Anson Maria Elizabeth Chan Fang On-sang, GBM, GCMG, CBE, JP is a Hong Kong politician and civil servant who served as Chief Secretary in both the British colonial government of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government under the Chinese sovereignty. She was an elected member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong for Hong Kong Island between 2007 and 2008. Born one of twins in Shanghai, Chan was educated at Hong Kong's Sacred Heart Canossian College and the University of Hong Kong, she studied at Tufts University in Massachusetts in the United States. Chan's father, Fang Shin-hau, a textile manufacturer, moved the family to Hong Kong in 1948, her mother Fang Zhaoling was a Chinese painting master. Her grandfather, Fang Zhenwu, was a Kuomintang general, her uncle, Sir Harry Fang Sin-yang was a well-known orthopaedic surgeon and served as an appointed member of the Legislative Council from 1974 to 1985. When she was only ten, Chan's father died aged 36, leaving her mother with eight young children: twins Anson and Ninson and six brothers.
With the support of Chan's grandmother, her mother not only shouldered the responsibility of raising her children, but tried to pursue her career as an artist. She took two of her sons to study in England, leaving Chan and her five other siblings in Hong Kong with their grandmother and Uncle Harry. Under her grandmother's strict discipline and high expectations, Chan learned that she had a duty towards the family and the community and was expected to be upright and righteous, she put herself through university by working as a private tutor and for a year as a clerk at Queen Mary Hospital. In 1959, Chan entered the University of Hong Kong to study English literature. Along with studies, she was keen on amateur dramatics, it was through this that she met her future husband, Archibald Chan Tai-wing, she began work on a social work diploma, but changed her mind and joined the Hong Kong Civil Service in 1962, one of only two women to join the civil service at that time. The following year, she married Archie.
Chan joined the civil service as an administrative service cadet in 1962. Her salary was one-quarter that paid to men of equivalent grade. Afterwards, she progressed to the Economics Section of the Finance Branch in 1962, followed by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries the Department of Commerce and Industry, back to Finance. In 1970, she became Assistant Financial Secretary in the Finance Branch of the Colonial Secretary, the first woman to attain that post, she became a senior administrative officer in 1970. During this period she helped set up the Association of Female Senior Government Officers to fight for better rights for women civil servants, notably pushing for wage parity with men. Chan became the first female civil service director when appointed Director of Social Welfare in 1984. During her tenure, she was criticised by media for her handling of a child custody case in 1986, popularly known as the Kwok Ah-nui incident. An investigation by Unofficial members of the Executive Council found that Chan had "acted within the law" in respect of her extreme powers, but recommended changes to the law and to the Social Welfare Department's procedures to prevent re-occurrence of similar cases.
She admitted that the media pressure had made her "very upset" and this led to keep her distance from the press, at least for a few years. From 1987 to 1993, she was Secretary for Economic Services, becoming the 30th and last Chief Secretary, the head of the Hong Kong civil service, in 1993, she oversaw the localisation of the civil service during her time in this position. From 1994, she headed the Airport Development Steering Committee overseeing the construction of the new Chek Lap Kok Airport. Chan was the first woman and the first ethnic Chinese to hold the second-highest governmental position in Hong Kong; the highest governmental position, the Governor, was always held by Britons before Hong Kong's handover to People's Republic of China. Chan was described during this era as an "Iron Lady", with "an iron fist in a velvet glove". Chan was lauded as the most powerful woman in Asia for her role as the deputy of British Governor Chris Patten, Tung Chee-hwa, she was considered most trusted high official in Hong Kong by both the UK and PRC government to appoint her to the head of the civil service and after the handover of Hong Kong.
In the run-up to the handover of Hong Kong, she was the'face of Hong Kong', dispatched to reassure the wider world that the territory would not implode upon its return to China and that civil liberties would be upheld. Her confidence reassured many around the globe. Within Hong Kong she had wide public support to be the first Chief Executive in the new administration but announced in October 1996 that she would not seek the role. After Hong Kong's handover to China on 1 July 1997, Chan stayed on as head of the civil service under Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa, a valuable sign of stability and continuity for the new administration, she was always regarded: one British-born civil servant said that "nothing would work without her" noting that "Tung needs her more than she needs him."Chan was loyal in the main but her public utterances were at odds with Tung. It was enough to earn her a certain independence and the epithet of "Hong Kong's Conscience". In contrast to the more conservative Tung, Chan showed the greater support for democracy and freedom, advocated a faster pace of democratisation.
In 1998, Chan was somewhat criticised for h
Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, GBM, GBS is a Hong Kong politician, the 4th and current Chief Executive of Hong Kong. She served as the Chief Secretary for Administration, the most senior rank of principal officials of Hong Kong, from 2012 to 2017. After graduating from the University of Hong Kong, Lam joined the civil service in 1980 and served in various bureaux and departments, she became a key official in 2007. During her service, she earned the reputation as a "tough fighter" from her handling of the demolition of the Queen's Pier, she became Chief Secretary under the Leung Chun-ying administration in 2012. She headed the Task Force on Constitutional Development on the political reform from 2013 to 2015 and held talks with the student leaders during the large-scale occupation protests in 2014. In the 2017 Chief Executive election, Lam won the three-way election with 777 votes of the 1,194-member Election Committee as the Beijing-favoured candidate, beating former Financial Secretary John Tsang and retired judge Woo Kwok-hing, becoming the first female Chief Executive of Hong Kong.
Born Cheng Yuet-ngor to a low-income family of Zhoushan ancestry in Hong Kong, Lam was the fourth of five children. She was born and grew up in Lockhart Road, Wan Chai, where she finished her primary and secondary education at St. Francis' Canossian College, a Catholic girls' school in the neighborhood, where she was head prefect. After graduation, Lam attended the University of Hong Kong majoring in sociology, she organised exchange trips to Tsinghua University. Through her student activism, she came to know Lee Wing-tat and Sin Chung-kai who became prominent pro-democrat legislators. To better understand society and participate more in student activities, she switched her course of study from social work to sociology after the first year to avoid placements. Lam graduated with a Bachelor of Social Sciences in 1980. In 1982, the Hong Kong Government funded her studies at Cambridge University where she met her future husband, mathematician Lam Siu-por. Lam joined the Administrative Service in 1980.
She served in various bureaux and departments, spending about seven years in the Finance Bureau which involved in budgetary planning and expenditure control. She worked as Principal Assistant Secretary and subsequently as Deputy Secretary for the Treasury in the 1990s. In 2000, Lam was promoted to the position of Director of the Social Welfare Department during a period of high unemployment and severe fiscal deficits in Hong Kong, she tightened the Comprehensive Social Security Assistance scheme, making it available only to people who had lived in Hong Kong for more than seven years, excluding new immigrants. With other senior officials, she helped set up the We Care Education Fund, raising over HK$80 million to meet the long term educational needs of children whose parents died from the SARS epidemic in 2003. In November 2003, Lam was appointed Permanent Secretary for Housing and Lands and chairman of the Town Planning Board, she was soon appointed Director-General of the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in London in September 2004.
On 8 March 2006, Lam returned to Hong Kong to take up the position as Permanent Secretary for Home Affairs. She was involved in the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics Equestrian Events and the West Kowloon Cultural District plan. On 1 July 2007, Lam left the civil service when she was appointed Secretary for Development by Chief Executive Donald Tsang, becoming one of the principal officials. In the first days of her office, Lam oversaw the demolition of the landmark Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier for the Star Ferry and the Queen's Pier to make way for land reclamation, which triggered occupation protests by the conservationists. In July 2007, she attended a public forum at Queen's Pier in a bid to persuade the protesters to disperse and allow the demolition to begin, she repeated the government’s position that it was not an option to retain the pier and she would "not give the people false hope". Her handling of the pier conflict earned her a reputation as a "tough fighter" by the Chief Secretary for Administration Rafael Hui.
Lam put forward a new Urban Renewal Strategy to lower the threshold for compulsory sale for redevelopment from 90 percent to 80 percent in 2010. Human rights organisations criticised the policy as benefiting the big real estate developers and violating the right to housing as recognised by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights as the bargaining power of the small owners would be undermined. In 2012, Lam led the Development Bureau in cracking down unauthorised building works found in the indigenous villages in the New Territories; the change in law enforcement policy was opposed by leaders of rural communities and the Heung Yee Kuk, a statutory body representing rural interests. The Heung Yee Kuk staged protests against Lam and accused her of "robbing villagers of their fundamental rights". Lam tried to tackle the "Small House Policy", subject to abuse amidst a land crunch; the policy gives male indigenous villagers in the New Territories the right to build a house close to their ancestral homes but the policy has drawn criticism because in some cases, it has been abused for profit.
In recognition of her achievements as Secretary for Development, she was awarded honorary member of the Hong Kong Institute of Landscape Architects, honorary fellow of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Property Person of the Year in the RICS Hong Kong Property Awards 2012, honorary member of the Hong Kong Institute of Architects
Jayaram Jayalalithaa was an Indian politician and film actor who served five terms as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for over fourteen years between 1991 and 2016. From 1989 she was the general secretary of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, a Dravidian party whose cadre revered her as their Amma, Puratchi Thalaivi and Thanga Tharagai, her critics in the media and the opposition accused her of fostering a personality cult, of demanding absolute loyalty from AIADMK legislators and ministers who publicly prostrated themselves before her. Jayalalithaa first came into prominence as a leading film actress in the mid-1960s. Though she had entered the profession reluctantly, upon the urging of her mother to support the family, Jayalalithaa worked prolifically, she appeared in 140 films between 1961 and 1980 in the Tamil and Kannada languages. Jayalalithaa received praise for her versatility as an actor and for her dancing skills, earning the sobriquet "queen of Tamil cinema". Among her frequent co-stars was M. G. Ramachandran, or MGR, a Tamil cultural icon who leveraged his immense popularity with the masses into a successful political career.
In 1982, when MGR was chief minister, Jayalalithaa joined the party he founded. Her political rise was rapid. After MGR's death in 1987, Jayalalithaa proclaimed herself his political heir and, having fought off the faction headed by Janaki Ramachandran, MGR's widow, emerged as the sole leader of the AIADMK. Following the 1989 election, she became Leader of the Opposition to the DMK-led government headed by Karunanidhi, her bête noire. In 1991 Jayalalithaa became Tamil Nadu's youngest, for the first time, she earned a reputation for a punishing work ethic and for centralising state power among a coterie of bureaucrats. The successful cradle-baby scheme, which enabled mothers to anonymously offer their newborns for adoption, emerged during this time. Despite an official salary of only a rupee a month, Jayalalithaa indulged in public displays of wealth, culminating in a lavish wedding for her foster son in 1995. In the 1996 election, the AIADMK was nearly wiped out at the hustings; the new Karunanidhi government filed several corruption cases against her, she had to spend time in jail.
Her fortunes revived in the 1998 general election, as the AIADMK became a key component of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's 1998–99 government. The AIADMK returned to power in 2001, although Jayalalithaa was disbarred from contesting due to the corruption cases. Within a few months of her taking oath as chief minister, in September 2001, she was disqualified from holding office and forced to cede the chair to loyalist O. Panneerselvam. Upon her acquittal six months Jayalalithaa returned as chief minister to complete her term. Noted for its ruthlessness to political opponents, many of whom were arrested in midnight raids, her government grew unpopular. Another period in the opposition followed, before Jayalalithaa was sworn in as chief minister for the fourth time after the AIADMK swept the 2011 assembly election, her government received attention for its extensive social-welfare agenda, which included several subsidised "Amma"-branded goods such as canteens, bottled water and salt. Three years into her tenure, she was convicted in a disproportionate-assets case, rendering her disqualified to hold office.
She returned as chief minister after being acquitted in May 2015. In the 2016 assembly election, she became the first Tamil Nadu chief minister since MGR in 1984 to be voted back into office; that September, she fell ill and, following 75 days of hospitalisation, died on 5 December 2016 due to cardiac arrest. Jayalalithaa was born on 24 February 1948 at Melukote, Pandavapura taluka, Mandya district in Mysore State to Jayaram and Vedavalli in Tamil Brahmin Iyengar family; the name Jayalalitha was adopted at the age of one for the purpose of using the name in school and colleges. It was derived from the names of two houses. One was "Jaya Vilas" and the other "Lalitha Vilas", her paternal grandfather, Narasimhan Rengachary, was in the service of the Mysore kingdom as a surgeon, served as the court physician to Maharaja Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV of Mysore. Her maternal grandfather, Rangasamy Iyengar, moved to Mysore from Srirangam to work with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, he had one son and three daughters – Ambujavalli and Padmavalli.
Vedavalli was married to Jayaram son of Narasimhan Rengachary. The couple Jayaram-Vedvalli had a daughter, Jayalalitha, her mother, her relatives and co-stars and friends referred her as Ammu. Jayalalitha's father, was a lawyer but never worked and squandered most of the family money, he died. The widowed Vedavalli returned to her father's home in Bangalore in 1950. Vedavalli learnt shorthand and typewriting to take up a clerical position to help support the family in 1950, her younger sister Ambujavalli had moved to Madras. She started acting in drama and films using the screen name Vidyavathy. On the insistence of Ambujavalli, Jayalalithaa's mother Vedavalli relocated to Madras and stayed with her sister from 1952. Vedavalli worked in a commercial firm in Madras and began dabbling in acting from 1953 under the s
Angela Dorothea Merkel is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union from 2000 to 2018. Merkel has been described as the de facto leader of the European Union, the most powerful woman in the world, by many commentators as the leader of the Free World. Merkel was born in Hamburg in then-West Germany and moved to East Germany as an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg, she obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, has been reelected since; as the protégée of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Merkel was appointed as the Federal Minister for Women and Youth in Kohl's government in 1991, became the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994.
After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble. Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first female chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party the Christian Social Union, the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In the 2009 federal election the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote, Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party. At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag. After the 2017 federal election the CDU was again the largest party, she was reelected to her fourth term on 14 March 2018. In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration.
One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union and she is the senior G7 leader. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of the CDU at the party convention in December 2018 and as Chancellor in 2021. Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner, a Lutheran pastor and a native of Berlin, his wife Herlind, born in Danzig, a teacher of English and Latin, she has two younger siblings, Marcus Kasner, a physicist, Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist.
In her childhood and youth, Merkel was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi", derived from her last name Kasner. Merkel is of Polish descent, her paternal grandfather, Ludwik Kasner, was a German policeman of Polish ethnicity, who had taken part in Poland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century. He married Merkel's grandmother Margarethe, a German from Berlin, relocated to her hometown where he worked in the police. In 1930, they Germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner. Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch, Gertrud Alma née Drange, a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing Emil Drange. Since the mid 1990s, Merkel has publicly mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions and described herself as a quarter Polish, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography. Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration from West Germany to East Germany. Merkel's paternal grandfather was Catholic but the entire family converted to Lutheranism during the childhood of her father, who studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and Hamburg.
In 1954, when Angela was just three months old, her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow, in East Germany. The family moved to Templin and Merkel grew up in the countryside 90 km north of East Berlin. In 1968, Merkel joined the Free German Youth, the official communist youth movement sponsored by the ruling Marxist–Leninist Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education, she did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed. During this time, she participated in several compulsory courses on Marxism-Leninism with her grades only being regarded as "sufficient". At the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of its FDJ secretariat. According to her former colleagues, she propagated Marxism as the secretary for "Agitation and Propaganda". However, Merkel has denied this claim and stated that she was secretary for culture, which involved activities like obtaining theatre tickets and organising talks by visiting Soviet
The Iron Ladies
The Iron Ladies is a 2001 Thai comedy film directed by Youngyooth Thongkonthun and written by Visuttchai Boonyakarnjawa and Jira Maligool. The film follows the true events of a men's volleyball team, composed of gay and kathoey athletes. In 2003, the combined sequel and prequel called; the film is based upon how the characters of The Iron Ladies met, how they would reunite for another volleyball tournament. The film was released in 2000 and is set in 1996, when the real team competed and won the national championships in Thailand; the two main characters and Jung, play two gay transvestites, overlooked by volleyball coaches because of their appearance. However, when a local team changes coaches, the new coach holds tryouts for a new team; when Mon and Jung are selected, most of the old players resign, leaving the new coach, Coach Bee, in a sticky predicament. Mon and Jung are forced to enlist the help of other gay and transsexual friends who they used to play volleyball with in university; these new players include Wit, who hasn't told his fiancée he is gay, Pia, a transsexual dancer and Nong, a gay army conscript.
When the competition begins, all but one player in the team are transsexual. Because of their appearance on court, many of the match officials intend to ban the team, soon dubbed "The Iron Ladies", from the tournament. However, seeing how much the team is liked by the crowd soon changes many of their opinions. At the end credits of the film, the real "Iron Ladies" are shown as they were at the time of making the film. Jesdaporn Pholdee – Chai Sahaphap Tor – Mon Chaicharn Nimpulsawasdi – Jung Giorgio Maiocchi – Nong Ekachai Buranapanit – Wit Kokkorn Benjathikoon – Pia Shiriohana Hongsopon – Coach Bee Phomsit Sitthijamroenkhun – April Sutthipong Sitthijamroenkhun – May Anucha Chatkaew – June Kittipat Samarntragulchai - Dao A hit in Thailand as well as the international film festival circuit, the film has been nominated twelve times and won ten awards, including the Thailand National Film Association Awards, Toronto International Film Festival and the reader award of German LGBT magazine Siegessäule at the Berlin International Film Festival.
It played at the Pusan International Film Festival, the San Francisco Asian American Film Festival, the Miami Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, the Los Angeles Asian Pacific Film Festival, the Seattle International Film Festival, the San Francisco International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival and the Swedish International Comedy Film Festival. The Iron Ladies on IMDb The Iron Ladies at AllMovie The Iron Ladies at Rotten Tomatoes The Iron Ladies at the Thai Film Database
Wu Yi (politician)
Wu Yi is a retired Chinese politician. She was one of the country's most visible leaders during the first decade of the 21st century, best known for taking on the role of Minister of Health from April 2003 during the SARS outbreak, shortly after becoming Vice Premier of the State Council, a position she served in between March 2003 and March 2008, she was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. She has since left public life, she was referred to as the "iron lady" by Chinese media, was known to be a tough negotiator internationally. Wu was born in November 1938 to an ordinary intellectual family based in Wuhan, but she traces her ancestry to nearby Huangmei County in Hubei province, she was the younger of two children. Her parents died while she was young, so she was brought up by her brother, eight years her senior. In April 1962, she joined the Communist Party of China. In August of the same year, she graduated from the Petroleum Refinery department at the Beijing Petroleum Institute, with a degree in petroleum engineering.
She spent much of her career as a petroleum technician becoming deputy manager at the Beijing Dongfang Hong refinery, assistant manager and party secretary at the Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Corporation. She was elected deputy mayor of Beijing in 1988, held that office until 1991. Following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, she persuaded coal workers threatening to go on strike to continue working after some of their colleagues had been killed. From 1991 until 1998, she held successively the posts of Deputy Minister of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation, member of the 14th and 15th Central Committees of the Communist Party of China. A protégé of Zhu Rongji, she became a State Councilor in 1998, was appointed Vice Premier of the State Council in March 2003, she was the first woman to hold the position since economic reforms began in 1978, arguably the most powerful woman in Chinese politics since Mao's wife Jiang Qing. She helped negotiate the PRC's entry into the World Trade Organization and re-organised the customs service after U.
S. complaints over the widespread violation of intellectual property rights. During the SARS crisis, she replaced Zhang Wenkang, fired for his role in the cover-up of the crisis, as health minister, she headed a committee to solve the crisis. She was called the "Goddess of Transparency" by Time magazine for her leadership during the SARS crisis and named one of Time's 100 Most Influential People of 2004. In early 2007, an ailing Huang Ju, serving as senior Vice Premier at the time, could no longer continue fulfilling his duties, it was reported that Wu Yi would take over work in the financial sector, the portfolio of Huang. After Huang died in office in June 2007 Wu became. In 2007, the a coordination committee was formed to oversee quality control of consumer goods as well as food safety, Wu was named its leader. There was speculation that Wu may continue to serve despite having reached the informal retirement age of 68. At the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Wu was not named to the new Politburo.
A month answering speculation about her political future at a U. S.-China Chamber of Commerce meeting, Wu said that she intends to "retire completely", said that she will not take on any office, whether "official, semi-official, or with civic organizations." She remarked that she wanted everyone to forget about her. During the last few months of her tenure she was involved in negotiations with U. S. toy giant Mattel over toy lead content. At a meeting held with Chinese business leaders in early 2008 Wu revealed that her personal salary totaled 120,000 yuan, or $17,600 per year at the time, told the business leaders that they should only "take money from the right places". Called by Chinese media as the "Iron Lady of China", Wu was regarded as a firm and direct woman who, unlike her male colleagues, chose not to dye her graying hair black. Wu did not marry all her life; when questioned about this, Wu said, "it's not that I have always wanted to be alone, it's just that life has never given me the opportunity.
Wu Yi biography at China Vitae
Biljana Plavšić is a former president of Republika Srpska, indicted in 2001 by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for war crimes committed during the Bosnian War. She plea-bargained with the ICTY and was sentenced to 11 years in prison in 2003, to be served in a Swedish prison, she was released on 27 October 2009 after serving two-thirds of her sentence. Plavšić is, together with Radovan Karadžić, the highest ranking Bosnian Serb politician to be sentenced. Before entering politics, she taught biology at the University of Sarajevo. Plavšić was a university professor teaching biology at the University of Sarajevo and acted as Head of Department of Biology, she is a Fulbright Scholar, as such she spent two years at Boyce-Thompson institute at Cornell University in New York doing botany research. She specialized in electron microscopy in London, plant virology in Prague and Bari. A accomplished scientist, she published over one hundred scientific works and papers which have been cited in scholarly literature and textbooks.
Plavšić was a member of the Serbian Democratic Party. She was the first female member of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, serving from 18 November 1990 until April 1992 after having been elected in the first multi-party elections in 1990 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. From 28 February 1992 to 12 May 1992, Plavšić became one of the two acting presidents of the self-proclaimed Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thereafter she became one of two Vice-presidents of the Republika Srpska and from circa 30 November 1992 she was a member of the Supreme Command of the armed forces of the Republika Srpska. Plavšić was infamous for some of her comments during the war and for her April 1992 appearance in Bijeljina with Željko Ražnatović, aka Arkan. Plavšić declared that "six million Serbs can die so that the remaining six million can live in freedom" and considered the ethnic cleansing carried out against non-Serbs during the war to be a "natural phenomenon". In July 1993, in a statement to Borba, Plavšić claimed that Bosnian Serbs are ethnically-racially superior to Bosnian Muslims and claimed that: The Serbs in Bosnia in the border areas, have developed a keen ability to sense danger to the whole nation and have developed a defense mechanism.
In my family they used to say that the Serbs in Bosnia were much better than Serbs in Serbia and remember, the defense mechanism was not created through a short period of time. In 1994 Plavšić stated that she and other Serbian nationalists were unable to negotiate with the “”Bosniaks”” due to genetics: It was genetically deformed material that embraced Islam, and now, of course, with each successive generation it becomes concentrated. It gets worse, it expresses itself and dictates their style of thinking, rooted in their genes. And through the centuries, the genes degraded further; this statement by Plavšić, which equated a specific ethnic group with a disease or illness, has been compared to how the Nazis identified the Jews. Serbian President Slobodan Milošević's support for the "Vance Owen Plan" caused her to refuse to shake his hand, as she denounced him as a traitor to the Serbian nation. Vojislav Šešelj testified that "her positions were extreme extreme, she was popularly known as the Serbian Empress because of this extremism of hers."
The Dayton Agreement, signed in 1995, banned the President of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžić from office and Plavšić was chosen to run as the SDS candidate for President of the Republika Srpska for a two-year mandate. Vojislav Šešelj, at the Milošević trial, described Karadžić's motives for nominating her, she held extremist positions during the war, insufferably extremist for me, they bothered me as a declared Serb nationalist. She brought Arkan and his Serb Volunteer Guard to Bijeljina, she continued to visit him after their activities in Bijeljina and the surrounding area Radovan Karadzic believed her to be more extreme than himself in every way, he thought that the Western protagonists who tried eliminate him at any cost would have an greater problem with her Radovan Karadzic believed that she would continue to occupy her patriotic positions until the end. However, several months after she was elected, Biljana Plavsic changed her political orientation by 180 degrees under the influence of some Western protagonists and changed her policies completely.
Due to a growing isolation of the Republika Srpska after the peace was signed, she severed her ties with the SDS and formed Srpski narodni savez, nominated Milorad Dodik, the member of the National Assembly of the Republika Srpska whose SNSD party had only two MPs, for Prime Minister. This marked the beginning of political reform in the Republika Srpska and the cooperation with the International Community, she lost the 1998 election to the joint candidate of the SDS and the Serbian Radical Party of the Republika Srpska Nikola Poplašen. She was a candidate of the reform "Sloga" coalition, her political career was in decline until the release of the indictment by the ICTY, after which it was terminated. During her time in prison, she released a book called "Witnessings", revealing many aspects of the political life of the war-time Republika Srpska and casting an dark shadow on the President of the Republika Srpska Karadžić, another ICTY indictee. In 1998, Plavšić rewarded Momčilo Đujić, a Chetnik