a one single in the Irish charts. In 1966, they were chosen to sing Irelands entry in the Eurovision Song Contest and they appeared on British TV, on Sunday Night at the London Palladium and Thank Your Lucky Stars. In 1967, four members of the band—Murty Quinn, Tommy ORourke, Denis Murray and Martin Phelan—split away to form their own group and they were replaced by songwriter and singer Fran OToole, Paul Ashford, Pat McCarthy, Des Lee and Brian McCoy.
The groups final number one came with Simon Says in 1968, McCarthy and Tony Bogan left, and were replaced by Danny Ellis and Martin Brannigan. The group released an album, The Wind Will Change Tomorrow, following the sacking of Mick Roche in 1974, Fran OToole fronted the band, the group often being billed as Fran OToole and the Miami. The album Miami Country was released in 1973, line-up changes continued, and by 1975 the last remaining member of the original line-up, Clem Quinn, had left. The group comprised Des Lee, Brian McCoy, Tony Geraghty, Fran OToole, Steve Travers, on 31 July 1975, five members of the band were travelling by minibus back to Dublin from a gig in Banbridge, County Down, Northern Ireland. At the townland of Buskhill, outside of Newry, they were stopped at a military checkpoint by gunmen dressed in British Army uniform. The gunmen were members of a loyalist paramilitary group, the Ulster Volunteer Force, two gunmen hid a time bomb on the minibus, but it exploded prematurely and killed them.
The remaining gunmen opened fire on the members, killing OToole, McCoy and Geraghty and wounding Lee. Two serving Ulster Defence Regiment soldiers and one former UDR soldier received life sentences after having been guilty of murder. A monument at Parnell Square North, dedicated to the dead Miami Showband members, was unveiled at a ceremony on 10 December 2007 attended by Lee and Travers. The Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, said of OToole, McCoy and Geraghty and it is remembered with sadness to this very day. We remember the affection in which they were held by people the length and breadth of Ireland. Their popularity crossed all boundaries and all traditions and they simply wanted to entertain everyone who had a love of music. At a dark time, they were a light for so many
Paul McCartney and Wings
Wings were noted for frequent personnel changes as well as commercial success, going through three lead guitarists and four drummers. Created following the McCartneys 1971 album Ram, the bands first two albums, Wild Life and Red Rose Speedway, were viewed as artistic disappointments beside Paul McCartneys work with the Beatles. After the release of the track of the James Bond movie Live and Let Die, McCullough. The McCartneys and Laine released 1973s Band on the Run, following that album, the band recruited guitarist Jimmy McCulloch and drummer Geoff Britton, only for Britton to quit shortly afterwards and be replaced by Joe English. With the new line-up, Wings released Venus and Mars, which included the US number one single Listen to What the Man Said, and undertook a highly successful world tour over 1975–76. Intended as more of an effort, Wings at the Speed of Sound was issued midway through the tour and featured the hit singles Silly Love Songs. In 1977, the band earned their only UK number one single, with Mull of Kintyre, Wings experienced another line-up shuffle, with both McCulloch and English departing before the release of the groups 1978 album London Town.
The McCartneys and Laine again added new members, recruiting guitarist Laurence Juber and drummer Steve Holley, the resulting album, Back to the Egg, was a relative flop, with its singles under-performing and the critical reception negative. During the supporting tour, Paul McCartney was arrested in Japan for cannabis possession, despite a final US number one, the live version of McCartneys solo single Coming Up, Wings broke up permanently in 1981. After the Beatles break-up in 1970, McCartney recorded two albums, McCartney, credited to himself, and Ram, with wife Linda, Ram was recorded in New York City, where McCartney auditioned a number of drummers and guitarists, selecting Seiwell and guitarist David Spinozza. When Spinozza became unavailable due to other commitments, Hugh McCracken was enlisted to take his place. After the release of Ram, McCartney decided to form a new group and asked Seiwell, Seiwell accepted, but McCracken declined, so McCartney invited Denny Laine, whom he had known since the early 1960s, to join.
He said, Nothing, so I said, Laine dropped plans for his album there and then. In August 1971, Seiwell and Laine joined Paul and Linda McCartney to record Pauls third post-Beatles album for Apple Records, the result was Wild Life, released 7 December. It was the first project to credit Wings as the artist, the band name is said to have come to McCartney as he was praying in the hospital while Linda was giving birth to their second child together, Stella, on 13 September 1971. Paul McCartney recalled in the film Wingspan that the birth of Stella was a bit of a drama, there were complications at the birth and he was praying fervently and the image of wings came to his mind. He decided to name his new band Wings, in an attempt to capture the spontaneity of live performances, five of Wild Lifes eight songs were first takes by the band. The album included a cover of Mickey & Sylvias Love Is Strange, like Ram, Wild Life left music critics cold, a response that typified the anti-McCartney sentiments that prevailed among the music press following the Beatles break-up
Westlife were an Irish boy band, formed in Sligo in July 1998 and disbanded in June 2012. Originally signed by Simon Cowell and managed by Louis Walsh, the second and final line-up consisted of Nicky Byrne, Kian Egan, Mark Feehily. Brian McFadden was a member from July 1998 until his departure in March 2004, Westlife sold over 50 million records worldwide, a total that included studio albums, video releases, and compilation albums. The group accumulated 14 number-one singles in the United Kingdom and they achieved a total of 26 UK top ten singles over their 14-year career. In 2012, the Official Charts Company listed Westlife 34th amongst the biggest-selling singles artists in British music history, despite their success worldwide, Westlife never managed to break into the U. S. market, achieving only one hit single in 2000, Swear It Again. Based on BPI certifications, the group have sold 11.1 million albums and 6.8 million singles in the UK, the group, managed by choreographer Mary McDonagh and two other informal managers, released a single titled Together Girl Forever.
Louis Walsh, the manager of fellow Irish boy band Boyzone, came to know the group after he was contacted by Filans mother, Cowell told Walsh, You are going to have to fire at least three of them. They have great voices, but they are the ugliest band I have ever seen in my life, three members of the band were told they would not be part of the new group, and auditions were held in Dublin where Nicky Byrne and Brian McFadden were recruited. The new group, formed on 3 July 1998, was renamed Westside but that name was already in use by another band, in Westlife – Our Story, Byrne revealed that, unlike the others in the group, he was keen to change the name to West High. McFadden changed the spelling of his name to Bryan to make it easier to sign autographs, Boyzone singer Ronan Keating was brought in to co-manage the group with Walsh. The band released an EP titled Swear It Again, Westlifes first big break came in 1998 when they opened for Boyzone and Backstreet Boys concerts in Dublin. Later, they won a special Smash Hits Roadshow award at that years Smash Hits Poll Winners Party, in April 1999, the group released their first single, Swear It Again which immediately topped the charts in Ireland and in the UK for two weeks.
Flying Without Wings was included on the soundtrack of the Warner Brothers film, Pokémon and their first album, simply titled Westlife, was released in November 1999 and went to No.2 in the UK. The album was the biggest chart dropper on the top 40 in UK music history when, in December 1999, a fourth, double-side, single was released, I Have A Dream/Seasons in the Sun. It knocked Cliff Richards The Millennium Prayer off the top spot, the fifth and last single from the album, Fool Again, peaked at #1. Then the group went on a short UK, US and Asian tour in support of their album before releasing a second album. Coast to Coast was released a and was another No.1 UK album. It became the countrys 4th biggest selling album of 2000, the album was preceded by a duet with Mariah Carey singing the Phil Collins classic Against All Odds and the original song My Love
Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer and songwriter. After a talent manager discovered him through his YouTube videos covering songs in 2008 and signed to RBMG, Bieber released his debut EP, My World and it was certified Platinum in the U. S. He became the first artist to have seven songs from a record chart on the Billboard Hot 100. Bieber released his first full-length studio album, My World 2.0 and it debuted at or near number one in several countries, was certified triple Platinum in the U. S. and contained his most successful single at the time, Baby. He released his studio album, Under the Mistletoe, in November 2011. Bieber released his studio album, Believe, in 2012. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in November 2015 to commercial success and his U. S. album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 100 million records, making him one of the world’s best-selling music artists, Bieber has won numerous awards, including the American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012.
In his career, he has won one Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song Where Are Ü Now at the 2016 ceremony. He has been listed four times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world in 2011,2012, Bieber became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo. Bieber was born on March 1,1994, in London, Ontario, at St Josephs Hospital and he is the only child of Jeremy Jack Bieber and Patricia Pattie Mallette. Pattie raised her son with the help of her mother and his mother is of French-Canadian descent, his paternal great-grandfather was of German ancestry, and his other roots are English and Irish. He has claimed that he has some undetermined Aboriginal Canadian ancestry, through Jeremy, Bieber has two younger half-siblings and Jaxon. Pattie worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father, Bieber attended a French-language immersion elementary school in Stratford, the Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School.
Growing up, he learned to play the piano, guitar and he graduated from high school in Stratford, the St. Michael Catholic Secondary School in 2012 with a 4.0 GPA. In early 2007, aged 12, Bieber sang Ne-Yos So Sick for a singing competition in Stratford and was placed second. Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and she continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, and Biebers popularity on the site grew
In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them.
The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify following in this trend. Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc.
Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s