Iron oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron oxide, rare; as the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is attacked by acids. Iron oxide is called rust, to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition. To a chemist, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as hydrated ferric oxide. Fe2O3 can be obtained in various polymorphs. In the main ones, α and γ, iron adopts octahedral coordination geometry; that is, each Fe center is bound to six oxygen ligands. Α-Fe2O3 is the most common form. It occurs as the mineral hematite, mined as the main ore of iron, it is antiferromagnetic below ~260 K, exhibits weak ferromagnetism between 260 K and the Néel temperature, 950 K. It is easy to prepare using both thermal precipitation in the liquid phase, its magnetic properties are dependent on many factors, e.g. pressure, particle size, magnetic field intensity.
Γ-Fe2O3 has a cubic structure. It is metastable and converted from the alpha phase at high temperatures, it occurs as the mineral maghemite. It is ferromagnetic and finds application in recording tapes, although ultrafine particles smaller than 10 nanometers are superparamagnetic, it can be prepared by thermal dehydratation of gamma iron oxide-hydroxide. Another method involves the careful oxidation of iron oxide; the ultrafine particles can be prepared by thermal decomposition of iron oxalate. Several other phases have been claimed; the β-phase is cubic body-centered, at temperatures above 500 °C converts to alpha phase. It can be prepared by reduction of hematite by carbon, pyrolysis of iron chloride solution, or thermal decomposition of iron sulfate; the epsilon phase is rhombic, shows properties intermediate between alpha and gamma, may have useful magnetic properties. Preparation of the pure epsilon phase has proven challenging due to contamination with alpha and gamma phases. Material with a high proportion of epsilon phase can be prepared by thermal transformation of the gamma phase.
This phase is metastable, transforming to the alpha phase at between 500 and 750 °C. Can be prepared by oxidation of iron in an electric arc or by sol-gel precipitation from iron nitrate. Additionally at high pressure an amorphous form is claimed. Recent research has revealed epsilon iron oxide in ancient Chinese Jian ceramic glazes, which may provide insight into ways to produce that form in the lab. Several hydrates of Iron oxide exists; when alkali is added to solutions of soluble Fe salts, a red-brown gelatinous precipitate forms. This is not Fe3, but Fe2O3·H2O. Several forms of the hydrated oxide of Fe exist as well; the red lepidocrocite γ-FeOH, occurs on the outside of rusticles, the orange goethite, which occurs internally in rusticles. When Fe2O3·H2O is heated, it loses its water of hydration. Further heating at 1670 K converts Fe2O3 to black Fe3O4, known as the mineral magnetite. FeOH is soluble in acids, giving 3+. In concentrated aqueous alkali, Fe2O3 gives 3−; the most important reaction is its carbothermal reduction, which gives iron used in steel-making: Fe2O3 + 3 CO → 2 Fe + 3 CO2Another redox reaction is the exothermic thermite reaction with aluminium.
2 Al + Fe2O3 → 2 Fe + Al2O3This process is used to weld thick metals such as rails of train tracks by using a ceramic container to funnel the molten iron in between two sections of rail. Thermite is used in weapons and making small-scale cast-iron sculptures and tools. Partial reduction with hydrogen at about 400 °C produces magnetite, a black magnetic material that contains both Fe and Fe: 3 Fe2O3 + H2 → 2 Fe3O4 + H2OIron oxide is insoluble in water but dissolves in strong acid, e.g. hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. It dissolves well in solutions of chelating agents such as EDTA and oxalic acid. Heating iron oxides with other metal oxides or carbonates yields materials known as ferrates: ZnO + Fe2O3 → Zn2 Iron oxide is a product of the oxidation of iron, it can be prepared in the laboratory by electrolyzing a solution of sodium bicarbonate, an inert electrolyte, with an iron anode: 4 Fe + 3 O2 + 2 H2O → 4 FeOThe resulting hydrated iron oxide, written here as FeO, dehydrates around 200 °C. 2 FeO → Fe2O3 + H2O The overwhelming application of iron oxide is as the feedstock of the steel and iron industries, e.g. the production of iron and many alloys.
A fine powder of ferric oxide is known as "jeweler's rouge", "red rouge", or rouge. It is used to put the final polish on metallic jewelry and lenses, as a cosmetic. Rouge cuts more than some modern polishes, such as cerium oxide, but is still used in optics fabrication and by jewelers for the superior finish it can produce; when polishing gold, the rouge stains the gold, which contributes to the appearance of the finished piece. Rouge is sold as a powder, laced on polishing cloths, or solid bar. Other polishing compounds are often called "rouge" when they do not contain iron oxide. Jewelers remove the residual rouge on jewelry by use of ultrasonic cleaning. Products sold as "stropping compound" are applied to a leather stro
Pax Ludens is a non-profit organization specialized in training and research on international conflict and crisis management. The mission of the organization is to help future decision makers tackle complex international political dynamics and excel in conflict management; the core activities are described as the design and execution of seminars and simulation exercises based on real and current case studies in the field of International Relations and conflict resolution. The programs offered challenge participants to explore various international political conflict scenarios and deal with crisis and conflict situations as events unfold; the Clingendael institute The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies The Turkish Ministry of Foreign affairs Delft Technical University The Netherlands Ministry of Defence staff training college The University of Amsterdam Webster University Leiden and London University College Utrecht The University of Monterrey, Mexico Vrede van Utrecht The world of International Relations is demanding more in-depth knowledge about how and why international dynamics unfold in the way they do.
The world today is more complex than before, the relationships governing inter-and intrastate management have led many to appreciate the multi-disciplinary character of International Relations. The challenge for teaching institutions is evident: what is the most adequate methods to stimulate effective learning processes? To connect disciplines in a new and meaningful way; some example of the scenarios used are: Greater Middle East Caucasus Israeli-Palestinian conflict Good governance in Africa UN Security Council Mans and Shimshon. Knowledge creation and transfer in the military. Journal of International Negotiations. Publication forthcoming 2010. Mans, Shimshon and Hilst. Baby-sitting or bird watching? The Role of Supervision in IR Simulation Exercises. In Organizing and Learning through Gaming and Simulation Igor Mayer & Hanneke Mastik 2008. Mans, Shimshon and Hilst. How to InterACT in conflict settings - The Role of Supervision in IR Simulation Exercises. In: Igor Mayer & Hanneke Mastik 2007, Organizing and Learning through Gaming and Simulation, Proceedings of Isaga 2007, Delft Mans and Shimshon.
International Conflict Management “Analysis & Intervention” Training Manual. Clingendael Institute & Pax Ludens. 2005. Suransky, Leonard “International Relations Games and Simulations.” In The Guide to Simulations/Games for Education and Training, edited by Robert Horn and Anne Cleaves. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Suransky, Leonard; the Play of Consciousness and Educational Praxis – a Phenomenology of Learning with the Middle East Conflict Simulation Game. USA: University of Michigan Ann Arbour Leonard Suransky https://web.archive.org/web/20100402231112/http://www.paxludens.org/ http://www.clingendael.nl http://www.hcss.nl
Wendelin Moosbrugger, or Mosbrugger was an Austrian portrait painter and miniaturist. He came from a family that had a widespread reputation as builders and painters; as a child, he showed a special talent for painting. He worked as a decorative painter, he attracted the attention of Elector Charles Frederick, while painting at the Electoral residence in Mannheim, was enrolled at the established Palatine Academy. Although he lived in Konstanz after 1794, he was active in Karlsruhe and Vienna, as well as at the court in Stuttgart, he did portraits of the nobility in Cologne. Following the example of Napoleon, German princes flocked to have themselves immortalized in paint, he did, in fact, do a portrait of Napoleon's brother Jérôme, the King of Westphalia. In 1810, King Frederick I of Württemberg appointed him to be the court painter, he died at his son Leopold's home in Aarau. His sons Friedrich and Josef became painters, his son August was an architect. Michael Bringmann, Sigrid von Blanckenhagen: Die Mosbrugger.
Die Konstanzer Maler Wendelin, Friedrich und Joseph Mosbrugger. Konrad, Weißenhorn 1974, ISBN 3-87437-100-X Die Konstanzer Maler Wendelin, Joseph Mosbrugger. Kunstverein Konstanz 1969 Literature by and about Wendelin Moosbrugger in the German National Library catalogue Wendelin Moosbrugger @ the Vorarlberger Landesbibliothek