The Iron Crown of Lombardy is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom. It was made in the Early Middle Ages, consisting of a circlet of gold and jewels fitted around a central silver band, which tradition holds to be made of iron beaten out of a nail of the True Cross; the crown became one of the symbols of the Kingdom of the Lombards and of the medieval Kingdom of Italy. It is kept in the Cathedral near Milan; the Iron Crown is so called because it was believed to contain a one centimetre-wide band of iron within it, said to be beaten out of a nail used at the crucifixion of Jesus. The outer circlet of the crown is made of six segments of beaten gold enameled, joined together by hinges, it is set with 22 gemstones that stand out in the form of crosses and flowers. Its small size and hinged construction have suggested to some that it was a large armlet or a votive crown. According to other opinions, the small size is due to a readjustment after the loss of two segments, as described in historical documents.
According to tradition, St. Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, had the crown forged for her son around a beaten nail from the True Cross, which she had discovered. Pope Gregory the Great passed this crown to Theodelinda, princess of the Lombards, as a diplomatic gift, although he made no mention of it among his recorded donations. Theodelinda donated the crown to the church at Monza in 628. According to another tradition reported by the historian Valeriana Maspero, the helm and the bit of Constantine were brought to Milan by Emperor Theodosius I, who resided there, were exposed at his funeral, as described by St. Ambrose in his funeral oration De obituu Theosdosii; as the bit remained in Milan, the helm with the diadem was transferred to Constantinople, until Theoderic the Great, who had threatened Constantinople itself, claimed it as part of his right as the king of Italy. The Byzantines sent him the diadem, holding the helmet until it was looted and lost following the sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in 1204).
King Theoderic adopted the diadem gemmis insignitum, quas pretiosior ferro innexacrucis redemptoris divinae gemma connecteretas as his crown. This is the Iron Crown, passed by the Goths to the Lombards; the crown was used in Charlemagne's coronation as King of the Lombards. The crown was in use for the coronation of the kings of Italy by the 14th century, since at least the 11th. Old research dates the crown to the early 9th century. However, according to a more recent study, the crown in its current state is the result of two different works made between the 4–5th and the 9th century; this seems to validate the legends about the origin of the crown, that date it back to the Lombard era and the coronation of their kings. Lord Twining cites a hypothesis by Reinhold N. Elze that Gisela, the daughter of the Emperor Louis the Pious who married Duke Eberhard of Friuli, may have possessed the crown and left it to her son Berengar I of Italy on her death in 874. Berengar was the only major benefactor of the church at Monza at this time, gave the Cathedral of St. John in Monza a cross made in the same style as the Iron Crown, still preserved in the church's treasury.
Twining notes that the Imperial Museum at St. Petersburg includes in its collection two medieval crowns found at Kazan in 1730 made in the same style and of the same size as the Iron Crown. Twining notes that while these crowns and the Iron Crown are too small to be worn around an adult human head, they could be worn on the top of the head if they were affixed to a veil, this would account for the small holes on the rim of the Iron Crown. Twining mentions a relief plaque in the cathedral which appears to represent the coronation of Otto IV at Monza in 1209 as it was described by Morigias in 1345 and stresses the point that although four votive crowns are shown hanging above the altar, the crown which the archbishop is placing on the king's head bears no resemblance to the Iron Crown.:424Finally, Twining cites a study by Ludovico Antonio Muratori which documents the various degrees of the ecclesiastical authorities alternately authorizing and suppressing the veneration of the Iron Crown until, in 1688, the matter was subjected to be studied by the Congregation of Rites in Rome, which in 1715 diplomatically concluded its official examination by permitting the Iron Crown to be exposed for public veneration and carried in processions, but leaving the essential point of whether the iron ring came from one of the nails of Christ's crucifixion undecided.
However, subsequently Archbishop Visconti of Milan gave his own decision that "the iron ring in the Monza crown should be considered as one of the Nails of the Holy Cross and as an original relic." Twining notes that the clergy of Monza assert that despite the centuries that the Iron Crown has been exposed to public veneration, there is not a speck of rust on the essential inner iron ring. Lipinsky, in his examination of the Iron Crown in 1985, noted that the inner ring does not attract a magnet. Analysis of the inner ring in 1993 revealed. Thirty-four coronations with the Iron Crown were counted by the historian Bartolomeo Zucchi from the 9th to the 17th century; the Encyclopædia Britannica states that the first reliable record of the use of the Iron Crown in the coronation of a King of Italy is that of the coronation of Henry VII in 1312. Coronations in which the crown was used
Nidhi Chanani is an Indian-American freelance illustrator and artist. Her debut graphic novel Pashmina was released by First Second Books in October 2017. Nidhi Chanani was born in Kolkata and moved to Southern California when she was four months old, she received a degree in Literature from the University of Santa Cruz. She attended the Academy of Art University in San Francisco for a year and a half before dropping out, feeling "limited by the way art is taught." Chanani worked at non-profit organizations before entering the comics field. Chanani runs an online webseries and store titled EveryDayLoveArt.com, where she tries to capture the relevance for "ordinary everyday moments in our daily lives". Chanani explains that Pashmina is a story of a first-generation girl, "trying to understand herself", she worked as a concept artist for the 2011 Australian film and the Hasbian. She has worked with Hasbro, Paramount Pictures and Disney. Other than her novel, Chanani has illustrated Misty: the Proud Cloud by Hugh Howey.
Chanani has been commissioned by Dark Horse Comics for a graphic novel based on Walt Disney Animation Studios' 1992 animated feature Aladdin titled Disney's princess: Jasmine's new pet. The graphic novel revolves around Jasmine and her pet tiger, Raja's, relationship when they first met, it was released in October 2018. Chanani has written and Illustrated a bilingual children book titled Shubh Raatri Dost with Bharat babies, her second graphic novel, was a collaboration with her husband Nick Giordano about two Muslim American cousins and Tannaz in San Francisco who find a magical jukebox that comes to their aid when Giovanni, Shaheen's father, goes missing. It is slated for 2020 release, she illustrated the book I will be Fierce by Bea Birdsong, to be released in 2019 by Macmillan Publishers. Throughout her work Chanani has worked to represent normal problems that exist within families, as well as showcasing female characters of color dealing with issues of identity, she utilizes the visual medium of graphic novels and comics to utilize the storytelling through both written and visual mediums in order to portray aspects of her stories that cannot be demonstrated in only one medium.
In March 2019, Netflix announced it will adapt Chanani's best selling graphic novel Pashmina into a CG animated musical with Gurinder Chadha set to direct. For Pashmina, Chanani drew inspiration from various sources. According to her "My inspiration for Pashmina came from a variety of sources: my mom, growing up in the US, my first trip to India, the choices women make — all of these things are woven into the story; when I was younger my parents would travel to India often. When they returned, their suitcases had a pungent magical smell—from a place that seemed far away. I was 10 years old. Opening their suitcase made. In a way, I believe this story has been with me since then."Chanani has been influenced throughout her career by the Indian novelist, Arundhati Roy. Roy influenced Chanani in her ability to incorporate political underpinnings in the voices of the characters throughout her work. Similar to Roy, Chanani has made representing Indian people and the everyday struggles that they encounter a central element of her writing and graphic work.
Chanani, according to her own interviews, is influenced by the author Gene Luen Yang. Chanani is an instructor at the California College of the Arts, she features local Bay area backdrops, as well as images derived from her Indian heritage. She explains, "I grew up watching Bollywood films on the weekends, eating Indian breakfasts, spending time with my Indian family, it didn't feel like because I didn't live in India, India didn't live in me. If I don't draw something Indian per se, something about my "Indian-ness" will come through whether I make the characters brown or pick a setting reminiscent of India. There is something about, and who I am is Indian. I don't think, removable from what I do." Pashmina received the 2017 Virginia Library Association Graphic Diversity Award in the Youth Category, the 2018 South Asia Book Award for Children's Literature in the Grade 3-6 category. Pashmina was a Best Fiction for Older Readers selection for 2017 by the Chicago Public Library, it was released by Harper Collins in India.
In April 2012, Nidhi was honored at the White House as a Champion of Change. Chanani creates her art using digital media, wood burning, watercolors, stating: "For my illustrations I use flash and Photoshop with a heavy dose of brushes and textures I've created. For my wood burnings I use raw wood and a professional wood burning pen." Chanani uses magical realism in her work to tell her stories. 2012 White House Champion of Change 2017 Virginia Library Association Graphic novel Diversity Award in youth category 2018 South Asia Book Award Honor Chanani and her husband, Nick Giordano, live in San Francisco Bay Area with their daughter. Official website Nidhi Chanani at the Comic Book DB "Articles by Nidhi Chanani" India Currents Chanani, Nidhi. "Pashmina". Diversity in YA
Karim Sanjabi was an Iranian politician of National Front. He was born in Kermanshah in September 1904 to the chief of the Kurdish Sanjâbi tribe, he studied law and politics at Sorbonne University. He worked as a law professor at the University of Tehran. Sanjabi and Allahyar Saleh led the Iran Party, a nationalist, progressive and anti-Soviet group, in the 1950s; the party became part of the National Front. Sanjabi was a loyal supporter of Mohammad Mossadegh and he served as minister of education under Mossadegh in 1952. Mossadegh had led the movement to nationalize the British-controlled oil industry in Iran and after this was accomplished, he became engaged in a heated battle with the British and with the forces rallying around Mohammad Reza Shah. After a CIA-MI6 coup d'état overthrew Mossadegh in August 1953 and reestablished the Shah on the throne, along with other Mossadegh supporters, went into opposition against the Shah's regime, he was involved in the formation of the Second National Front in 1960.
The reconstituted National Front was to remain active for five years, but under worsening circumstances. Despite its moderate demands for electoral reforms and a Shah that would "reign and not rule", the Shah refused to tolerate the Front's activities, his powerful security forces, most notably the infamous SAVAK, silenced the likes of Sanjabi and other secular democrats. Due to this and a variety of other factors, it had dissolved by 1965; the Front was to remain dormant until the late 1970s. It was revived in late 1977 by Sanjabi as its leader; as the general secretary of the National Front during the revolutionary uprising of 1978–1979, Sanjabi and his colleagues wished to negotiate a peaceful solution with the Shah. However, on 3 November 1978, he met as representative of the National Front with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in France, he had gone there hoping to convince Khomeini to support the creation of a coalition government headed by the National Front. Despite the rising revolutionary fervor and many other liberals had remained loyal to the idea of a constitutional monarchy with the Shah as ceremonial figurehead and they wished to bring Khomeini over to their point of view.
Khomeini, refused to budge and reiterated his demand for the overthrow of the monarchy. In the end, acting as head of the National Front, capitulated to Khomeini's demands. In addition, he accepted the leadership of Khomeini and opposed to the alliance with the Tudeh party. Sanjabi emerged from his meeting "with a short declaration that spoke of both Islam and democracy as basic principles", Sanjabi declared his support for Khomeini and joined his forces. After the overthrow of the monarchy on 11 February 1979, Khomeini "explicitly refused to put the same word, into either the title of the Republic or its constitution." Sanjabi served. Sanjabi was in office from to February to April 1979. Sanjabi's house in Tehran was bombed on 8 April 1978; the underground committee for revenge, a state-financed organization, proclaimed the responsibility of the bombing. He was freed on 6 December. Sanjabi was married to Fakhrolmolouk Ardalan Sanjabi and had four children, three sons and a daughter. Khosrow, Parviz and Maryam Sanjabi left Iran in 1982 and went to Paris.
He settled in the US. He died on 4 July 1995 at his home in Carbondale, Illinois at the age of 90. Siavoshi, Liberal Nationalism in Iran: The Failure of a Movement, Westview Press, 1990. Iranian National Front