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Irish migration to Great Britain

Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present. There has been a continuous movement of people between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain due to their proximity; this tide has ebbed and flowed in response to politics and social conditions of both places. Ireland was a feudal Lordship of the Kings of England between 1171 and 1541. Today, Ireland is divided between the independent Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, a constituent of the United Kingdom. Today, millions of residents of Great Britain have Irish ancestry, it is estimated that as many as six million people living in the UK have at least one Irish grandparent. The Irish diaspora refers to their descendants who live outside Ireland; this article refers to those who reside in Great Britain, the largest island and principal territory of the United Kingdom. During the Dark Ages, significant Irish settlement of western Britain took place. The'traditional' view is that Gaelic language and culture was brought to Scotland in the 4th century, by settlers from Ireland, who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast.

This is based on medieval writings from the 9th and 10th centuries. However some archeologists have argued against this view, saying that there is no archeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites. Due to the growth of Dál Riata, in both size and influence, Scotland became wholly Gaelic-speaking until Northumbrian English began to replace Gaelic in the Lowlands. Scottish Gaelic remained the dominant language of the Highlands into the 19th century, but has since declined. Before and during the Gregorian mission of 596 AD, Irish Christians such as Columba, Diuma, Saint Machar, Saint Cathan, Saint Blane, Wyllow, Kessog, St Govan, Donnán of Eigg and Saint Fursey began the conversion of the English and Pictish peoples. Modwenna and others were significant in the following century; some English monarchs, such as Oswiu of Northumbria and Harold Godwinson were either raised in or sought refuge in Ireland, as did Welsh rulers such as Gruffudd ap Cynan. Alfred the Great may have spent some of his childhood in Ireland.

In the year 902 Vikings, forced out of Ireland were given permission by the English to settle in Wirral, in the north west of England. An Irish historical record known as "The Three Fragments" refers to a distinct group of settlers living among these Vikings as "Irishmen". Further evidence of this Irish migration to Wirral comes from the name of the village of Irby in Wirral, which means "settlement of the Irish", St Bridget's church, known to have been founded by "Vikings from Ireland". Irish people who made Britain their home in the medieval era included Aoife MacMurrough, Princess of Leinster, the poet Muireadhach Albanach, the lawyer William of Drogheada, Máel Muire Ó Lachtáin, Malachias Hibernicus, Gilbert Ó Tigernaig, Diarmait MacCairbre and Germyn Lynch, all of whom made successful lives in the various kingdoms of Britain. Irish immigrants to the United Kingdom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were considered over-represented amongst those appearing in court. However, research suggests that policing strategy may have put immigrants at a disadvantage by targeting only the most public forms of crime, while locals were more able to engage in the types of crimes that could be conducted behind locked doors.

An analysis of historical courtroom records suggests that despite higher rates of arrest, immigrants were not systematically disadvantaged by the British court system in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some notable people born in Ireland who settled in Great Britain between the 16th and 19th centuries: Richard Burke, 4th Earl of Clanricarde, died 1635. Robert Boyle, FRS, died 1691. Laetitia Pilkington, died 1750. Richard Brinsley Sheridan George Monro, 1700–57. Patrick Brontë, 1777–1861. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Thomas Moore, died 1852. Bram Stoker, author of Dracula Oliver Goldsmith author of The Deserted Village Edmund Burke politician, writer Mary Burns Robert Tressell author of The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists The most significant exodus followed the worst of a series of potato crop failures in the 1840s - the Great Irish Famine, it is estimated that more than one million people died and the same again emigrated. A further wave of emigration to England took place between the 1930s, 1960s by Irish escaping poor economic conditions following the establishment of the Irish Free State.

This was furthered by the severe labour shortage in Britain during the mid-20th century, which depended on Irish immigrants to work in the areas of construction and domestic labour. The extent of the Irish contribution to Britain's construction industry in the 20th century may be gauged from Sir William MacAlpine's 1998 assertion that the contribution of the Irish to the success of his industry had been'immeasurable'. Ireland's population fell from more than 8 million to just 6.5 million between 1841 and 1851. A century it had dropped to 4.3 million. By the late 19th century, emigration was heaviest from Ireland's most rural southern and western counties. Cork, Galway, Ma

DRG Class 62

The Class 62 engines were standard passenger train tank locomotives of Germany's Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft. The Class 62s were developed and delivered by the firm of Henschel for the Reichsbahn during the 1920s; the engines were two-cylinder superheated steam locomotives. Fifteen units were manufactured. Although the engines were built as early as 1928, the Deutsche Reichsbahn did not take over numbers 62 003–015 until 1932; this was due to the low priority for such engines in the Reichsbahn, as well as the high cost. During the 1930s they were stationed at the locomotive depots of Düsseldorf marshalling yard, Sassnitz on the island of Rügen and Meiningen. After the Second World War eight examples were left in the hands of the DR in East Germany and seven with the Deutsche Bundesbahn. Up to 1967, engines in GDR were distributed around various depots including, for example, Berlin Ostbahnhof and Rostock; the engines spent a short while in Wittenberge and Berlin-Lichtenberg depots. Number 62 007 was only stored there.

In 1968 they were assembled at Frankfurt shed. There the engines hauled trains on the Frankfurt -Erkner route. At the beginning of 1970 only numbers 62 007, 62 014 and 62 015 were still in operation, in the Est Wriezen where they headed trains to Berlin-Lichtenberg. Number 62 007 was retired there in 1972, the last engine in schedule services, but continued to be used as a heating engine until 1973; the only surviving locomotive, no. 62 015, is today owned by the DB and is housed in the locomotive shed of the former Dresden-Altstadt depot. Until 1997 the engines was used to haul for special trains. After the war, after they had been sent to Wuppertal, the Deutsche Bundesbahn housed its vehicles at Dortmund, Düsseldorf and Krefeld. By 1956 the DB's Class 62s had been taken out of service; the last engine, 62 003, was retired in 1968 in Schwerte, after it had served as an instructional model from 1956 to 1966 in the engine driver school in Troisdorf. Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft List of DRG railbuses Endisch, Dirk.

Baureihe 62. Stuttgart: Transpress Verlag. ISBN 3-613-71199-0

List of city nicknames in Spain

Many cities and towns in Spain are popularly known by various nicknames. This list compiles the aliases and slogans that cities in Spain are known by and unofficially. Avilés: la villa del adelantado Barcelona: la ciudad condal Bilbao: el bocho Cádiz: la tacita de plata La Coruña: el balcón del Atlántico, la ciudad de cristal Écija: la sartén de Andalucía, la ciudad de las torres, la ciudad del sol Gijón: la capital de la Costa Verde Madrid: villa y corte Pontevedra: a boa vila San Sebastián: la bella Easo, la perla del Cantábrico Toledo: la ciudad imperial, la ciudad de las tres culturas Valdepeñas: la ciudad del vino Valencia: la capital del Turia, cap i casal Vigo: la ciudad olívica Lists of city nicknames