The People's Daily is the biggest newspaper group in China. The paper is an official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 million. In addition to its main Chinese-language edition, it has editions in English, French, Portuguese, Arabic, Kazakh, Zhuang and other minority languages in China; the newspaper provides direct information on the viewpoints of the Communist Party. The paper was established on 15 June 1948 and was published in Pingshan, until its offices were moved to Beijing in March 1949. Since its founding, the People's Daily has been under direct control of the Party's top leadership. Deng Tuo and Wu Lengxi served as editor-in-chief from 1948–1958 and 1958–1966 but the paper was in fact controlled by Mao's personal secretary Hu Qiaomu. During the Cultural Revolution, the People's Daily was one of the few sources of information from which either foreigners or Chinese could figure out what the Chinese government was doing or planning to do.
During this period, an editorial in the People's Daily would be considered an authoritative statement of government policy, was studied and reproduced nationwide, analyzed globally for insight into the Party's plans. The most important editorials were jointly published by People's Daily, People's Liberation Army Daily and Red Flag, from 1967 to 1978, so called "Two newspapers and one journal", directly representing the highest voice of Chinese Communist Party. Newspaper articles in the People's Daily are not read for content so much as placement. A large number of articles devoted to a political figure or idea is taken as a sign that the mentioned official or subject is rising. With articles on geographical areas foreign or domestic. Editorials in the People's Daily are regarded both by foreign observers and Chinese readers as authoritative statements of official government policy, are therefore studied with care. Distinction is made between editorials and opinions. Although all must be government approved, they differ on the amount of official authoritativeness they contain by design – from the top.
For example, although an opinion piece is unlikely to contain views opposed to those of the government, it may express a viewpoint, or it may contain a debate, under consideration and reflect only the opinions of the writer: an editorial trial balloon to assess internal public opinion. By contrast, an official editorial, rather infrequent, means that the government has reached a final decision on an issue. During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the People's Daily editorial of 26 April, which condemned "unlawful parades and demonstrations," marked a significant moment in the newspaper's history; the editorial increased tension between the government and protesters, top CPC leaders argued about whether to revise it. An article that compiles the most important editorials was released by the People's Daily during the student movement. Since the mid-1990s, the People's Daily has faced a decline of governmental subsidies combined with increasing competition from international news sources and Chinese tabloids.
As part of its effort to modernize, it began an online edition in 1997, the web bulletin forums, such as the Strengthening Nation Forum in the Chinese edition, has been known for their candid content. An analysis of the wording of all the issues of the People's Daily from 1995 to 2000 was used in the writing of The First Series of Standardized Forms of Words with Non-standardized Variant Forms; the People's Daily is responsible for the publication Global Times, hosts the Strengthening Nation Forum on its website. The People's Daily maintains a multilingual internet presence; the internet website of People's Daily includes pages in Arabic, Russian, Spanish and English. In comparison to the original Chinese version, the foreign language version offer less in-depth discussion of domestic policies and affairs and more editorial about China's foreign policies and motives explaining China's positive intentions. In 2014 the news paper launched a Chinese language application, followed on October 15, 2017 by an English language version.
People's Daily in recent years has been expanding its publicity on the overseas social media platforms. It has tens of millions followers on its Facebook page, Twitter account, Instagram account, YouTube account. However, an unusually high proportion of its followers are inactive and to be fake users, according to the study of Committee to Protect Journalists. There have been calls for the People's Daily to register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act in US. Zhang Panshi Hu Qiaomu Fan Changjiang Deng Tuo Wu Lengxi Chen Boda Hu Jiwei Qin Chuan Qian Liren Gao Di Shao Huaze Bai Keming Xu Zhongtian Wang Chen Zhang Yannong Yang Zhenwu Li Baoshan China News Service Xinwen Lianbo, the news program of China Central Television Global Times Media of the People's Republic of China People's Daily during the 1989 Student Movement Qiushi Reference News Rodong Sinmun, the North Korean counterpart publication Strengthening Nation Forum Xinhua News Agency Yang Gang, deputy chief editor who committed suicide during the Anti-Rightist Movement Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher.
The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 264–72 Wu Guoguang. "Command Communication: The Politics of Editorial Formulation in the People
Cangzhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, Cangzhou's built-up area made of Yunhe, Xinhua districts and Cang County being conurbated had a population of 1,205,814 inhabitants, while the prefecture-level administrative unit in total has a population of 7,134,062, it lies 90 kilometres from the major port city of Tianjin, 180 km from Beijing. Cangzhou is reported to have been founded in the Northern Dynasties period. Cangzhou City comprises 4 county-level cities, 9 counties and 1 autonomous county. Cangzhou's urban center is a industrial city but the city's administrative territory includes agricultural areas, is well known in China for its Chinese jujubes and pear; the North China Oil Field is within Cangzhou City's jurisdiction. Cangzhou encompasses a large fishing port and the coal-exporting Huanghua Harbour. Cangzhou is located in eastern Hebei to the south of Tianjin, near the coast of the Bohai Sea of the Pacific Ocean. Bordering prefecture-level cities are Hengshui to the southwest, Baoding to the west, Langfang to the north.
It lies on the Beijing–Shanghai Railway. The G1811 Huanghua–Shijiazhuang Expressway connects Cangzhou to Shijiazhuang, the provincial capital, is linked to Beijing via both the G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway and G3 Beijing–Taipei Expressway, which are concurrent within the province, to Shanghai via G2. Cangzhou's Huanghua Harbour is the end of a main Chinese coal shipping railway, the Shuohuang Railway. Other major highways serving Cangzhou's urban area are China National Highway 104 and 307. Major airports located closest to Cangzhou include Tianjin Airport; the Grand Canal passes directly through Cangzhou, a district of Cangzhou is named after it. Cangzhou has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, with cold, dry winters, hot, humid summers; the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.0 °C to 26.5 °C, while the annual mean is 12.90 °C. Close to 60 % of the annual rainfall of 605 mm occurs in August alone. With possible monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 49% in July to 65% in October, the city receives 2,663 hours of bright sunshine annually.
The city has been known in China for its wushu and acrobatics. Cangzhou is famed for its historic thousand-year-old 40-ton sculpture, the Iron Lion of Cangzhou; the sculpture is the largest cast-iron sculpture in the world, cast in 953 in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The famed lion has given its name to a locally brewed beer and is a symbol of the city. Cangzhou is home to a traditional Chinese form of Kuaiban Dagu; the city hosts seven mosques for Muslim adherents. One of them, the West Mosque, has collected at its museum one of China's best collections of Islamic manuscripts and artefacts. Cangzhou, though predominated by the Han Chinese majority, is home to a sizable population of the Muslim Hui minority. Intermarriage occurs between the majority Han and the Hui, but stereotypes of Hui still exist among Cangzhou's Han residents, some tensions remain. Migration to Hebei province and Cangzhou by Xinjiang Muslim minorities is increasing; the dominant first language of Cangzhou's population is a variety of the northeastern Mandarin dialect continuum termed Cangzhou, is a variety of Ji Lu Mandarin.
There are some similarities with the Tianjin variety and the Baoding variety of Mandarin, but both are considered distinct groups from that of Cangzhou. Dialects of the Cangzhou area vary between localities and counties, though are intelligible among each other; the city, like all other Chinese administrative divisions, has a party committee, the People's government, the People's Congress, the Political consultative conference. Cangzhou is home to the Cangzhou Airbase of the People's Liberation Army Air Force There is one international school in Cangzhou, the Cangzhou Zhenhua Korean International School. Sun Yue, fifth Chinese national to play in the NBA Wang Zi-Ping, Chinese martial arts grandmaster DuBois, Thomas; the Sacred Village: Social Change and Religious Life in Rural North China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005. Article about the Cangzhou Lion "Chinese'serial killer' arrested". BBC World Service. 15 November 2003
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā in Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a yidam, his name means "Gentle Glory"（Chinese：妙吉祥, 妙乐） in Sanskrit. Mañjuśrī is known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less "Prince Mañjuśrī". Other deity name of Mañjuśrī is Manjughosha. Scholars have identified Mañjuśrī as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature. Mañjuśrī is first referred to in early Mahayana sutras such as the Prajnaparamita sutras and through this association early in the tradition he came to symbolize the embodiment of prajñā; the Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure land called Vimala, which according to the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East. His pure land is predicted to be one of the two best pure lands in all of existence in all the past and future; when he attains buddhahood his name will be Universal Sight. In the Lotus Sūtra, Mañjuśrī leads the Nagaraja's daughter to enlightenment, he figures in the Vimalakirti Sutra in a debate with Vimalakirti where he is presented as an Arhat who represents the wisdom of the Hinayana.
An example of a wisdom teaching of Mañjuśrī can be found in the Saptaśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. This sūtra contains the Buddha on the One Samadhi. Sheng-yen renders the following teaching of Mañjuśrī, for entering samādhi through transcendent wisdom: Contemplate the five skandhas as empty and quiescent, non-arising, non-perishing, without differentiation, thus practicing, day or night, whether sitting, standing or lying down one reaches an inconceivable state without any obstruction or form. This is the Samadhi of One Act. Within Vajrayana Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is a meditational deity and considered a enlightened Buddha. In Shingon Buddhism, he is one of the Thirteen Buddhas, he figures extensively in many esoteric texts such as the Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa and the Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti. His consort in some traditions is Saraswati; the Mañjusrimulakalpa, which came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught by Manjushri.
Mañjuśrī is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing the realization of transcendent wisdom which cuts down ignorance and duality. The scripture supported by the padma held in his left hand is a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra, representing his attainment of ultimate realization from the blossoming of wisdom. Mañjuśrī is depicted as riding on a blue lion or sitting on the skin of a lion; this represents the use of wisdom to tame the mind, compared to riding or subduing a ferocious lion. In Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art, Mañjuśrī's sword is sometimes replaced with a ruyi scepter in representations of his Vimalakirti Sutra discussion with the layman Vimalakirti. According to Berthold Laufer, the first Chinese representation of a ruyi was in an 8th-century Mañjuśrī painting by Wu Daozi, showing it held in his right hand taking the place of the usual sword. In subsequent Chinese and Japanese paintings of Buddhas, a ruyi was represented as a Padma with a long stem curved like a ruyi.
He is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Chinese Buddhism, the other three being Kṣitigarbha, Avalokiteśvara, Samantabhadra. In China, he is paired with Samantabhadra. In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is sometimes depicted in a trinity with Vajrapāṇi. A mantra associated with Mañjuśrī is the following: oṃ arapacana dhīḥThe Arapacana is a syllabary consisting of forty-two letters, is named after the first five letters: a, ra, pa, ca, na; this syllabary was most used for the Gāndhārī language with the Kharoṣṭhī script but appears in some Sanskrit texts. The syllabary features in Mahāyāna texts such as the longer Prajñāpāramitā texts, the Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra, the Lalitavistara Sūtra, the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya. In some of these texts, the Arapacana syllabary serves as a mnemonic for important Mahāyāna concepts. Due to its association with him, Arapacana may serve as an alternate name for Mañjuśrī; the Sutra on Perfect Wisdom defines the significance of each syllable thus: A is a door to the insight that all dharmas are unproduced from the beginning.
RA is a door to the insight. PA is a door to the insight. CA is a door to the insight that the decrease or rebirth of any dharma cannot be apprehended, because all dharmas do not decrease, nor are they reborn. NA is a door to the insight. Tibetan pronunciation is different and so the Tibetan characters read: oṃ a ra pa tsa na dhīḥ. In Tibetan tradition, this mantra is believed to enhance wisdom and improve one's skills in debating, memory and other literary abilities. "Dhīḥ" is the seed syllable of the mantra and is chanted with greater emphasis and repeated a number of times as a decrescendo. Mañjuśrī is known in China as Wenshu. Mount Wutai in Shanxi, one of the four Sacred Mountains of China, is considered by Chinese Buddhists to be his bodhimaṇḍa, he was said to bestow spectacular visionary experiences to those on selected mountain peaks and caves
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
The tonne referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons or 0.984 long tons. Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures; the tonne is derived from the weight of 1 cubic metre of pure water. The SI symbol for the tonne is't', adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879, its use is official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, should not be followed by a period. Use of upper and lower case is significant, use of other letter combinations is not permitted and would lead to ambiguity. For example,'T','MT','Mt','mt' are the SI symbols for the tesla, megatesla and millitonne respectively. If describing TNT equivalent units of energy, this is equivalent to 4.184 petajoules.
In French and most varieties of English, tonne is the correct spelling. It is pronounced the same as ton, but when it is important to clarify that the metric term is meant, rather than short ton, the final "e" can be pronounced, i.e. "tonny". In Australia, it is pronounced. Before metrication in the UK the unit used for most purposes was the Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois or 20 hundredweight, equivalent to 1,016 kg, differing by just 1.6% from the tonne. The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for trade certain imperial units, including the ton, unless the item being sold or the weighing equipment being used was weighed or certified prior to 1 December 1980, then only if the buyer was made aware that the weight of the item was measured in imperial units. In the United States metric ton is the name for this unit used and recommended by NIST. Both spellings are acceptable in Canadian usage. Ton and tonne are both derived from a Germanic word in general use in the North Sea area since the Middle Ages to designate a large cask, or tun.
A full tun, standing about a metre high, could weigh a tonne. An English tun of wine weighs a tonne, 954 kg if full of water, a little less for wine; the spelling tonne pre-dates the introduction of the SI in 1960. In the United States, the unit was referred to using the French words millier or tonneau, but these terms are now obsolete; the Imperial and US customary units comparable to the tonne are both spelled ton in English, though they differ in mass. One tonne is equivalent to: Metric/SI: 1 megagram. Equal to 1000000 grams or 1000 kilograms. Megagram, Mg, is the official SI unit. Mg is distinct from milligram. Pounds: Exactly 1000/0.453 592 37 lb, or 2204.622622 lb. US/Short tons: Exactly 1/0.907 184 74 short tons, or 1.102311311 ST. One short ton is 0.90718474 t. Imperial/Long tons: Exactly 1/1.016 046 9088 long tons, or 0.9842065276 LT. One long ton is 1.0160469088 t. For multiples of the tonne, it is more usual to speak of millions of tonnes. Kilotonne and gigatonne are more used for the energy of nuclear explosions and other events in equivalent mass of TNT loosely as approximate figures.
When used in this context, there is little need to distinguish between metric and other tons, the unit is spelt either as ton or tonne with the relevant prefix attached. *The equivalent units columns use the short scale large-number naming system used in most English-language countries, e.g. 1 billion = 1,000 million = 1,000,000,000.†Values in the equivalent short and long tons columns are rounded to five significant figures, see Conversions for exact values.ǂThough non-standard, the symbol "kt" is used for knot, a unit of speed for aircraft and sea-going vessels, should not be confused with kilotonne. A metric ton unit can mean 10 kilograms within metal trading within the US, it traditionally referred to a metric ton of ore containing 1% of metal. The following excerpt from a mining geology textbook describes its usage in the particular case of tungsten: "Tungsten concentrates are traded in metric tonne units (originally designating one tonne of ore containing 1% of WO3, today used to measure WO3 quantities in 10 kg units.
One metric tonne unit of tungsten contains 7.93 kilograms of tungsten." Note that tungsten is known as wolfram and has the atomic symbol W. In the case of uranium, the acronym MTU is sometimes considered to be metric ton of uranium, meaning 1,000 kg. A gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent is a unit used by the UN climate change panel, IPCC, to measure the effect of a technolo
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s