The Vilnia is a river in Lithuania. Its source is near the village of Vindžiūnai, 5 km south of Šumskas, at the Lithuanian-Belarusian border; the Vilnia is 79.6 km long and its basin covers 624 sq. km. For 13 km its flow makes the Belarus-Lithuania border, the remaining 69 km are in Lithuania until it flows into the Neris River at Vilnius, its waters, via the Neris's drainage into the Neman River, flow into the Baltic Sea. Its confluence with the Neris lies within the city of Vilnius, the river's name was the source of the city's name. Springs along its length contribute to its flow. A series of wells accessing the river's groundwaters, drilled in the early 20th century, remained a major supply of potable water in the city into the late 20th century; the name of the river derives from the Lithuanian language word vilnyti. Vilnelė, the diminutive form of the original hydronym Vilnia, came into popular use in Lithuanian and replaced the latter. In an effort to restore the upstream migration of salmonids in the basin, a fish ladder was constructed on the Vilnia in 2000
Gediminas was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death. He is credited with founding this political entity and expanding its territory which, at the time of his death, spanned the area ranging from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. Seen as one of the most significant individuals in early Lithuanian history, he was responsible for both building Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, establishing a dynasty that came to rule other European countries such as Poland and Bohemia; as part of his legacy, he gained a reputation for being a champion of paganism, who diverted attempts to Christianize his country by skillful negotiations with the Pope and other Christian rulers. Gediminas was born in about 1275; because written sources of the era are scarce, Gediminas' ancestry, early life, assumption of the title of Grand Duke in ca. 1316 are obscure and continue to be the subject of scholarly debate. Various theories have claimed that Gediminas was either his predecessor Grand Duke Vytenis' son, his brother, his cousin, or his hostler.
For several centuries only two versions of his origins circulated. Chronicles — written long after Gediminas' death by the Teutonic Knights, a long-standing enemy of Lithuania — claimed that Gediminas was a hostler to Vytenis. Another version introduced in the Lithuanian Chronicles, which appeared long after Gediminas' death, proclaimed that Gediminas was Vytenis' son. However, the two men were the same age, making this relationship unlikely. Recent research indicates. In 1974 historian Jerzy Ochmański noted that Zadonshchina, a poem from the end of the 14th century, contains a line in which two sons of Algirdas name their ancestors: "We are two brothers – sons of Algirdas, grandsons of Gediminas, great-grandsons of Skalmantas." This discovery led to the belief. Ochmański posited that the poem skipped the generation represented by Butvydas, jumped back to the unknown ancestor. Baranauskas disagrees, believing Skalmantas was Butvydas' brother rather than his father, that Vytenis and Gediminas were therefore cousins.
Gediminas ruled for 25 years. He inherited a vast domain, comprising not only Lithuania proper, but Samogitia, Podlasie and Minsk. However, these possessions were all environed by the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order, which had long been the enemies of the state. Gediminas allied himself with the Tatars against the Teutonic order in 1319; the systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes, but Gediminas aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not secure but powerful, for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See as well. At the end of 1322, he sent letters to Pope John XXII soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges granted to the Dominicans and Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word. Gediminas asked that legates should be dispatched to him in order to be baptized; this action was supported by the Archbishop of Frederic Lobestat.
Following these events, peace between the Duchy and the Livonian order was conducted on 2 October 1323. On receiving a favourable reply from the Holy See, Gediminas issued circular letters, dated 25 January 1325, to the principal Hansa towns, offering a free access into his domains to men of every order and profession from nobles and knights to tillers of the soil; the immigrants were to be governed by their own laws. Priests and monks were invited to come and build churches at Vilnius and Navahradak. In October 1323, representatives of the archbishop of Riga, the bishop of Dorpat, the king of Denmark, the Dominican and Franciscan orders, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order assembled at Vilnius, when Gediminas confirmed his promises and undertook to be baptised as soon as the papal legates arrived. A compact was signed at Vilnius, in the name of the whole Christian World, between Gediminas and the delegates, confirming the promised privileges, thus his raid upon Dobrzyń, the latest acquisition of the knights on Polish soil, speedily gave them a ready weapon against him.
The Prussian bishops, who were devoted to the knights, questioned the authority of Gediminas' letters and denounced him as an enemy of the faith at a synod in Elbing. Gediminas disentangled himself from his difficulties by repudiating his former promises; these retrogressive measures amounted to a statesmanlike recognition of the fact that the pagan element was still the strongest force in Lithuania, could not yet be dispensed with in the coming struggle for nationality. At the same time Gediminas informed the papal legates at Riga through his ambassadors that his difficult position compelled him to postpone his steadfast resolve of being baptised, the legates showed their confidence in him by forbidding the neighbouring states to war against Lithuania for the next four years, besides ratifying the treaty made between Gediminas and the archbishop of Riga. Disregarding the censures of the church, the Order resumed the war with Gediminas by murdering one of his de
Mechanised Infantry Brigade Iron Wolf
Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Iron Wolf" is the core unit of the Lithuanian Army and forms the country's contribution to NATO collective defence. The name of the brigade relates to the Lithuanian mythical character from the medieval foundation legend of the Vilnius city. MIB "Iron Wolf" main mission is to maintain required capabilities as stated in national defense guide in order to defend Republic of Lithuania sovereignty, its territorial integrity, participate in NATO and international peace support operations and conduct brigade staff and units training, main effort preparation for peace support operations in accordance with international commitments. Main Tasks: Plan and conduct the tasks related to military operations. MIB "Iron Wolf" is the largest unit of land forces of the Lithuania Armed Forces, consists of the command, its elements and six battalions stationed across Lithuania and named after Lithuanian Great Dukes as the tradition of the Lithuanian Armed Forces goes: The King Mindaugas Mechanized Hussar Battalion, stationed in Panevėžys.
The General Romualdas Giedraitis artillery battalion, stationed in Rukla. The unit originated in June 1990. Same year, in autumn, the Honors Guards Company was created. January 13, 1991 – both the Defence Squad and the Honors Guard Company defend the Lithuania's parliament building, the Hall of Press, the Ministers' Council building, the Vilnius TV tower, other buildings during the January Events. Brigade's subunits, stationed in various parts of Lithuania, are considered equal to battalions. Col. Česlovas Jezerskas Col. Jonas Vytautas Žukas Col. Vitalijus Vaikšnoras Col. Gediminas Jurgutis Col. Darius Užkuraitis Col. Vilmantas Tamošaitis Col. Valdemaras Rupšys Col. Raimundas Vaikšnoras Col. Mindaugas Steponavičius The soldiers of the brigade participate in exercises of various levels as in Lithuania as in abroad as well. In addition, they are conducting peacekeeping operations in Afghanistan and stand by period in NATO Response Force and Battlegroup of the European Union; the Brigade takes part in joint projects, international operations, wargames together with other countries' military units.
Among those are the British Armed Forces, the Army of Denmark, the Army of the Czech Republic, the United States Military and Germany. ARTBALT, a joint project with Denmark to c
The European bison known as wisent or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison. It is one of two extant species of bison, alongside the American bison. Three subspecies existed in the recent past. Analysis of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear DNA revealed that the wisent is theoretically the result of hybridization between the extinct Steppe bison and the ancestors of the aurochs since their genetic material contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry. Alternatively, the Pleistocene woodland bison has been suggested as the ancestor to the species. European bison were hunted to extinction in the wild in the early 20th century, with the last wild animals of the B. b. bonasus subspecies being shot in the Białowieża Forest in 1921, the last of B. b. caucasus in the northwestern Caucasus in 1927. B. b. hungarorum was hunted to extinction in the mid-1800s. The Białowieża or lowland European bison was kept alive in captivity, has since been reintroduced into several countries in Europe.
They are now forest-dwelling. The species has had few recent predators besides humans, with only scattered reports from the 19th century of wolf and bear predation. European bison were first scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758; some descriptions treat the European bison as conspecific with the American bison. It is not to be confused with the extinct ancestor of domestic cattle. In 1996, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified the European bison as an endangered species, its status has since been changed to being a vulnerable species. In the past during the Middle Ages, it was killed for its hide and to produce drinking horns; the European bison is the national animal of Belarus. The modern English word wisent was borrowed in the 19th century from modern German Wisent, itself from Old High German wisunt, related to Old English wesend and Old Norse vísundr; the Old English cognate disappeared as the bison's range shrank away from English-speaking areas by the Late Middle Ages.
The English word bison was borrowed around 1611 from Latin bisōn, itself from Germanic. The root *wis- found in weasel referred to the animal's musk; the word bonasus was first mentioned by Aristotle in the 4th century BC when he described the animal, calling it βόνασος in Greek. He noted that the Paeonians called it μόναπος; the European bison is the heaviest surviving wild land animal in Europe. At birth, calves are quite small, weighing between 35 kg. In the free-ranging population of the Białowieża Forest of Belarus and Poland, body masses among adults are 634 kg on average in the cases of males, with a range of 400 to 920 kg, of 424 kg among females, with a range of 300 to 540 kg. An occasional big bull European bison can weigh up to 1,000 kg or more with a record of 1,900 kg. On average, it is lighter in body mass and yet taller at the shoulder than the plains bison. Compared to the American species, the wisent has shorter hair on the neck and forequarters, but longer tail and horns; the lowland European bison's range encompassed most of the lowlands of northern Europe, extending from the Massif Central to the Volga River and the Caucasus.
It may have once lived in the Asiatic part of. The European bison is known in southern Sweden only between 9500 and 8700 BP, in Denmark is documented only from the Pre-Boreal, it is not recorded from the British Isles nor from the Iberian Peninsula. A possible ancestor, the extinct steppe bison, B. priscus, is known from across Eurasia and North America, last occurring 7,000 BC, is depicted in the Cave of Altamira and Lascaux. Another possible ancestor, the Pleistocene woodland bison, B. schoetensaki, was last present 36,000 BC. Cave paintings appear to distinguish between B. priscus. Within mainland Europe, its range decreased as human populations cut down forests; the last references to the animal in the transitional Mediterranean/Continental biogeographical region in the Balkans in the area of modern borderline between Greece, North Macedonia and Bulgaria date to the 3rd century AD. Its population in Gaul was extinct in the 8th century AD; the species survived in the Vosges Mountains until the 15th century.
In the Early Middle Ages, the wisent still occurred in the forest steppes east of the Urals, in the Altay Mountains, seems to have reached Lake Baikal in the east. The northern boundary in the Holocene was around 60°N in Finland. European bison survived in a few natural forests in Europe; the last European bison in Transylvania died in 1790. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, European bison in the Białowieża Forest were the property of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania until the third partition of Poland. Wild European bison herds existed in the forest until the mid-17th century. Polish kings took measures to protect the bison. King Sigismund II Augustus instituted the death penalty for poaching a European bison in Białowieża in the mid-16th century. In the early 19th century, after partitions of Poland and Lithuania Russian czars retained ol
Lithuania the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people; the official language, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and by Nazi Germany; as World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania. Lithuania is a developed country, it is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries; the United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very high human development" country.
The first known record of the name of Lithuania is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle. The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions. Since Lietuva has a suffix, the original word should have no suffix. A candidate is Lietā; because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym. Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is credited as the source of the name. However, the river is small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such a naming is not unprecedented in world history.
Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis. From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself; the word leičiai is used in the 14–16th-century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians and is still used poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, related to Lithuanian. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda and Narva cultures, they did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, forests developed; the inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in local hunting and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, but they did maintain trade contacts. Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were Balts, around the year 97 AD; the Western Balts became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians and Semigallians; the Lithuanian language is considered to be conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most related existing language, around the 7th century. Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology, with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity: the descriptions of the cremation ceremonies of the grand d
Lithuanian mythology is the mythology of Lithuanian polytheism, the religion of pre-Christian Lithuanians. Like other Indo-Europeans, ancient Lithuanians maintained a polytheistic mythology and religious structure. In pre-Christian Lithuania, mythology was a part of polytheistic religion. Lithuanian mythology is close to the mythology of other Baltic nations and tribes and is being considered a part of the Baltic mythology; the first bits about Baltic religion were written down by Tacitus. In the 9th century there is one attestation about Prussian funeral traditions by Wulfstan. Surviving information about Baltic paganism in general is fragmented; as with most ancient Indo-European cultures, the original primary mode of transmission of seminal information such as myths and customs was oral, the then-unnecessary custom of writing being introduced during the period of the text-based culture of Christianity. Most of the early written accounts are brief and made by foreigners Christians, who disapproved of pagan traditions.
Some academics regard some texts as inaccurate misunderstandings or fabrications. In addition, many sources list many different names and different spellings, thus sometimes it is not clear if they are referring to the same thing. Lithuania became Christianized between the end of the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century, but pagan religions survived for another two centuries losing cultural influence and coherence; the last conceptions of the old religion survived until the beginning of the 19th century. The relics of the old polytheistic religion were interwoven with songs and other mythic stories, it was difficult to have a solid view about Lithuanian mythology. Another difficulty in this process is that Lithuanian mythology was not static, but developed, so that it did not remain in the same form over the longer periods treated by mythologists. Many scholars preferred to write their own reconstructions of Lithuanian mythology, based on historical and ethnographic data; the first such reconstruction was written by the Polish-speaking Lithuanian historian Theodor Narbutt at the beginning of the 19th century.
Two well-known attempts at reconstruction have been attempted more by Marija Gimbutas and Algirdas Julien Greimas. The most modern academics exploring Lithuanian mythology in the second half of the 20th century were Norbertas Vėlius and Gintaras Beresnevičius. Lithuanian mythology is closest to Latvian mythology, according to the prevalent point of view, Lithuanians shared the same myths and basic features of their religion with the Old Prussians. On the other hand, individual elements have much in common with other mythological systems, with those of neighbouring cultures. There is a Finnic Mordvin/Erza thunder god named Pur’ginepaz which in folklore has themes resembling Lithuanian Perkunas. " Sparks fly from the cartwheels and the hooves of fiery-red horses of Pur’ginepaz, the Erza thunder god, when he drives across the sky ". In several mythical songs the thunder god Pur’ginepaz marries an earthly girl Litova These closely resemble the Vedic Parjanya. Pre-Christian mythology is known through speculation and reconstruction, although the existence of some mythological elements, known from sources, has been confirmed by archaeological findings.
It is reflected in folk tales, such as Jūratė and Kastytis, Eglė the Queen of Serpents and the Myth of Sovijus. The next period of Lithuanian mythology started in the 15th century, lasted till the middle of the 17th century; the myths of this period are heroic, concerning the founding of the state of Lithuania. Two the best known stories are those of the dream of the Grand Duke Gediminas and the founding of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, of Šventaragis' Valley, which concerns the history of Vilnius. Many stories of this kind reflect actual historical events. In general, these myths are coloured by patriotism. By the 16th century, there existed a non-unified pantheon; the third period began with the growing influence of Christianity and the activity of the Jesuits since the end of the 16th century. The earlier confrontational approach to the pre-Christian Lithuanian heritage among common people was abandoned, attempts were made to use popular beliefs in missionary activities; this led to the inclusion of Christian elements in mythic stories.
The last period of Lithuanian mythology began in the 19th century, when the importance of the old cultural heritage was admitted, not only by the upper classes, but by the nation more widely. The mythical stories of this period are reflections of the earlier myths, considered not as being true, but as the encoded experiences of the past, they concentrated on moral problems, on a heroic vision of the past, rather than on individual heroes, who often lacked proper names, being referred to as "a duke", "the ruler of the castle", etc. Stories and legends of this kind describe laws of nature and such natural processes as the change of seasons of the year, their connections with each other and with the existence of human beings. Nature is described
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. The state was founded by one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija; the Grand Duchy expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus' and other Slavic lands, including what is now Belarus and parts of Ukraine and Russia. At its greatest extent, in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe, it was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state, with great diversity in languages and cultural heritage. Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century. Mindaugas, the first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania in 1253; the pagan state was targeted in the religious crusade by the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. The multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state emerged only at the late reign of Gediminas and continued to expand under his son Algirdas.
Algirdas's successor Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo in 1386, bringing two major changes in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: conversion to Catholicism and establishment of a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The reign of Vytautas the Great marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, it marked the rise of the Lithuanian nobility. After Vytautas's death, Lithuania's relationship with the Kingdom of Poland deteriorated. Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family, attempted to break the personal union with Poland. However, unsuccessful wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow forced the union to remain intact; the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the federation, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania maintained its political distinctiveness and had separate government, laws and treasury; the federation was terminated by the passing of the Constitution of 3 May 1791, when there was supposed to be now a single country, the Commonwealth of Poland, under one monarch and one parliament.
Shortly afterward, the unitary character of the state was confirmed by adopting the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. However, the newly-reformed Commonwealth was invaded by Russia in 1792 and partitioned between the neighbours, with a truncated state remaining only nominally independent. After the Kościuszko Uprising, the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Austria in 1795; the Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania have the complete name of the state as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia. The title of "grand duchy" was applied to Lithuania from the 14th century onward. In other languages, the grand duchy is referred to as: Belarusian: Вялікае Княства Літоўскае German: Großfürstentum Litauen Estonian: Leedu Suurvürstiriik Latin: Magnus Ducatus Lituaniae Latvian: Lieitija or Lietuvas Lielkņaziste Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė Old literary Lithuanian: Didi Kunigystė Lietuvos Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie Russian: Великое княжество Литовское Ruthenian: Великое князство Литовское Ukrainian: Велике князiвство Литовське The first written reference to Lithuania is found in the Quedlinburg Chronicle, which dates from 1009.
In the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania as one of the areas attacked by the Rus'. Pagan Lithuanians paid tribute to Polotsk, but they soon grew in strength and organized their own small-scale raids. At some point between 1180 and 1183 the situation began to change, the Lithuanians started to organize sustainable military raids on the Slavic provinces, raiding the Principality of Polotsk as well as Pskov, threatening Novgorod; the sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija. The Livonian Order and Teutonic Knights, crusading military orders, were established in Riga in 1202 and in Prussia in 1226; the Christian orders posed a significant threat to pagan Baltic tribes and further galvanized the formation of the state. The peace treaty with Galicia–Volhynia of 1219 provides evidence of cooperation between Lithuanians and Samogitians; this treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes, including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija and several dukes from Žemaitija.
Although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians and the Žemaičiai now faced a common enemy. Živinbudas had the most authority and at least several dukes were from the same families. The formal acknowledgment of common interests and the establishment of a hierarchy among the signatories of the treaty foreshadowed the emergence of the state. Mindaugas, the duke of southern Lithuania, was among the five senior dukes mentioned in the treaty with Galicia–Volhynia; the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, reports that by the mid-1230s, Mindaugas had acquired supreme power in the whole of Lithuania. In 1236, the Samogitians, led by Vykintas, defeated the Livonian Order in the Battle of Saule; the Order was forced to become a branch of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, making Samogitia, a strip of land that separated Livonia from Prussia, the main target of both orders. The battle provided a break in the wars with the Knights, Lithuania exploited this situation, arranging attacks towards the Ruthenian provinces and annexing Navahrudak and Hrodna.
Belarusian historians consider that Mindаugas was invited to rule Navahrudak and that the union was peaceful. In 1248 a civil war broke out be