Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
Irn-Bru is a Scottish carbonated soft drink described as "Scotland's other national drink". It is produced in Westfield, North Lanarkshire, by A. G. Barr of Glasgow, since moving out of their Parkhead factory in the mid-2000s. In 2011, Irn Bru closed their factory in Mansfield, making the Westfield plant in Cumbernauld the main location for production. In addition to being sold throughout the United Kingdom, Barr's Irn-Bru is available throughout the world and can be purchased where there is a significant community of people from Scotland. Innovative and sometimes controversial marketing campaigns have kept it as the number one selling soft drink in Scotland, where it competes directly with global brands such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Irn-Bru is known for its bright orange colour; as of 1999 it contained 0.002% of ammonium ferric citrate, sugar, 32 flavouring agents including caffeine and quinine, two controversial colourings. On 27 January 2010, A. G. Barr agreed to a Food Standards Agency voluntary ban on these two colourings although no date was set for their replacement.
However, after lobbying by First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond, a proposed restriction of Sunset Yellow to 10 mg was eased to 20 mg in 2011 — the same amount present in Irn Bru. As of May 2017, Irn-Bru still contains these colourings; the first Iron Brew drink was produced by the Maas & Waldstein chemicals company of New York in 1889 under the name IRONBREW. The drink was popular across North America and was copied. A similar beverage was launched in 1898 by London essence firm Stevenson & Howell who supplied soft drinks manufacturers in the UK and colonies. Following this date many local bottlers around the UK began selling their own version of the beverage. Despite the official launch date for Barr's Iron Brew being given as 1901, the firms AG Barr & Co and Robert Barr jointly launched their own Iron Brew drink at least two years earlier, according to a document in the firm's own archives which indicates that the drink was enjoying strong sales by May 1899; the strongman image which Barr's adopted for their bottle labels and advertising had in fact been trademarked by the firm Stevenson & Howell in 1898.
Barr's ordered their labels directly from Stevenson & Howell who sold Barr's many of the individual flavours with which they mixed their own drinks. An advertisement for Barr's Iron Brew dated 1900 featuring the original strongman label can be found in Falkirk's Local History Archives. Barr's trademark application for the brand name Irn-Bru dates from July 1946 when the drink was still off sale because of wartime regulations; the firm first commercialised their drink using this new name in 1948 once government SDI consolidation of the soft drinks industry had ended. The name change followed the introduction of new labelling restrictions which cracked down on spurious health claims and introduced minimum standards for drinks claiming to contain minerals such as iron. However, according to Robert Barr OBE, there was a commercial rationale behind the unusual spelling. "Iron Brew" had come to be understood as a generic product category in the UK, whereas adopting the name "Irn-Bru" allowed the firm to have a protected brand identity that would enable the firm to benefit from the popularity of their wartime "Adventures of Ba-Bru" comic strip advertising.
1980 saw the introduction of Low Calorie Irn-Bru: this was re-launched in 1991 as Diet Irn-Bru and again in 2011 as Irn-Bru Sugar Free. The Irn-Bru 32 energy drink variant was launched in 2006, it has long been the most popular soft drink in Scotland, with Coca-Cola second, but competition between the two brands has brought their sales to equal levels. It is the third best selling soft drink in the UK, after Coca-Cola and Pepsi, outselling high-profile brands such as Fanta, Dr Pepper, Sprite and 7-Up; this success in defending its home market led to ongoing speculation that Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Inc. or its UK brand franchisee Britvic would attempt to buy A. G. Barr. In November 2012 AG Barr and Britvic announced a merger proposal, in July 2013 the merger collapsed when terms could not be agreed. Irn-Bru's advertising slogans used to be'Scotland's other National Drink', referring to whisky, and'Made in Scotland from girders', a reference to the rusty colour of the drink. A limited edition Irn-Bru was released in autumn 2011.
Packaged with a black and orange design, with the signature man icon with an added image of a fire, Fiery Irn-Bru, had a warm, tingly feeling in the mouth once drunk. It featured the traditional Irn-Bru flavour with an aftertaste similar to ginger. Irn-Bru was sold in reusable 750 ml glass bottles which, like other Barr's drinks, were able to be returned to the manufacturer in exchange for a 30 pence deposit paid on purchase; this scheme was available in shops across Scotland and led to the colloquial term for an empty: a "glass cheque". As a result of a 40% drop in returned bottles since the 90s Barr deemed the washing and re-filling process uneconomical, on 1 January 2016 ceased the scheme.2016 saw the introduction the current logo, conveying strength and an industrial feel, a new diet variant IRN-BRU Xtra in different branding to
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and as President from 1976 to 2008. A Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, Castro served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout society. Born in Birán, Oriente as the son of a wealthy Spanish farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist politics while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista, launching a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks in 1953. After a year's imprisonment, Castro traveled to Mexico where he formed a revolutionary group, the 26th of July Movement, with his brother Raúl Castro and Che Guevara.
Returning to Cuba, Castro took a key role in the Cuban Revolution by leading the Movement in a guerrilla war against Batista's forces from the Sierra Maestra. After Batista's overthrow in 1959, Castro assumed military and political power as Cuba's Prime Minister; the United States came to oppose Castro's government and unsuccessfully attempted to remove him by assassination, economic blockade and counter-revolution, including the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961. Countering these threats, Castro aligned with the Soviet Union and allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons in Cuba, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis – a defining incident of the Cold War – in 1962. Adopting a Marxist–Leninist model of development, Castro converted Cuba into a one-party, socialist state under Communist Party rule, the first in the Western Hemisphere. Policies introducing central economic planning and expanding healthcare and education were accompanied by state control of the press and the suppression of internal dissent.
Abroad, Castro supported anti-imperialist revolutionary groups, backing the establishment of Marxist governments in Chile and Grenada, as well as sending troops to aid allies in the Yom Kippur and Angolan Civil War. These actions, coupled with Castro's leadership of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1979 to 1983 and Cuba's medical internationalism, increased Cuba's profile on the world stage. Following the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991, Castro led Cuba through the economic downturn of the "Special Period", embracing environmentalist and anti-globalization ideas. In the 2000s, Castro forged alliances in the Latin American "pink tide" – namely with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela – and signed Cuba up to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. In 2006, Castro transferred his responsibilities to Vice President Raúl Castro, elected to the presidency by the National Assembly in 2008; the longest-serving non-royal head of state in the 20th and 21st centuries, Castro polarized world opinion. His supporters view him as a champion of socialism and anti-imperialism whose revolutionary regime advanced economic and social justice while securing Cuba's independence from American imperialism.
Critics view him as a dictator whose administration oversaw human-rights abuses, the exodus of a large number of Cubans and the impoverishment of the country's economy. Castro was decorated with various international awards and influenced different individuals and groups across the world. Castro was born out of wedlock at his father's farm on 13 August 1926, his father, Ángel Castro y Argiz, a veteran of the Spanish–American War, was a migrant to Cuba from Galicia, Northwest Spain. He had become financially successful by growing sugar cane at Las Manacas farm in Birán, Oriente Province. After the collapse of his first marriage he took his household servant, Lina Ruz González – of Canarian origin – as his mistress and second wife. At age six, Castro was sent to live with his teacher in Santiago de Cuba, before being baptized into the Roman Catholic Church at the age of eight. Being baptized enabled Castro to attend the La Salle boarding school in Santiago, where he misbehaved. In 1945, Castro transferred to the more prestigious Jesuit-run El Colegio de Belén in Havana.
Although Castro took an interest in history and debating at Belén, he did not excel academically, instead devoting much of his time to playing sports. In 1945, Castro began studying law at the University of Havana. Admitting he was "politically illiterate", Castro became embroiled in student activism and the violent gangsterismo culture within the university. Passionate about anti-imperialism and opposing U. S. intervention in the Caribbean, he unsuccessfully campaigned for the presidency of the Federation of University Students on a platform of "honesty and justice". Castro became critical of the corruption and violence of President Ramón Grau's government, delivering a public speech on the subject in November 1946 that received coverage on the front page of several newspapers. In 1947, Castro joined the Party of the Cuban People, founded by veteran politician Eduardo Chibás. A charismatic figure, Chibás advocated social justice, honest government and political freedom, while his party exposed corruption and demanded reform.
Though Chibás came third in the 1948 general election, Castro remained committed to working on his behalf. Student violence escalated after Grau employed gang leaders as police officers, Castro soon received a death threat urging him to leave the university. However, he refused to do so an
A soft drink is a drink that contains carbonated water, a sweetener, a natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute, or some combination of these. Soft drinks may contain caffeine, preservatives, and/or other ingredients. Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast with "hard" alcoholic drinks. Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume of the drink in many countries and localities if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Fruit punch and other such non-alcoholic drinks are technically soft drinks by this definition, but are not referred to as such. Soft drinks may be served chilled, over ice cubes, or at room temperature soda, they are available in many container formats, including cans, glass bottles, plastic bottles. Containers come in a variety of sizes. Soft drinks are available at fast food restaurants, movie theaters, convenience stores, casual-dining restaurants, dedicated soda stores, bars from soda fountain machines.
Soft drinks are served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues. In casual dining restaurants and bars, soft drinks are served in glasses made from glass or plastic. Soft drinks sipped directly from the cups. Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served, many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor and serving the drink over ice. One well-known example is the rum and coke, which may contain lime juice; some homemade fruit punch recipes, which may or may not contain alcohol, contain a mixture of various fruit juices and a soft drink. At ice cream parlours and 1950s-themed diners, ice cream floats, root beer floats, are sold. Examples of brands include Coca-Cola, Sprite, Sierra Mist, Sunkist, Mountain Dew, Dr. Pepper, 7 UP. While the term "soft drink" is used in product labeling and on restaurant menus, in many countries these drinks are more referred to by regional names, including carbonated drink, cool drink, cold drink, fizzy drink, fizzy juice, lolly water, seltzer, coke, soda pop and mineral.
Due to the high sugar content in typical soft drinks, they may be called sugary drinks. In the United States, the 2003 Harvard Dialect Survey tracked the usage of the nine most common names. Over half of the survey respondents preferred the term "soda", dominant in the Northeastern United States and the areas surrounding Milwaukee and St. Louis; the term "pop", preferred by 25% of the respondents, was most popular in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest, while the genericized trademark "coke", used by 12% of the respondents, was most popular in the Southern United States. The term "tonic" is hyperlocal to eastern Massachusetts. In the English-speaking parts of Canada, the term "pop" is prevalent, but "soft drink" is the most common English term used in Montreal. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the terms "fizzy drink" and the genericized trademark "coke" are common. "Pop" and "fizzy pop" are used in Northern England and the Midlands, while "mineral" or "lemonade" are used in Ireland. In Scotland, "fizzy juice" or simply "juice" is colloquially encountered.
In Australia and New Zealand, "fizzy drink" or "soft drink" is used. In South African English, "cool drink" and "cold drink" are used, but in South African Indian English, "cool drink" is most prevalent. Older people use the term "mineral"; the origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit-flavored drinks. In the medieval Middle East, a variety of fruit-flavoured soft drinks were drunk, such as sharbat, were sweetened with ingredients such as sugar and honey. Other common ingredients included lemon, pomegranate, jujube, musk and ice. Middle-Eastern drinks became popular in medieval Europe, where the word "syrup" was derived from Arabic. In Tudor England,'water imperial' was drunk. Another early type of soft drink was lemonade, made of water and lemon juice sweetened with honey, but without carbonated water; the Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks in 1676. Vendors dispensed cups of the soft drink to Parisians. In the late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating carbonated mineral waters.
In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water is the defining component of most soft drinks. Priestley found that water treated in this manner had a pleasant taste, he offered it to his friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, encouraging the
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse; the size of a mule and work to which it is put depend on the breeding of the mule's female parent. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight. Mules are reputed to be more patient and long-lived than horses and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys; the mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size. Mules tend to be more independent than most domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey. Compared to horses, mules emit less of the greenhouse gas methane as a product of their digestive system The median weight range for a mule is between about 370 and 460 kg.
While a few mules can carry live weight up to 160 kg, the superiority of the mule becomes apparent in their additional endurance. In general, a mule can be packed with dead weight of up to 20% of its body weight, or 90 kg. Although it depends on the individual animal, it has been reported that mules trained by the Army of Pakistan can carry up to 72 kilograms and walk 26 kilometres without resting; the average equine in general can carry up to 30% of its body weight in live weight, such as a rider. A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a "molly" or "Molly mule", though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general. Pregnancy is rare, but can occur as well as through embryo transfer. A male mule is properly called a horse mule, though called a john mule, the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule colt, a young female is called a mule filly. With its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, short mane, the mule shares characteristics of a donkey.
In height and body, shape of neck and rump, uniformity of coat, teeth, it appears horse-like. The mule comes in all sizes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses, fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more; the mule is an example of hybrid vigor. Charles Darwin wrote: "The mule always appears to me a most surprising animal; that a hybrid should possess more reason, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance, length of life, than either of its parents, seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature."The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, endurance and natural cautiousness. From its dam it inherits speed and agility. Mules are reputed to exhibit a higher cognitive intelligence than their parent species; that said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims. There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited set of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects.
Mules are taller at the shoulder than donkeys and have better endurance than horses, although a lower top speed. Handlers of working animals find mules preferable to horses: mules show more patience under the pressure of heavy weights, their skin is harder and less sensitive than that of horses, rendering them more capable of resisting sun and rain, their hooves are harder than horses', they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound, similar to a donkey's but has the whinnying characteristics of a horse. Mules sometimes whimper. Mules come in a variety of shapes and colors, from minis under 50 lb to maxis over 1,000 lb, in many different colors; the coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrel, bay and grey. Less common are white, palomino and buckskin. Least common are paint tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with wilder skewed colors.
The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex. Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule. Mules were used by armies to transport supplies as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons, to pull heavier field guns with wheels over mountainous trails such as in Afghanistan during the Second Anglo-Afghan War; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that China was the top market for mules in 2003 followed by Mexico and many Central and South American nations. Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes, a mixture of the horse's 64 and the donkey's 62; the different structure and number prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos, rendering most mules infertile. There are no recorded cases of fertile mule stallions. A few mare mules have produced offspring when mated with donkey. Herodotus gives an account of such an event as an ill omen of Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BC: "There happe
Ironport is an old-fashioned carbonated soft drink from the early part of the 20th century, served at soda fountains and is still popular in the Intermountain West. It can still be found in parts of Utah, Southern Idaho, Southern Montana, Western Wyoming, Eastern Nevada; the flavor has been described as somewhat of a cross between root beer and Caribbean spices and is similar to the Cuban soda, Iron Beer. The flavor has been described as a black cherry Dr Pepper, it is rumored to have been named after Porter Rockwell. Ironport can still be purchased on-tap at the following places: Idaho: R&B Drive-In in American Falls, Idaho Rockland Pharmacy in American Falls, Idaho Five 11 Main Fountain & Pizzeria in Ashton, Idaho Big Jud's Country Diner in Boise, Archer & Ashton, Idaho. Homestead Restaurant in Blackfoot, Idaho Westside Drive-In Boise, Idaho Tastee Treet in Chubbuck and Pocatello, Idaho Corner Drug in Driggs, Idaho Spud Drive-In Theater in Driggs, Idaho La Tienda Franklin, Idaho The North Forty in Idaho Falls, Idaho Sato's Sushi in Idaho Falls, Idaho Scotty's in Idaho Falls, Idaho Shaka's Gas Station in Idaho Falls, ID Malad Drive In in Malad, Idaho Efresh in Pocatello, Idaho Great Scott's Convenience Store in Rexburg, Idaho Gator Jacks Rexburg, Idaho Pizza Pie Cafe Rexburg, Idaho & Pocatello, Idaho Soda Vine in Rexburg, Idaho Idaho Drug in Rigby, Idaho Hillview Sinclair Gas Station in Ririe, Idaho Eastman Drug in Soda Springs, Idaho Geraldine's Bake Shoppe & Deli in Ammon, Idaho Chuckwagon Restaurant in Lava Hot Springs, IdahoMontana: Canyon Street Grill in West Yellowstone, MontanaNevada: Economy Drug in Ely, Nevada Fiiz Drinks Las Vegas, NevadaUtah: Northern Ice North Ogden, Utah Pop'nSweets Provo, Utah Pop'nSweets American Fork, Utah PattiSue's in Beaver, Utah Nielsen's Frozen Custard in Bountiful, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Bountiful, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Brigham City, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Layton, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Kaysville, Utah Fiiz Drinks in North Ogden, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Roy, Utah Fiiz Drinks in South Jordan, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Spanish Fork, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Station Park, Utah Fiiz Drinks in Syracuse, Utah Peach City in Brigham City, Utah Bulloch Drug in Cedar City, Utah Sip It!
Soda Shack Ephraim, Utah The Malt Shop Ephraim, Utah Cluff's Car-Hop Cafe in Fillmore, Utah Hi-Mountain in Kamas, Utah Nielsen's Frozen Custard in Layton, Utah Burger Stop in Layton, Utah Porter's Place in Lehi, Utah The Bluebird Restaurant in Logan, Utah Juniper Take Out & Restaurant in Logan, Utah Chuck-O-Rama in Logan, Utah Kirt's Drive In North Ogden, Utah Farr's Better Ice Cream in Ogden, Utah GriDeli's in Ogden, Utah GriDeli's Express Newgate Mall in Ogden, Utah Howie's Premium Rootbeer in Orem, Utah Daley Freze in Payson, Utah Rocky Mountain Drive Inn Provo, Utah Stans Drive In Provo, Utah The Ideal Dairy in Richfield, Utah Marion's Variety Roosevelt, Utah The Hut & Super Video in Roy, Utah The Blue Plate Diner in Salt Lake City, Utah Shivers in Salt Lake City, Utah Woody's Drive In in Salt Lake City, Utah Ala Cart 2 Go in Salt Lake City, Utah SOS drug store Springville, Utah Chevron Gas Station Smithfield, Utah Dairy Delight in Tooele, Utah T-Cee's Dairy Freeze in Fairview, UtahA google map has been created to aid in finding Ironport locations accessible at https://drive.google.com/open?id=1DrNZ2F-r5efLfm7ZiaTwFXvGucU&usp=sharing Often, Ironport is mixed with cherry syrup to make what is called a cherry ironport.
The Foods Service Division of Lyons Magnus produces Ironport Concentrate which can be bought at RSM Food Service in Logan, Utah and at Orson H. Gygi Co in Salt Lake City, Utah Lyons Magnus – makes Ironport Concentrate RSM Food Service – sell Ironport Concentrate to the public Gygi - sell Ironport Concentrate to the public Ingredients and Nutritional Facts at Foodshow.com Drink Ironport Blog
Dr Pepper is a carbonated soft drink marketed as having a unique flavor. The drink was created in the 1880s by pharmacist Charles Alderton in Waco and first served around 1885. Dr Pepper was first nationally marketed in the United States in 1904, is now sold in Europe, Asia and South America, Australia, as well as New Zealand and South Africa as an imported good. Variants include a version without high fructose corn syrup, Diet Dr Pepper, as well as a line of additional flavors, first introduced in the 2000s; the name "Dr. Pepper" was first used commercially in 1885, it was introduced nationally in the United States at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition as a new kind of soda pop, made with 23 flavors. Its introduction in 1885 preceded the introduction of Coca-Cola by one year, it was formulated by Brooklyn-born pharmacist Charles Alderton in Morrison's Old Corner Drug Store in Waco, Texas. To test his new drink, he first offered it to store owner Wade Morrison, who found it to his liking. Patrons at Morrison's soda fountain soon learned of Alderton's new drink and began ordering a "Waco".
Alderton gave the formula to Morrison. As with Coca-Cola, the formula for Dr Pepper is a trade secret, the recipe is kept as two halves in safe deposit boxes in two separate Dallas banks. A persistent rumor since the 1930s is that the drink contains prune juice, but the official Dr Pepper FAQ refutes this with "Dr Pepper is a unique blend of natural and artificial flavors; the origin of the rumor is unknown. In 2009, an old ledger book filled with formulas and recipes was discovered by Bill Waters while shopping at antiques stores in the Texas Panhandle. Several sheets and letterheads hinted it had come from the W. B. Morrison & Co. Old Corner Drug Store and faded letters on the book's cover spelled out "Castles Formulas". John Castles was a partner of Morrison's for a time and worked at that location as early as 1880. One recipe in the book titled "D Peppers Pepsin Bitters" was of particular interest, some speculated it could be an early recipe for Dr Pepper. However, Keurig Dr Pepper insists it is not the formula for Dr Pepper, but is instead a medicinal recipe for a digestive aid.
The book was put up for auction in May 2009. Theories about the origins of the soft drink's name abound. One possible reason why the name was chosen was the practice, common at the time of the drink’s creation, of including Dr. in the names of products to convey the impression that they were healthful. A theory cited is that the drink was named after an actual doctor, one Charles T. Pepper of Rural Retreat, Virginia. Morrison may have named the drink after the doctor in gratitude for Pepper having given Morrison his first job. However, Milly Walker, Collections Manager / Curator for the Dublin Dr Pepper Bottling Co. Museum, has stated that U. S. Census records show that a young Morrison lived in Christiansburg, Virginia, 40 miles away from Rural Retreat, that "there is not one piece of evidence that Morrison worked for Charles T. Pepper in Rural Retreat". Another story tells of Morrison naming the drink after Charles T. Pepper because the doctor granted Morrison permission to marry Pepper's daughter, but the girl in question was only eight years old at the time that Morrison moved to Waco.
A Dr. Pepper of Christiansburg is another possible inspiration for the soft drink's name. In the census that shows Morrison living in Christiansburg and working as a pharmacy clerk, a Dr. Pepper is recorded on a subsequent page. Since census takers at this time were walking from door to door, these census entries are close to each other in the record, it appears that Morrison and this Dr. Pepper lived close to each other. Furthermore, Pepper is recorded as having a 16-year-old daughter, named Malissa; the period after Dr was used intermittently in Dr Pepper logos until the 1950s, after some debate, it was discarded permanently, for stylistic and legibility reasons. A logo that debuted at that time had slanted text, in which Dr. resembled Di:. In 1951, Dr Pepper sued the Coca-Cola company for US$750,000, asserting that nickel Coca-Colas were sold below cost and were a restraint of trade. In 1972, Dr Pepper sued the Coca-Cola company for trademark infringement based on a soft drink marketed by Coca-Cola called "Peppo".
Coca-Cola renamed their beverage Dr. Pibb, determined to violate the trademark; the soft drink was renamed Mr Pibb. Dr Pepper became insolvent in the early 1980s, prompting an investment group to take the company private. Several years Coca-Cola attempted to acquire Dr Pepper, but was blocked from doing so by the Federal Trade Commission. Around the same time, Seven Up was acquired from Phillip Morris by the same investment company that bailed out Dr Pepper. Upon the failure of the Coca-Cola merger, Dr Pepper and Seven Up merged, giving up international branding rights in the process. After the DPSU merger, Coca-Cola obtained most non-US rights to the Dr Pepper name. Dr Pepper was a frequent player in the 1990s antitrust history of the United States; as part of these activities and the courts have weighed in with the opinion that Dr Pepper is a "pepper" flavored drink and not a "cola". In 1995, the FTC blocked a merger between The Coca-Cola Company and Dr Pepper on grounds that included concerns about a m