HMS Iron Duke (1912)
HMS Iron Duke was a dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy, the lead ship of her class, named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. She was built by Portsmouth Dockyard, her keel laid in January 1912. Launched ten months she was commissioned into the Home Fleet in March 1914 as the fleet flagship, she was armed with a main battery of ten 13.5-inch guns and was capable of a top speed of 21.25 knots. Iron Duke served as the flagship of the Grand Fleet during the First World War, including at the Battle of Jutland. There, she inflicted significant damage on the German battleship SMS König early in the main fleet action. In January 1917, she was relieved as fleet flagship. After the war, Iron Duke operated in the Mediterranean as the flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet, she participated in both the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War in the Black Sea and the Greco-Turkish War. She assisted in the evacuation of refugees from Smyrna. In 1926, she was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet.
Iron Duke remained on active duty for only a few more years. Iron Duke was therefore converted into a gunnery training ship, she served in this capacity until the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, when she was moored in Scapa Flow as a harbour defence ship. In October, she was run aground to avoid sinking, she continued to serve as an anti-aircraft platform for the duration of the war, was refloated and broken up for scrap in the late 1940s. Iron Duke was 622 feet 9 inches long overall and had a beam of 90 ft and an average draught of 29 ft 6 in, she up to 29,560 long tons at combat loading. Her propulsion system consisted of four Parsons steam turbines, with steam provided by eighteen Babcock & Wilcox boilers; the engines were produced a top speed of 21.25 kn. Her cruising radius was 7,800 nautical miles at a more economical 10 kn. Iron Duke had a crew of 995 officers and ratings, though during wartime this grew to up to 1,022. Iron Duke was armed with a main battery of ten BL 13.5-inch Mk V naval guns mounted in five twin gun turrets.
They were arranged in one forward and one aft. Close-range defence against torpedo boats was provided by a secondary battery of twelve BL 6-inch Mk VII guns; the ship was fitted with a pair of QF 3-inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft guns and four 47 mm 3-pounder guns. As was typical for capital ships of the period, she was equipped with four 21 in torpedo tubes submerged on the broadside. Iron Duke was protected by a main armoured belt, 12 in thick over the ship's vitals, her deck was 2.5 in thick. The main battery turret faces were 11 in thick, the turrets were supported by 10 in thick barbettes. Iron Duke was laid down at Portsmouth Dockyard on 12 January 1912 and launched on 12 October of that year. After completing fitting-out work, she began sea trials on 25 November 1913; the ship was completed in March 1914, she joined the Home Fleet after completing her trials. In the Home Fleet, she served as the flagship of Admiral Sir George Callaghan. On 29 July 1914, as war loomed on the Continent, Iron Duke and the rest of the Home Fleet was ordered to proceed to Scapa Flow from Portland to safeguard the fleet from a possible German surprise attack.
In August 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Home Fleet was reorganised as the Grand Fleet. On the evening of 22 November 1914, the Grand Fleet conducted a fruitless sweep in the southern half of the North Sea; the fleet was back in port in Scapa Flow by 27 November. Iron Duke and most of the fleet remained in port during the German raid on Scarborough and Whitby on 16 December 1914, though the 3rd Battle Squadron was sent to reinforce the British forces in the area. After receiving further information about the possibility of the rest of the German fleet being at sea, Jellicoe gave the order for the fleet to sortie to try to intercept the Germans, though by that time they had retreated. Iron Duke went to sea with the 2nd and 4th Battle Squadrons for gunnery practice north of the Hebrides on 23 and 24 December; the following day, the rest of the fleet joined Iron Duke for a sweep in the North Sea, which concluded on 27 December. Iron Duke and the rest of the fleet conducted gunnery drills on 10–13 January 1915 west of the Orkneys and Shetlands.
On the evening of 23 January, the bulk of the Grand Fleet sailed in support of Beatty's Battlecruiser Fleet, but Iron Duke and the rest of the fleet did not become engaged in the ensuing Battle of Dogger Bank the following day. Upon returning from the operation, Iron Duke went to Invergordon for refit; the work was completed by 23 February. On 7–10 March, the Grand Fleet conducted a sweep in the northern North Sea, during which it conducted training manoeuvres. Another such cruise took place on 16–19 March. On 11 April, the Grand Fleet conducted a patrol in the central North Sea and returned to port on 14 Ap
The Iron Duke (film)
The Iron Duke is a 1934 British historical film directed by Victor Saville and starring George Arliss, Ellaline Terriss and Gladys Cooper. Arliss plays Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington in the events leading up to the Battle of Waterloo and beyond. With Napoleon defeated and exiled, the reluctant Duke of Wellington is persuaded by Lord Castelreagh to represent Great Britain's interests at the Congress of Vienna, where the victorious allies will decide the future of Europe. While there, his friend the Duchess of Richmond introduces the married man to the pretty Lady Frances Webster, an ardent admirer, at her ball. During the course of the evening, Wellington receives an urgent message: Napoleon has escaped and has landed in France. French King Louis XVIII and his niece and most trusted adviser, the Duchess d'Angoulême, are not alarmed in the least. Ney one of Napoleon's marshals, volunteers to take 4000 picked men and capture his former leader. However, he switches sides. With France once again under Napoleon's control, both sides race to reassemble their armies.
Napoleon routs the Prussians under Marshal Blücher before coming to grips with his old nemesis Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo. At the crucial point of the battle, Blücher's timely arrival turns the tide, Napoleon is defeated for the final time; the allies gather in Paris to divide the spoils. Once again, Castelreagh sends Wellington to try to restrain the others from punishing France too in order to ensure a lasting peace. Wellington's task is made more difficult by the opposition of Madame, certain he wants to rule France himself. Wellington warns Louis that Madame's desire to have the still popular Ney executed for treason would risk another revolution. Madame arranges for Wellington's recall to London, to answer a newspaper story that he is carrying on an affair with Lady Frances. Wellington soon disproves the claim, but while he is gone, Ney is convicted and shot by firing squad; the French people are outraged. Upon his return, Wellington forces the King to dismiss his advisers, including Madame.
Back in London, Wellington has to defend his decision to accept no reparations for his country. George Arliss as Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington Ellaline Terriss as Catherine Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington Gladys Cooper as Madame, Duchess d'Angoulême A. E. Matthews as Lord Hill Allan Aynesworth as Louis XVIII Lesley Wareing as Lady Frances Webster Emlyn Williams as Bates, the reporter who writes the story that bedevils Wellington Edmund Willard as Marshal Ney Norma Varden as Charlotte Lennox, Duchess of Richmond Felix Aylmer as Lord Uxbridge Gerald Lawrence as Lord Castelreagh Gibb McLaughlin as Talleyrand Farren Soutar as Count Metternich Walter Sondes as Wedderburn Webster, Lady Frances' jealous husband Frederick Leister as King of Prussia Gyles Isham as Czar of Russia Annie Esmond as Denise Paddy Naismith as Lady Frances' Maid Ernest Jay as First Orderly G. H. Mulcaster as First Delegate Frank Freeman as Second Delegate Franklin Dyall as Marshal Blücher Campbell Gullan as D'Artois Norman Shelley as Pozzo di Borgo Peter Gawthorne as Duke of Richmond The film was the ninth most popular at the British box office in 1935–36.
The New York Times wrote,The Iron Duke can be recommended to Mr. Arliss's admirers everywhere as a pseudo-historical drama which manages to be both impressive and amusing and which reveals the star at his best... The film enough, is not at its best in its dramatization of Waterloo, so simplified that it seems a rather placid affair on the screen, it is in such scenes as Wellington's appearance before the House of Lords to answer his defamers and his broken-hearted demeanor as he scans the casualty lists after the battle that the drama becomes genuinely stirring. Since this is Mr. Arliss's Wellington, the authors have arranged numerous dialogic whimsies to illustrate the conqueror's benign and gentle humors. Neither Gladys Cooper nor A. E. Matthews has much to do in the film; the lengthy cast which assists the star includes a number of capable players. Wedderburn, Alexander Dundas Ogilvy, The Wedderburn book: a history of the Wedderburns in the counties of Berwick, Forfar, Printed for private circulation The Iron Duke at the British Film Institute's Film and TV Database The Iron Duke on IMDb The Iron Duke at the TCM Movie Database The Iron Duke at AllMovie
GWR Iron Duke Class
The Great Western Railway Iron Duke Class 4-2-2 was a class of 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge steam locomotives for express passenger train work. The prototype locomotive, Great Western, was built as a 2-2-2 locomotive in April 1846, but was soon converted to a 4-2-2 arrangement, with the leading wheels set rigidly within the sandwich framing, rather than in a separate bogie; the remainder of the class entered service between April 1847 and July 1855. Locomotives of the Iron Duke class were fast and had an estimated top speed of about 80 mph, they were used to haul the Flying Dutchman express train which, for several decades, was the world's fastest train. In 1852 the daily service from London Paddington to Exeter was achieved with an average speed of 53 mph. From about 1865, the Iron Duke Class was known as the Alma Class. In May to July 1870, three locomotives were extensively rebuilt with new frames and boilers, but retaining their original names. Following these, further locomotives were built to similar specifications, entering service between August 1871 and July 1888.
These new locomotives are referred to as the Rover class. Although these locomotives took the names of withdrawn locomotives of the original design, they were not rebuilt from them like the first three, but new locomotives. Apart from the three conversions, the original locomotives were withdrawn between December 1870 and June 1884. Lord of the Isles was preserved by the GWR at Swindon Works, but was scrapped in January 1906 owing to the pressure of space; the three conversions were withdrawn between September 1880 and October 1887, while the other locomotives to the design were all withdrawn with the end of the GWR 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge in May 1892. Many of the nameplates can be seen at the National Railway Museum and at Swindon Steam Railway Museum, while the driving wheels from Lord of the Isles can be seen at Swindon; the prototype for this class was named the Great Western and built in 1846. Named after the railway, it was designed to show, it broke its leading axle after a short while in service and was subsequently rebuilt as a 4-2-2, becoming part of the Iron Duke class.
In 1985 a working replica of Iron Duke was constructed using parts from two Hunslet Austerity tanks as part of the Great Western 150 celebrations. The boiler certificate has expired so it cannot be steamed, it is part of the National Railway Collection but is on long-term loan to the Didcot Railway Centre, which has a section of working broad gauge track. The replica appeared in The Railway Series book Thomas and the Great Railway Show, in which it was portrayed with whiskery eyebrows and a walrus moustache. Reed, P. J. T.. White, D. E. ed. The Locomotives of the Great Western Railway, Part 2: Broad Gauge. Kenilworth: RCTS. pp. B18, B19–B20, B29–B31. ISBN 0-901115-32-0. "What was the Broad Gauge?". The Broad Gauge Society
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR, known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquess of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, his motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He was an adviser of King Charles I of Spain, his successor, Philip II of Spain, Mayordomo mayor of both, member of their Councils of State and War, governor of the Duchy of Milan, viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples, governor of the Netherlands and viceroy and constable of the Kingdom of Portugal, he represented Philip II in negotiating Philip's betrothal to Elisabeth of Valois and Anna of Austria, who were the third and fourth, last, wives of the king. By some historians he is considered the most effective general of his generation as well as one of the greatest in military history.
Although a tough leader, he was respected by his troops. He touched their sentiments e.g. by addressing them in his speeches as "gentlemen soldiers", but was popular among them for daring statements such as: Kings use men like oranges, first they squeeze the juice and throw away the peel. Alba distinguished himself in the conquest of Tunis during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars when Carlos I defeated Hayreddin Barbarossa and returned the Spanish Monarchy to predominance over the western Mediterranean Sea, he distinguished himself in the battle of Mühlberg, where the army of Emperor Charles defeated the German Protestant princes. On December 26, 1566 he received the Golden Rose, the blessed sword and hat granted by Pope Pius V, through the papal brief Solent Romani Pontifices, in recognition of his singular efforts in favor of Catholicism and for being considered one of his championsHe is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau during the first stages of the Eighty Years' War.
He is known for the brutalities during the capture of Mechelen, Zutphen and Haarlem. In spite of these military successes, the Dutch revolt was not broken and Alba was recalled to Spain, his last military successes were in the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, winning the Battle of Alcantara and conquering that kingdom for Philip II. Spain unified all the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and expanded its overseas territories. Fernando was born in Piedrahíta, Province of Ávila, on 29 October 1507, he was the son of García Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, heir of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo and Enríquez de Quiñones, II Duke of Alba de Tormes, of Beatriz Pimentel, daughter of Rodrigo Alonso Pimentel, IV Count - I Duke of Benavente and his wife, María Pacheco. Fernando was orphaned at age three when his father, García, died during a campaign on the island of Djerba in Africa in 1510. At the age of six, Fernando accompanied his grandfather, the second duke of Alba on a military mission to capture Navarre.
His youth and education were typical for Castilian nobility of the age. He was educated at the ducal court of the House of Alba, located in the Castle Palace of Alba de Tormes, by two Italian preceptors, Bernardo Gentile - a Sicilian Benedictine - and Severo Marini and by the Spanish Renaissance poet and writer Juan Boscan, he was educated in humanism. He mastered Latin and knew French and German. In 1524, when he was seventeen, he joined the troops of Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández de Velasco, II Duke of Frías, during the capture of Fuenterrabía occupied by France and Navarre. For his role in the siege, Fernando was appointed governor of Fuenterrabía; when his grandfather Fadrique died in 1531, the ducal title passed to Fernando as the firstborn son of Garcia. Throughout his adulthood, he served the Spanish monarchs Charles I and his successor Philip II. In 1541 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo was named Mayordomo Mayor del Rey de España by Charles I of Spain. Alba kept this Office in court until the death of the monarch in 1556.
In 1546, Charles I invested Fernando, the Third Duke of Alba Grand Master as knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece. From 1548 King Charles intensified the preparations of Prince Philip as his successor in the Spanish Monarchy, he named Duke of Alba mayordomo mayor of his son to prepare Philip for his new role. Fernando took Philip on a tour around Europe that lasted until 1551. Fernando accompanied Philip to England to attend his marriage to Mary Tudor; the Duke was one of fifteen grandees of Spain who attended the ceremony in the abbey of Winchester on 25 July 1554. After the death of Charles, the new King Philip II maintained Fernando Third Duke of Alba as mayordomo mayor until the death of the Duke in 1582. In 1563, King Philip II created the title Duke of Huéscar to be bestowed on the heir of the Dukes of Alba. Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, son of Fernando became 1st Duke of Huéscar. In 1566, Alba's son and heir, broke his promise of marriage to Magdalena de Guzman, lady of Queen Anne of Austria, which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Castle of La Mota in Valladolid.
The following year he was released so he could go to Flanders with his father to serve in the military. In 1578 Philip II ordered the case against Fadrique reopened, it was discovered that in order to avoid marriage, Fadrique had secret
Iron Duke engine
The Iron Duke Pontiac engine VIN code A is a 2.5 L I4 piston engine. All Iron Dukes were built by Pontiac beginning in 1977 and ending in 1993. After this time, the GM 2.2 L OHV 4-cylinder replaced it across the entire lineup of vehicles that offered it. This engine is not to be confused with the Chevrolet 153. Early Iron Dukes had a Chevrolet V8 bellhousing instead of the Buick-Oldsmobile-Pontiac bellhousing bolt pattern until the early 1980s when the versions were installed in FWD applications where the 2.8L bellhousing bolt pattern was phased in. Cylinder head design had the intake manifold mounted on the passenger side, the exhaust manifold on the driver side; this 151 was used by American Motors starting in 1980, as the base engine option in the RWD Spirit and Concord, continuing in both cars through 1982. The AWD Eagle carried the 151 as standard equipment for 1981, carried it midway through the 1983 model year, it was available in economy model Jeep CJs. When coupled to a Chrysler Torqueflite transmission a special version of the TF904 with a Chevrolet V8 bellhousing was manufactured when optioned with AMC/Jeep vehicles.
AMC replaced the Iron Duke 2.5L I4 with a 150cid Inline-4 derived from their own six. Applications: 1977 Pontiac Astre 1977–1979 Pontiac Phoenix 1977–1980 Pontiac Sunbird 1978–1980 Chevrolet Monza, Oldsmobile Starfire 1980–1982 AMC Concord 1980–1982 AMC Spirit 1980–1983 Jeep CJ 1980–1984 Oldsmobile Omega, Pontiac Phoenix 1980–1985 Buick Skylark, Chevrolet Citation 1981–1983 AMC Eagle 1982–1985 Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird 1982–1989 Chevrolet Celebrity 1982–1991 Pontiac 6000 1982–1992 Buick Century, Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera 1984–1988 Pontiac Fiero 1985–1987 Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, GMC S-15 Jimmy 1985–1993 Chevrolet S-10, GMC S-15/Sonoma 1985–1990 Chevrolet Astro, GMC Safari 1985–1987 Buick Somerset 1985–1991 Pontiac Grand Am, Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais 1986–1991 Buick Skylark 1987–1994 Grumman LLV 1990–1992 Chevrolet Lumina The LS6 was a 151 cu in I4 engine produced from 1978 to 1979; the LS8 was a 151 cu in I4 engine produced for 1979. The LX6 was a 151 cu in I4 engine produced from 1977 to 1978.
The LX8 was a 151 cu in I4 engine produced from 1979 to 1980. This version introduced a cross-flow cylinder head. Cross-flow cylinder heads were added in mid-1979, leading people to refer to this version as the crossflow. Output stood at 90 hp; the 151 and 151-S engines were 151 cu in I4 engines produced from 1974 to 1992 for Chevrolet Opala. They used only the conventional cylinder heads from the earlier North American models, like the Chevy Novas'. Iron Dukes were fitted with fuel injection in 1982; this version was christened the Tech IV, though Car and Driver ridiculed it as the low-Tech IV. Power output remained at 90 hp; this was replaced by a swirl-port head with 9.0:1 compression ratio in 1984 for a 2 hp gain. Other additions for 1985 included roller lifters, improved bearings, a new crankshaft. Several significant changes were made in 1987, which included: an improved cylinder head, intake manifold and throttle body injection module, a more-modern serpentine belt with an automatic spring-loaded tensioner for the accessories, a distributorless ignition system.
This revision to the engine increased power to 98 hp. In 1988, a balance shaft was added to smooth engine vibrations. Up to this point, the engine incorporated a'dogbone' upper front engine mount secured to the cowling of the vehicle's hood latch, aiding in controlling the vibration. Further improvements in years included new pistons, crankshaft, an in-pan oiling system; the most powerful variant of the Tech IV raised the rev limit to 5500rpm, achieved 110 hp. The Tech IV uses the same bellhousing pattern as the 2.8 L 60-Degree V6. Over the years, the Tech IV engine has proved to be a reliable workhorse for owners when not pushed to its limits. All 1978-1990 Iron Duke L-4's are outfitted with a micarta camshaft gear that meshes directly with a steel gear on the crankshaft, a design used by the Chevrolet inline six. 1991-92 VIN R and U engines received a timing chain. The timing gear has a tendency to crumble a tooth anytime after 80,000 miles; the cam gear shears a tooth at startup and the engine won't start.
When the cam gear loses a tooth, the camshaft AND distributor stop rotating during engine cranking. Replacing the gear requires heating the new gear in hot oil and installing it for a shrink fit on the cam stub. One upgrade is the use of the aluminum camshaft timing gear from a Chevrolet 250 inline six with the Iron Duke's crankshaft timing gear. Inspection of the MAP sensor, its accompanying vacuum hose, is a solution to many driveability problems; this sensor controls the engine's driveability. Stuck EGR valves are very common on the Tech IV. Though not a production engine, the Super Duty 4 racing engine was notable and publicized at the time, it was the basis for NASCAR's Touring Car series. The Super Duty 4 is still in use today for ARCA Racing. A 2.7L 232 hp SD4 engine powered the 1984 Fiero Indy Pace Car to over 138 mph during the race. The SD4 was never available in production vehicles.
HMS Iron Duke (1870)
HMS Iron Duke was the last of four Audacious-class central battery ironclads built for the Royal Navy in the late 1860s. Completed in 1871, the ship was assigned to the Reserve Fleet as a guardship in Ireland, before she was sent out to the China Station as its flagship. Iron Duke returned four years and resumed her duties as a guardship, she accidentally rammed and sank her sister ship, Vanguard, in a heavy fog in mid-1875 and returned to the Far East in 1878. The ship ran aground twice during this deployment and returned home in 1883. After a lengthy refit, Iron Duke was assigned to the Channel Fleet in 1885 and remained there until she again became a guardship in 1890; the ship was converted into a coal hulk a decade and continued in that role until 1906 when she was sold for scrap and broken up. The Audacious class was designed as a second-class ironclad intended for overseas service, they had a beam of 54 feet. Iron Duke had 22 feet 7 inches aft; the Audacious-class ships had a tonnage of 3,774 tons burthen.
They had a complement of ratings. Iron Duke had a pair of two-cylinder, horizontal-return, connecting-rod steam engines, each driving a single 16-foot-6-inch propeller, using steam provided by six rectangular boilers; the engines were designed to give the ships a speed of 13 knots. She carried a maximum of 450 long tons of coal; the Audacious class had a sail area of 25,054 square feet. Around 1871 they were re-rigged as barques with their sail area reduced to 23,700 square feet To reduce drag, the funnel was telescopic and could be lowered. Under sail alone, they could reach 10 knots; the main armament of the Audacious-class ships consisted of 10 RML 9-inch rifled muzzle-loading guns. Six of these were positioned on the main deck, three on each broadside, the other four guns were mounted on the corners of the upper deck battery; the battery protruded over the sides of the ships to give the guns a certain amount of end-on fire. The shell of the nine-inch gun weighed 254 pounds, it had a muzzle velocity of 1,420 ft/s and was rated with the ability to penetrate 11.3 inches of wrought-iron armour at the muzzle.
The ships were equipped with four RML 6 in 71 cwt guns as chase guns, two in the bow and another pair in the stern. They fired a 6.3-inch shell. They had six RBL 20 pdr 3.75-inch rifled breech-loading guns that were used as saluting guns. In 1878, the ships received four 14-inch torpedo launchers on the main deck and the 6-inch guns were replaced by four breech-loading BL 5-inch guns during the mid-1880s; the wrought iron waterline armour belt of the Audacious class covered the entire length of the ships. It was eight inches thick amidships, backed by eight–ten inches of teak, thinned to six inches towards the ends of the ships, it had a total height of 3 feet above at deep load. The main deck citadel's ends were protected by a 4-inch one aft; the sides and embrasures of the upper battery were six inches thick. The ships had a one-man conning tower with walls 3 inches thick. Iron Duke, named after the nickname for Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was the first ship of her name to serve in the Royal Navy.
The ship was laid down at Pembroke Dockyard on 23 August 1868, launched on 1 March 1870 and was completed on 1 January 1871, at a cost of £208,763. She was assigned as a First Reserve Guardship at Plymouth, but was assigned as the flagship of the China Station in September. En route to the Far East, she became the first ironclad to use the Suez canal. Relieved by her sister ship, Iron Duke returned to the UK in 1875. To save money on the return ship, no tugboats were hired and the ship ran aground four times and scraped the sides of the canal during her four-day transit. Upon her arrival, she was paid off in May. Iron Duke recommissioned two months and was assigned as the guardship at Hull. During the First Reserve Squadron's summer cruise on 1 September, she was en route with three other ironclads between Dublin and Queenstown. In a thick fog, the ship accidentally rammed her sister, off Kish Bank, in Dublin Bay. Iron Duke had her bowsprit was otherwise little damaged, her ram, had torn a 9-by-3-foot hole in Vanguard's side.
The ram damaged the watertight bulkhead between Vanguard's engine and boiler rooms which flooded both compartments and prevented her crew from using her steam-powered pumps. The ship sunk in a little over an hour after all of the crew abandoned ship. Following the loss, Iron Duke replaced Vanguard as the guardship at Kingstown, where she received the latter's crew and remained until July 1877 when the ship began a lengthy refit that lasted until August 1878, she was inspected by Admiral Thomas Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth, on 22 July. Iron Duke departed Plymouth on 4 August, bound for the China Station.
HMS Iron Duke (F234)
HMS Iron Duke is a Type 23 frigate of the Royal Navy, the third ship to bear the name. Iron Duke has intercepted several large consignments of illegal drugs being sent from the Caribbean to Europe. In her only combat mission, she was in action off Libya in 2011, destroying a gun battery outside the besieged town of Misrata, she fired star shells through the night to illuminate pro-Gadaffi positions for NATO aircraft to destroy rocket launchers, fuel dumps, ammo stores, artillery batteries and command and control centres, whilst confirming that no civilians were in the area. Iron Duke was launched on 2 March 1991 by Lady King in the presence of the Duke and Duchess of Wellington, her affiliated town is Kingston upon Hull, she is named after Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington. She was the fifth Duke-class Type 23 frigate to be launched for the Royal Navy, at a cost of £140 million; the motto of Iron Duke is Virtutis Fortuna Comes – inherited from the 33rd Regiment of Foot. Iron Duke carries a number of sensors which make her a multi-purpose combat vessel.
Like all T23s, her original design role was anti-submarine warfare, but she can be employed in a variety of roles. She carries a Lynx Helicopter which can be used in an anti-submarine and anti-surface role as well as for humanitarian and search and rescue purposes. More Iron Duke has been the First of Class fit for the Royal Navy's new Type 997 Artisan 3D firing her missile system, using the new radar combined with the updated'SWMLU' Seawolf missile targeting system, in the English Channel. In 2000, Iron Duke was part of the Royal Navy task force—comprising Illustrious, Argyll and four RFA ships—that deployed to Sierra Leone during the civil war there. Iron Duke relieved Argyll of her duties in September. During this incident Argyll, assisted by Ocean, laid the foundation for the Iron Duke Community School. President Kabbah of Sierra Leone decreed the school be named after the Iron Duke in honour of their crew completing the construction of the six classrooms. Iron Duke made a good will visit to Valparaiso, Chile, to help improve relations with the UK's traditional ally.
This was the RN's first visit since the General Pinochet affair. In May 2002 Iron Duke re-entered service after a refit, armed with a new 4.5 inch Mod 1 gun. Under the command of Commander Phil Warwick, Iron Duke sailed into Portsmouth for her re-dedication. Amongst those in attendance were the present Duke of Wellington and Earl Jellicoe, both related to figures associated with the ship's name and career; the following January Iron Duke deployed to the Caribbean for counter-drugs operations, hurricane season disaster relief standby, visiting UK Overseas Territories for diplomatic purposes. This was the frigate's first operation since completing her refit at the end of 2001 and comprehensive training including multi-national exercises off Scotland. In February 2006 Iron Duke conducted trials in Loch Fyne. In September 2006 Iron Duke, under Commander Andy Jordan, was providing a presence for UK overseas territories in the Caribbean and providing the UK contribution to the US war on drugs, she returned to the UK in December 2006.
During her six-month deployment, Iron Duke steamed over 31,000 nautical miles, made 22 port visits to 18 different locations. In 2007 Iron Duke, now under the command of Commander Andy Gurr, was dry-docked for ten months at HMNB Portsmouth. Various systems were upgraded including the anti-submarine warfare equipment, the ability to operate the Merlin helicopter was added; the first installation of a NATO Radial Chemical, Radioactive, Nuclear filter system was made. After 18 months of refit and upgrading, by March 2008 Iron Duke was halfway through her Operational Sea Training, in readiness for deployment to the North Atlantic at the end of May. All aspects of warfare were included in the training, including the infamous'Thursday War' training exercise. On 18 April 2008 Iron Duke deployed to Avonmouth to train in harbour safety. Avon and Somerset Police assisted in training in the co-operation between the Royal Navy and uniformed police in the event of harbour security being breached. Civic dignitaries viewed the ship.
In April the Iron Duke's Operational Sea Training increased in difficulty with a simulation of tension between Brownian and Ginger forces with negotiations in neutral Freeport and a high risk of terrorist attacks. This exercise tested the defensive capabilities of the ship and the flexibility of proportional response to threats. In the series of exercises a hurricane hit the simulated island of Bullpoint, allowing Iron Duke to test her disaster relief capabilities including first aid, providing food and shelter to the survivors and helping to rebuild basic amenities. Iron Duke visited her home town, Kingston upon Hull, over the weekend of 26 to 29 April 2008 and was open to the public for six hours. By Friday 13 June Iron Duke arrived in Lisbon, Portugal after two operational stand-offs to determine that she was ready to deploy operationally. Iron Duke was briefed by the Maritime Analysis and Operations Centre-Narcotics, a pan-European counter-narcotics agency, about intelligence on criminal matters such as cannabis and cocaine smuggling on the high seas.
She moved to Gibraltar for re-supply and the infamous Rock Run. Iron Duke was now on Maritime Security Patrol in the North Atlantic; as of 31 August 2008 Iron Duke was dispatched to assist relief efforts for the Atlantic Hurricane Gustav. Iron Duke has intercepted illegal drugs being shipped from the Caribb