The Iron /ɪ.ɹɔːn/ ) are a subgroup of the Ossetians. They speak one of the two main dialects of the Ossetian language; the majority of Irons belong with a Uatsdin and Muslim minority. Digor people North Ossetia-Alania
The Republic of North Ossetia – Alania is a federal subject of Russia. Its population according to the 2010 Census was 712,980, its capital is the city of Vladikavkaz. In the last years of the Soviet Union, as nationalist movements swept throughout the Caucasus, many intellectuals in the North Ossetian ASSR called for the revival of the name of Alania, a medieval kingdom of the Alans; the term of "Alania" became popular in Ossetian daily life through the names of various enterprises, a TV channel and civic organizations, publishing house, football team, etc. In November 1994, the name of "Alania" was added to the republic's title; the republic is located in the North Caucasus. The northern part of the republic is situated in the Stavropol Plain. 22% of the republic's territory is covered by forests. Area: 8,000 square kilometers Borders: internal: Kabardino-Balkaria, Stavropol Krai, Ingushetia international: Georgia Highest point: Mount Kazbek Maximum north-south distance: 130 kilometers Maximum east-west distance: 120 kilometers All of the republic's rivers belong to the drainage basin of the Terek River.
Major rivers include: Terek River Urukh River Ardon River Kambileyevka River Gizeldon River Fiagdon River Sunzha River All of the mountains located on the territory of the republic are a part of the Caucasus. Mount Kazbek is the highest point, with Mount Dzhimara being the second-highest. Natural resources include minerals, mineral waters, hydroelectric power, untapped reserves of oil and gas; the climate is moderately continental. Average January temperature: −5 °C Average July temperature: +24 °C Average annual precipitation: 400–700 millimeters in the plains; the territory of North Ossetia was first inhabited by Caucasian tribes. Some Nomadic Alans settled in the region in the 7th century, it was converted to Christianity by missionaries from Byzantium. Alania profited from the Silk Road which passed through its territory. After the Middle Ages, the Mongols' and Tartars' repeated invasions decimated the population, now known as the Ossetians. Islam was introduced to the region in the 17th century by Kabardians.
Conflicts between the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire pushed Ossetia into an alliance with Imperial Russia in the 18th century. Soon, Russia established a military base in the capital, making it the first Russian-controlled area in the northern Caucasus. By 1806, Ossetia was under complete Russian control; the Russians' rule led to rapid development of industry and railways. The first books from the area came during the late 18th century, became part of the Terskaya Region of Russia in the mid-19th century; the Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in North Ossetia being merged into the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921. It became the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast on 7 July 1924 merged into the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 5 December 1936. In World War II, it was subject to a number of attacks by Nazi German invaders unsuccessfully trying to seize Vladikavkaz in 1942; the North Ossetian ASSR declared itself the autonomous republic of the Soviet Union on 20 June 1990.
Its name was changed to the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania in 1994. The dissolution of the Soviet Union posed particular problems for the Ossetian people, who were divided between North Ossetia, part of the Russian SFSR, South Ossetia, part of the Georgian SSR. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Georgia abolished the autonomous Ossetian enclave amid the rising ethnic tensions in the region, further fanned by the Moscow; some 70,000 South Ossetian refugees were resettled in North Ossetia, sparking clashes with the predominantly Ingush population in the Prigorodny District, which sparked the Ossetian–Ingush conflict. As well as dealing with the effects of the conflict in South Ossetia, North Ossetia has had to deal with refugees and the occasional spillover of fighting from the wars around them. In recent years, North Ossetia – Alania's economic development has been successful; the nature and climatic conditions of the republic contribute to the successful development of various economic sectors, compounded by the abundance of natural resources.
Gross regional product pro capita of the region in 2006 was 61,000 rubles and increased 30% in the 2005–2007 time period. GRP pro capita in 2007 was 76,455 rubles. In 2005–2007, the average monthly wage in North Ossetia – Alania doubled, with the actual cash earnings increased by 42.5 percent. In terms of the average monthly wage growth, the Republic ranks first in the North Caucasus; the regional government's economic priorities include industrial growth, development of small enterprise, r
The Ossetians or Ossetes are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the ethnolinguistic region known as Ossetia. They speak Ossetic, an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European languages family, with most fluent in Russian as a second language; the Ossetian language is neither related to nor mutually intelligible with any other language of the family today. Ossetic, a remnant of the Scytho-Sarmatian dialect group, once spoken across the Pontic–Caspian Steppe, is one of the few Iranian languages inside Europe; the Ossetians populate Ossetia, politically divided between North Ossetia–Alania in Russia, South Ossetia, a de facto independent state with partial recognition integrated in Russia and claimed by Georgia. Their closest relatives, the Jász, live in the Jászság region within the north-western part of the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County in Hungary. Ossetians are Eastern Orthodox Christian, with sizable minorities professing Uatsdin or Islam; the Ossetians and Ossetia received their name from the Russians, who adopted the Georgian designations Osi and Oseti, used since the Middle Ages for the single Iranian-speaking population of the Central Caucasus and based on the old Alan self-designation "As".
As the Ossetians lacked any single inclusive name for themselves in their native language, these terms were accepted by the Ossetians themselves before their integration into the Russian Empire. This practice was put into question by the new Ossetian nationalism in the early 1990s, when the dispute between the Ossetian subgroups of Digoron and Iron over the status of the Digoron dialect made the Ossetian intellectuals search for a new inclusive ethnic name. This, combined with the effects of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, led to the popularization of "Alania", the name of the medieval Sarmatian confederation, to which the Ossetians traced their origin, inclusion of this name into the official republican title of North Ossetia in 1994. Iron in the east and south form a larger group of Ossetians, they speak Iron dialect. Irons are divided into several subgroups: Alagirs, Tagaurs, Tual and Chsan. Kudar are the southern group of Ossetians. Tual are in the central part of Ossetia. Chsan are in the east of South Ossetia.
Digoron in the west. Digors live in Digora district, Iraf district, some settlements in Kabardino-Balkaria and Mozdok district. Digors living in Digora district are Christian, they speak Digor dialect. The folk beliefs of the Ossetian people are rooted in their Sarmatian origin and Christian religion, with the pagan gods having been converted into Christian saints; the Nart saga serves as the basic pagan mythology of the region. The Ossetians descend from a Sarmatian tribe; the Alans were the only branch of the Sarmatians to keep their culture in the face of a Gothic invasion, those who remained built a great kingdom between the Don and Volga Rivers, according to Coon, The Races of Europe. Between 350 and 374 CE, the Huns destroyed the Alan kingdom, the Alan people were split in half. One half fled to the west, where they participated in the Barbarian Invasions of Rome, established short-lived kingdoms in Spain and North Africa, settled in many other places such as Orléans, France; the other half fled to the south and settled on the plains of the North Caucasus, where they established their medieval kingdom of Alania.
In the 8th century a consolidated Alan kingdom, referred to in sources of the period as Alania, emerged in the northern Caucasus Mountains in the location of the latter-day Circassia and the modern North Ossetia–Alania. At its height, Alania was a centralized monarchy with a strong military force and had a strong economy that benefited from the Silk Road. After the Mongol invasions of the 1200s, the Alans were forced out of their medieval homeland south of the River Don in present-day Russia. Due to this, the Alans migrated toward the Caucasus Mountains, where they would form three ethnographical groups; the Jassic people were a fourth group. In more-recent history, the Ossetians participated in the Ossetian–Ingush conflict and Georgian–Ossetian conflicts and in the 2008 South Ossetia war between Georgia and Russia. Key events: 1774 — North Ossetia becomes part of the Russian Empire. 1801 — Following the Treaty of Georgievsk, the modern-day territory of South Ossetia becomes part of the Russian Empire, along with Georgia.
1922 — Ossetia is divided into two parts: North Ossetia remains a part of the Russian SFSR, while South Ossetia remains a part of the Georgian SSR. 20 September 1990 – The independent Republic of South Ossetia is formed. Though it remained unrecognized, it detached itself from Georgia de facto. In the last years of the Soviet Union, ethnic tensions between Ossetians and Georgians in Georgia's former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia and between Ossetians and Ingush in North Ossetia evolved into violent clashes that left several hundred dead and wounded and created a large tide of refugees on both sides of the border; the Ossetian language belongs to the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. Ossetian is divided into two main dialect groups: Ironian in South Ossetia. In these two groups are some subdialects, such as Tualian and Ksanian; the Ironian dial
South Ossetia the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania, or the Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory. It has a population of 53,000 people who live in an area of 3,900 km2, south of the Russian Caucasus, with 30,000 living in Tskhinvali; the separatist polity, Republic of South Ossetia, is recognised as a state by Russia, Nicaragua and Syria. While Georgia lacks control over South Ossetia, the Georgian government and most members of the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the former Soviet autonomous oblast disbanded in 1990. Georgia does not recognise the existence of South Ossetia as a political entity, therefore its territory does not correspond to any Georgian administrative area, with most of the territory included into Shida Kartli region; the area is informally referred to as the undefined Tskhinvali Region in Georgia and in international organisations when neutrality is deemed necessary.
South Ossetia declared independence from the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991. The Georgian government responded by abolishing South Ossetia's autonomy and trying to re-establish its control over the region by force; the crisis escalation led to the 1991–92 South Ossetia War. Georgian fighting against those controlling South Ossetia occurred on two other occasions, in 2004 and 2008; the latter conflict led to the Russo–Georgian War, during which Ossetian and Russian forces gained full de facto control of the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast. In the wake of the 2008 war, Georgia and a significant part of the international community consider South Ossetia to be occupied by the Russian military. South Ossetia relies on military and financial aid from Russia. South Ossetia, Transnistria and Abkhazia are sometimes referred to as post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones; the territory of contemporary South Ossetia was part of the kingdom of Iberia, the latter was unified under the single Georgian monarchy in 11th-century, extending its possessions up to Dvaleti.
The Ossetians are believed to originate from an Iranian tribe. In the 8th century a consolidated Alan kingdom, referred to in sources of the period as Alania, emerged in the northern Caucasus Mountains. Around 1239-1277 Alania fell before the Mongol and to the Timur's armies, that massacred much of the Alanian population; the survivors among the Alans retreated into the mountains of the central Caucasus and started migration to the south. In 1299, Gori was captured by the Alan tribesmen fleeing the Mongol conquest of their original homeland in the North Caucasus; the Georgian king George V recovered the town in 1320, pushing the Alans back over the Caucasus mountains. In the 17th century, by pressure of Kabardian princes, Ossetians started a second wave of migration from the North Caucasus to Georgia. Ossetian peasants, who were migrating to the mountainous areas of the South Caucasus settled in the lands of Georgian feudal lords; the Georgian King of the Kingdom of Kartli permitted Ossetians to immigrate.
According to Russian ambassador to Georgia Mikhail Tatishchev, at the beginning of the 17th century there was a small group of Ossetians living near the headwaters of the Greater Liakhvi River. In the 1770s there were more Ossetians living in Kartli than before; this period has been documented in the travel diaries of Johann Anton Güldenstädt who visited Georgia in 1772. The Baltic German explorer called modern North Ossetia Ossetia, while he wrote that Kartli was populated by Georgians and the mountainous areas were populated by both Georgians and Ossetians. Güldenstädt wrote that the northernmost border of Kartli is the Major Caucasus Ridge. By the end of 18th century, the ultimate sites of Ossetian settlement on the territory of modern South Ossetia were in Kudaro, Greater Liakhvi gorge, the gorge of Little Liakhvi, Ksani River gorge and Truso; the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, part of, the major territory of modern South Ossetia, was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1801. Ossetian migration to Georgian areas continued in the 19th and 20th centuries, when Georgia was part of the Russian Empire and Ossetian settlements in Trialeti, Borjomi and Kakheti emerged as well.
Following the Russian revolution, the area of modern South Ossetia became part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. In 1918, conflict began between the landless Ossetian peasants living in Shida Kartli, who were influenced by Bolshevism and demanded ownership of the lands they worked, the Menshevik government backed ethnic Georgian aristocrats, who were legal owners. Although the Ossetians were discontented with the economic policies of the central government, the tension soon transformed into ethnic conflict; the first Ossetian rebellion began in February 1918, when three Georgian princes were killed and their land was seized by the Ossetians. The central government of Tiflis retaliated by sending the National Guard to the area. However, the Georgian unit retreated. Ossetian rebels proceeded to occupy the town of Tskhinvali and began attacking ethnic Georgian civilian population. During uprisings in 1919 and 1920, the Ossetians were covertly supported
Central Pashto is the standardized variety of Pashto which serves as a prestige Pashto dialect, is based on the northwestern or central dialect, spoken in the central Ghilji region, including the Afghan capital Kabul and some surrounding region. Central Pashto's vocabulary, however derives from Southern Pashto. Central Pashto is the literary variety of Pashto used in Afghan media. Central Pashto has been developed by Radio Television Afghanistan and Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan in Kabul, it has adopted neologisms to coin new terms from existing words or phrases and introduce them into the Pashto lexicon. Educated Standard Pashto is learned in the curriculum, taught in the primary schools in the country, it is used for written and formal spoken purposes, in the domains of media and government. This dialect of Pashto has been chosen as standard because the Pashtuns from north, south and west as well as those living in Pakistan and all around the world understand this dialect. There has been an effort to adopt a written form based on Latin script, but because of linking the Perso-Arabic based script with the religious views of Afghans, the effort of adapting a Roman alphabet has failed.
However, Pashto is written in Latin script outside Afghanistan by the 2nd and 3rd generation of Pashtun refugees many of whom never learned how to read and write the Perso-Arabic based Pashto alphabet. Pashto alphabet List of Pashto-language poets List of Pashto-language singers Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan khyber.org pcgn.org.uk loc.gov abnea.com eki.ee Pashto English-English Pashto Dictionary Phrasebook Romanized
Avestan known as Zend, refers to two languages: Old Avestan and Younger Avestan. The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, from which they derive their name. Both are early Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European family, its immediate ancestor was the Proto-Iranian language, a sister language to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, with both having developed from the earlier Proto-Indo-Iranian. As such, Old Avestan is quite close in grammar and lexicon with Vedic Sanskrit, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan language; the Avestan text corpus was composed in ancient Arachosia, Aria and Margiana, corresponding to the entirety of present-day Afghanistan, parts of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The Yaz culture of Bactria-Margiana has been regarded as a archaeological reflection of the early "Eastern Iranian" culture described in the Avesta. Avestan's status as a sacred language has ensured its continuing use for new compositions long after the language ceased to be a living language.
"Avestan, associated with northeastern Iran, Old Persian, which belongs to the southwest, together constitute what is called Old Iranian." Scholars traditionally classify Iranian languages as "old", "middle" and "new" according to their age, as "eastern" or "western" according to geography, within this framework Avestan is classified as Eastern Old Iranian. But the east-west distinction is of limited meaning for Avestan, as the linguistic developments that distinguish Eastern from Western Iranian had not yet occurred. Avestan does not display some typical Western Iranian innovations visible in Old Persian, so in this sense, "eastern" only means "non-western". Old Avestan is related to Old Persian and agrees morphologically with Vedic Sanskrit; the old ancestor dialect of Pashto was close to the language of the Gathas. The Avestan language is attested in two forms, known as "Old Avestan" and "Younger Avestan". Younger Avestan did not evolve from Old Avestan; every Avestan text, regardless of whether composed in Old or Younger Avestan, underwent several transformations.
Karl Hoffmann traced the following stages for Avestan. In chronological order: The natural language of the composers of the Gathas, the Yasna Haptanghaiti, the four sacred prayers. Changes precipitated by slow chanting Changes to Old Avestan due to transmission by native speakers of Younger Avestan The natural language of the scribes who wrote grammatically correct Younger Avestan texts Deliberate changes introduced through "standardization" Changes introduced by transfer to regions where Avestan was not spoken Adaptions/translations of portions of texts from other regions Composition of ungrammatical late Avestan texts Phonetic notation of the Avestan texts in the Sasanian archetype Post-Sasanian deterioration of the written transmission due to incorrect pronunciation Errors and corruptions introduced during copyingMany phonetic features cannot be ascribed with certainty to a particular stage since there may be more than one possibility; every phonetic form that can be ascribed to the Sasanian archetype on the basis of critical assessment of the manuscript evidence must have gone through the stages mentioned above so that "Old Avestan" and "Young Avestan" mean no more than "Old Avestan and Young Avestan of the Sasanian period."
The script used for writing Avestan developed during the 3rd or 4th century AD. By the language had been extinct for many centuries, remained in use only as a liturgical language of the Avesta canon; as is still the case today, the liturgies were recited by rote. The script devised to render Avestan was natively known as Din dabireh "religion writing", it is written right-to-left. Among the 53 characters are about 30 letters that are – through the addition of various loops and flourishes – variations of the 13 graphemes of the cursive Pahlavi script, known from the post-Sassanian texts of Zoroastrian tradition; these symbols, like those of all the Pahlavi scripts, are in turn based on Aramaic script symbols. Avestan incorporates several letters from other writing systems, most notably the vowels, which are derived from Greek minuscules. A few letters were free inventions, as were the symbols used for punctuation; the Avestan alphabet has one letter that has no corresponding sound in the Avestan language.
The Avestan script is alphabetic, the large number of letters suggests that its design was due to the need to render the orally recited texts with high phonetic precision. The correct enunciation of the liturgies was considered necessary for the prayers to be effective; the Zoroastrians of India, who represent one of the largest surviving Zoroastrian communities worldwide transcribe Avestan in Brahmi-based scripts. This is a recent development first seen in the ca. 12th century texts of Neryosang Dhaval and other Parsi Sanskritist theologians of that era, which are contemporary with the oldest surviving manuscripts in Avestan script. Today, Avestan is most typeset in the Gujarati script; some Avestan letters with no corresponding symbol are synthesized with additional diacritical marks, for example, the /z/ in zaraϑuštra is written with j with a dot below. Aves
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of, located in Turkey; the Caucasus region is separated into northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus, respectively. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia and the recognised Artsakh Republic; the region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The term Caucasus is not only used for the mountains themselves but includes Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia. According to Alexander Mikaberidze, Transcaucasia is a "Russo-centric" term. Pliny the Elder's Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis. German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means "ice". In the Tale of Past Years, it is stated that Old East Slavic Кавкасийскыѣ горы came from Ancient Greek Καύκασος ), according to M. A. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the Ancient Greek word Καύκασος is connected to Gothic Hauhs as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas and Kaukarà. British linguist Adrian Room points out that Kau- means "mountain" in Pelasgian; the Transcaucasus region and Dagestan were the furthest points of Parthian and Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus range impregnable. The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region.
In Middle Persian sources of the Sasanian era, the Caucasus range was referred to as Kaf Kof. The term resurfaced in Iranian tradition on in a variant form when Ferdowsi, in his Shahnameh, referred to the Caucasus mountains as Kōh-i Kāf. "Most of the modern names of the Caucasus originate from the Greek Kaukasos and the Middle Persian Kaf Kof"."The earliest etymon" of the name Caucasus comes from Kaz-kaz, the Hittite designation of the "inhabitants of the southern coast of the Black Sea". It was noted that in Nakh Ков гас means "gateway to steppe" The modern name for the region is similar in the many languages, is between Kavkaz and Kawkaz; the North Caucasus region is known as the Ciscaucasus, whereas the South Caucasus region is known as the Transcaucasus. The Ciscaucasus contains most of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, it consists of Southern Russia the North Caucasian Federal District's autonomous republics, the northernmost parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Ciscaucasus lies between the Black Sea to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, borders the Southern Federal District to its north.
The two Federal Districts are collectively referred to as "Southern Russia." The Transcaucasus borders the Greater Caucasus range and Southern Russia to its north, the Black Sea and Turkey to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, Iran to its south. It contains surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia and Georgia are in the South Caucasus; the watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus located in western Ciscaucasus, is considered as the highest point in Europe; the Caucasus is one of the culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation; the Russian divisions include Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order. Three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful entities: Artsakh and South Ossetia.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognized by the world community as part of Georgia, Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. The region has language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. No fewer than three language families are unique to the area. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani, Kumyk language and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus; the peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians. Twelver Shi'