Crazy Horse was a Lakota war leader of the Oglala band in the 19th century. He took up arms against the United States federal government to fight against encroachment by white American settlers on Native American territory and to preserve the traditional way of life of the Lakota people, his participation in several famous battles of the Black Hills War on the northern Great Plains, among them the Fetterman Fight in 1866 in which he acted as a decoy and the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876 in which he led a war party to victory, earned him great respect from both his enemies and his own people. In September 1877, four months after surrendering to U. S. troops under General George Crook, Crazy Horse was fatally wounded by a bayonet-wielding military guard while resisting imprisonment at Camp Robinson in present-day Nebraska. He ranks among the most notable and iconic of Native American warriors and was honored by the U. S. Postal Service in 1982 with a 13¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.
Sources differ on the precise year of Crazy Horse's birth, but most agree he was born between 1840 and 1845. According to Šúŋka Bloká, he and Crazy Horse "were both born in the same year at the same season of the year," which census records and other interviews place in 1842. Ptehé Wóptuȟ’a, an Oglala medicine man and spiritual adviser to Crazy Horse, reported that Crazy Horse was born "in the year in which the band to which he belonged, the Oglala, stole One Hundred Horses, in the fall of the year," a reference to the annual Lakota calendar or winter count. Among the Oglala winter counts, the stealing of 100 horses is noted by Cloud Shield, by American Horse and Red Horse owner, as equivalent to the year 1840–41. Oral history accounts from relatives on the Cheyenne River Reservation place his birth in the spring of 1840. On the evening of his son's death, the elder Crazy Horse told Lieutenant H. R. Lemly that the year of birth was 1840. Crazy Horse was born to parents from two bands of the Lakota division of the Sioux, his father being an Oglala and his mother a Miniconjou.
His father, born in 1810, was named Tȟašúŋke Witkó. Crazy Horse was named Čháŋ Óhaŋ at birth, his mother, Tȟašína Ȟlaȟlá Wiŋ, gave him the nickname Pȟehíŋ Yuȟáȟa or Žiží as his light curly hair resembled her own. She died. One account said that after the son had reached maturity and shown his strength, his father gave him his name and took a new one, Waglúla. Another version of how the younger Crazy Horse acquired his name is that he took it after going through the haŋbléčheya ceremony. Crazy Horse's cousin was Maȟpíya Ičáȟtagya, he was with him when he died. Rattling Blanket Woman was the daughter of White Cow, her older siblings were Good Looking Woman. Her younger sister was named Looks At It given the name They Are Afraid of Her; the historian George Hyde wrote that Rattling Blanket Woman was Miniconjou and the sister of Spotted Tail, who became a Brulé head chief. In the summer of 1844, Waglúla went on a buffalo hunt, he came across a Miniconjou Lakota village under attack by Crow warriors. He rescued it.
Corn, the head man of the village, had lost his wife in the raid. In gratitude he gave Waglula his two eldest daughters as wives: Iron Between Horns and Kills Enemy. Corn's youngest daughter, Red Leggins, 15 at the time, requested to go with her sisters. According to Frederick Hoxie's Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Crazy Horse was the third in his male line to bear the name of Crazy Horse; the love of his life was Tȟatȟáŋkasápawiŋ, whom he courted, but she married another man named Mní Níča. At one point, Crazy Horse persuaded Black Buffalo Woman to run away with him. No Water ran after his wife; when he found her with Crazy Horse, he fired at him, injuring him in the face and leaving a noticeable scar. Crazy Horse was married two times, first to second to Nellie Larrabee. Nellie Larrabee was given the task of spying on Crazy Horse for the military, so the marriage is suspect. Only Black Shawl bore him any children, a daughter named Kȟokípȟapiwiŋ. Crazy Horse lived in a Lakota camp in present-day Wyoming with his younger half-brother, Little Hawk, son of Iron Between Horns and Waglula.
Little Hawk was the nephew of his maternal step-grandfather, Long Face, a cousin, High Horse. In 1854, the camp was entered by Lieutenant John Lawrence Grattan and 29 other U. S. troopers. The cow had wandered into the camp, after a short time someone butchered it and passed the meat out among the people; when the soldiers fatally shot Chief Conquering Bear, the Lakota returned fire, killing all 30 soldiers and a civilian interpreter in what was called the Grattan massacre. After witnessing the death of Conquering Bear at the Grattan massacre, Crazy Horse began to get trance visions. Curly went out on a vision quest to seek guidance but without going through the traditional procedures first. In his vision, a warrior on his horse rode out of a lake and the horse seemed to float and dance throughout the vision, he wore simple clothing, no face paint, his ha
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
The Sioux known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects; the modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota. The Santee Dakota reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas and northern Iowa; the Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota, collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota; the actual Nakota are the Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota called Teton, are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Montana in the United States; the Sioux people refer to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, meaning "Seven Council Fires").
Each fire is a symbol of an oyate. Today the seven nations that comprise the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ are the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute, Sisíthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ and Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, they are referred to as the Lakota or Dakota as based upon dialect differences. In any of the dialects, Lakota or Dakota translates to mean "friend" or "ally" referring to the alliances between the bands; the name "Sioux" was adopted in English by the 1760s from French. It is abbreviated from Nadouessioux, first attested by Jean Nicolet in 1640; the name is sometimes said to be derived from an Ojibwe exonym for the Sioux meaning "little snakes". The spelling in -x is due to the French plural marker; the Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake. An alternative explanation is derivation from an exonym na·towe·ssiw, from a verb *-a·towe· meaning "to speak a foreign language"; the current Ojibwe term for the Sioux and related groups is Bwaanag, meaning "roasters".
This refers to the style of cooking the Sioux used in the past. In recent times, some of the tribes have formally or informally reclaimed traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, the Oglala use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST; the alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper. The Sioux comprise three related language groups: Eastern Dakota Santee Sisseton Western Dakota Yankton Yanktonai Lakota The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai. However, the latest studies show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name the same as the Santee; these studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Western Dakota and Eastern Dakota.
Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóda. The term Dakota has been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc; this was because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived. The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, further branched into bands; the earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota and Wisconsin. After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country; the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota and Montana in the United States. Today, many Sioux live outside their reservations.
The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeastern United States, first into Ohio to Minnesota. Some came up from area of South Carolina; the Santee River was named after them, some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting and farming. Migrations of Ojibwe from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward; the US gave the name "Dakota Territory"
The Oglala are one of the seven subtribes of the Lakota people who, along with the Dakota, make up the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ. A majority of the Oglala live on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, the eighth-largest Native American reservation in the United States; the Oglala are a federally recognized tribe. However, many Oglala reject the term "Sioux" due to the hypothesis that its origin may be a derogatory word meaning "snake" in the language of the Ojibwe, who were among the historical enemies of the Lakota, they are known as Oglala Lakota. Oglala elders relate stories about the origin of the name "Oglala" and their emergence as a distinct group sometime in the 18th century. In the early 1800s, Europeans passed through Lakota territory in greater numbers, they sought furs beaver fur at first, buffalo fur. The trade in fur changed the Oglala way of life. 1868 brought the Fort Laramie Treaty, in its wake the Oglala became polarized over this question: How should they react to continued American encroachment on their territory?
This treaty forfeited large amounts of Oglala territory to the United States in exchange for food and other necessities. Some bands turned to the Indian agencies—forerunners to the Indian reservations—where they received beef and other rations from the US government. Other bands held fast to traditional ways of life. Many bands moved between these two extremes, coming in to the agencies during the winter and joining their relatives in the north each spring; these challenges further split the various Oglala bands. The Great Sioux Reservation was broken up into five portions; this caused the Red Cloud Agency to be moved multiple times throughout the 1870s until it was relocated and renamed the Pine Ridge Reservation in 1878. By 1890, the reservation included 5,537 people, divided into a number of districts that included some 30 distinct communities; the respected Oglala elder Left Heron once explained that before the coming of the White Buffalo Calf Woman, "the people ran around the prairie like so many wild animals," not understanding the central importance of community.
Left Heron emphasized that not only did this revered spirit woman bring the Sacred Pipe to the tribe but she taught the Lakota people many valuable lessons, including the importance of family and community. The goal of promoting these two values became a priority, in the words of Dakota anthropologist Ella Cara Deloria, "every other consideration was secondary — property, personal ambition, good times, life itself. Without that aim and the constant struggle to attain it, the people would no longer be Dakotas in truth, they would no longer be human." This strong and enduring connection between related families profoundly influenced Oglala history. Dr. John J. Saville, the U. S. Indian agent at the Red Cloud Agency, observed in 1875 that the Oglala tribe was divided into three main groups: the Kiyuksa, the Oyuĥpe and the True Oglala. "Each of these bands are subdivided into smaller parties, variously named designated by the name of their chief or leader." As the Oglala were settled on the Pine Ridge Reservation in the late 1870s, their communities looked something like this: Oyuȟpe Tiyošpaye True Oyuȟpe.
Other members include: Black Elk Wakaŋ Makaicu Oglala Tiyośpaye True Oglala Caŋkahuȟaŋ. Other members include: Short Bull. Hokayuta Huŋkpatila Iteśica Payabya Wagluȟe Kiyaksa Tiyošpaye True Kiyaksa Kuinyan Tapišleca By 1830, the Oglala had around 3,000 members. In the 1820s and 1830s, the Oglala, along with the Brulé, another Lakota band, three other Sioux bands, formed the Sioux Alliance; this Alliance attacked surrounding tribes for hunting reasons. Women have been critical to the family's life: making everything used by the family and tribe, they have processed a variety of crops. Women have controlled the food and movable property, as well as owned the family's home. In the Oglala Lakota society, the men are in charge of the politics of the tribe; the men are the chiefs for political affairs, war leaders and warriors, hunters. Traditionally, when a man marries, he goes to live with his wife with her people. First used in 1961, this flag was approved by the Oglala Sioux Triba OST Council on March 9, 1962, as the flag of the Oglala Sioux Tribe.
The circle of eight teepees on the flag represent the nine districts of the reservation: Porcupine, Medicine Root, Pass Creek, Eagle Nest, White Clay, LaCreek, Wounded Knee, Pine Ridge. The red field represents the blood shed by the tribe in defense of their lands and an allegorical reference to the term "red man," by which they were referred to by European Americans; the blue represents the sky, as seen in all four cardinal directions during the worship of the Great Spirit, the elements. It represents the Lakota spiritual concept of heaven or "the Spirit World" to which departed tribal members go. American Horse American Horse Bryan Brewer Crazy Horse Crow Dog (Ka
Eastern Continental Divide
The Eastern Continental Divide or Eastern Divide or Appalachian Divide is a hydrographic divide in eastern North America that separates the easterly Atlantic Seaboard watershed from the westerly Gulf of Mexico watershed. The divide nearly spans the United States from south of Lake Ontario through the Florida peninsula, consists of raised terrain including the Appalachian Mountains to the north, the southern Piedmont Plateau and lowland ridges in the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the south. Water including rainfall and snowfall, lakes and rivers on the eastern/southern side of the divide drains to the Atlantic Ocean; the ECD is one of six continental hydrographic divides of North America which define several drainage basins, each of which drains to a particular body of water. The divide originates at the Eastern Triple Divide near the middle of the northern border of Pennsylvania runs south-by-southwest following the crest of the Appalachian Mountains through Pennsylvania, western Maryland, West Virginia and North Carolina to its high point on Grandfather Mountain descends to the city of Atlanta in northwestern Georgia, where it doglegs southeasterly across the Georgia plateau and through the lowlands of Northern Florida to its terminus in central Florida at the northern boundary of the Lake Okeechobee Basin.
Though the divide is associated with high elevation, at its southern terminus at the northern Kissimmee River watershed in Florida, the elevation is only 70ft. Above sea level. Nor does the divide always coincide with the highest point or ridgeline, because streams can flow through passes or gaps in the ridge, so that terrain on one side of the ridge drains to the other side and therefore to the other watershed; this occurs in several places. The ECD is not fixed, but can shift due to erosion, tectonic shift and anthropogenic activity such as tunnel excavation, damming of rivers and road construction. In colonial times, except for Spanish Florida, the ECD served as the boundary between English colonies on the Atlantic seaboard and Indian lands to the interior; the Eastern Continental Divide originates in the north at the Eastern Triple Divide on the summit named'Triple Divide Peak' 10.4 mi south of the New York-Pennsylvania line about 5 mi. southwest of the borough of Ulysses in Potter County, Pennsylvania.
That summit is the northernmost peak of three atop a broad plateau, farmland. From there, the ECD runs south-southwest through the two nearby southern summits southwesterly along the Allegheny Plateau west of the Allegheny Front until it plunges south along the Appalachians barrier ridge. Mount Mitchell State Park in North Carolina is the highest point on the ECD at 6,366 ft; as the altitude of the peaks diminishes across the swampy Georgia plateau the divide meanders into the low country of Northern Florida until it reaches central Florida, ending at the north bank watershed of the Kissimmee River. While notionally, the ECD may be considered to extend to the southern tip of Florida, south of Lake Okeechobee the everglades, which spans the length and breadth of the peninsula, is a seasonal swamp which drains into the lake. During the wet season, overflow from the lake forms an unchanneled "river" 100 miles long and 60 miles wide that flows south to Florida Bay which ostensibly drains into the Gulf of Mexico, but due to mud dykes, little exchange of water occurs.
So hydrographically, the only divide in southern Florida is between the lake and the ocean or Gulf, that divide is coincident with the boundary between land and sea. Because the divide represents the highest terrain, air is forced upwards regardless of wind direction; this process of orographic enhancement leads to higher precipitation than surrounding areas. In winter, the divide is much snowier than surrounding areas, due to orographic enhancement and cooler temperatures with elevation; some locations in North Carolina average up to 100 inches of snow a year, up to 175 inches a year falls in parts of West Virginia. Prior to about 1760, north of Spanish Florida, the Appalachian Divide represented the boundary between British and French colonial possessions in North America; the Royal Proclamation of 1763 separated settled lands of the Thirteen Colonies from lands north and west of it designated the Indian Reserve. Divides Continental Divide of the Americas Laurentian Divide Saint Lawrence River Divide Great Basin Divide Arctic DivideTriple points Eastern Triple Divide
Major Israel McCreight
Major Israel McCreight is notable in American history as a Progressive Era banker and expert on Native American culture and policy. McCreight was a founder of the Pennsylvania Conservation Association, authored President Theodore Roosevelt's conservation policy on public education and Cook Forest State Park, the first Pennsylvania State Park acquired to preserve a natural landmark. McCreight dedicated his life to public education about Native American culture and was a nominee for U. S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. McCreight's relationship with the Lakota people began as a young man in the Dakota Territory in 1885 when he lived with them during a period of great sorrow, he returned to Du Bois, became a successful banker, led the region into prominence as the biggest bituminous coal producers in the United States between 1890 and World War I. McCreight collaborated with Flying Hawk, an Oglala Lakota Chief, to write a Native American's view of U. S. history and classic accounts of the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Crazy Horse and commentaries on Native American philosophy.
The Wigwam, McCreight's home in Du Bois, was a Native American heritage center and once the Eastern home of Oglala Lakota "Oskate Wicasa" Wild Westers. McCreight was a founder of the Pennsylvania Banker's Association and member of the Pennsylvania Society of New York. McCreight was an ardent student of the Indian, a lover of fair play and an author of books and articles. Major Israel McCreight was born April 17, 1865, on a farm in Paradise, Winslow Township, Jefferson County and raised with siblings by pioneer parents John Winslow McCreight and Eliza Uncapher McCreight; the name "Major" was a nickname given to Israel as a child and he preferred to be called "Maj", "Maje" or "MI." At age 16, McCreight attended Eastman Business College in Poughkeepsie, New York, to learn accounting and banking. After graduation, he returned to Du Bois and entered the banking profession as a night clerk and assistant cashier. In 1885, the twenty-year-old McCreight, seeking adventure, took the Northern Pacific Railway to its farthest point west, Devils Lake, Dakota Territory.
McCreight's two years in the Dakota Territory were filled with classic Wild West adventures. He was hired by a livestock business supplying food to local Indian tribes and the U. S. Army garrison at North Dakota. At Fort Totten, McCreight met with Indians trading buffalo bones to be sold as fertilizer in the lucrative St. Louis market. McCreight began his lifelong kinship with Native Americans in Devils Lake; the first people to meet and greet him as he stepped down from the platform of the train were a small band of Sioux. They were a fine healthy lot. Half in fright and with a puzzled hand-shake, the boy made his way toward what seemed to be the white man's town, he passed by a large pile of bones, wondered what it meant. It was not many days until he was informed, for soon he found himself in full charge of the business of buying and shipping buffalo bones including the pile which had so aroused his curiosity on arrival in the far west, it was the last year for the buffalo. Indians had killed his great-grandfather and carried on a war of extermination against his forebears in Pennsylvania in the old days.
That kindly greeting by the old Sioux Chief dispelled much of the prejudice that had filled his heart through childhood, soon the youth began to think that Indians were not such terrible folks as Eastern people believed they were. Known as the "Indian Man" because of his friendships, McCreight prevented a confrontation between the 7th Cavalry Regiment and aggrieved Ojibwe from Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. In 1885, a band of 100–150 of Chief Little Shell's Ojibwe warriors left the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation and came to Devils Lake on a Sunday morning before day break while the town was sleeping; the Ojibwe were in a serious dispute with the U. S. government and were angry because white settlers were breaking treaties, stealing Indian timber and killing Indian game. They came to Devils Lake to protest, threatening the settlers. McCreight was the "Indian Man" in Devils Lake, his roommate doctor woke him before sunrise saying: "Get up quick, the Indians are out there. McCreight understood their anger and frustration.
He went to the Ojibwe camp, parleyed with Little Shell and persuaded the natives to return to Turtle Mountain. McCreight reported, It was all over before the town folks stirred about after their late Sunday morning breakfast. McCreight worked for James J. Hill the legendary " Empire Builder" of the Great Northern Railway. Hill's vision