Magna Carta Libertatum, commonly called Magna Carta, is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, at the end of the 16th century there was an upsurge in interest in Magna Carta. Lawyers and historians at the believed that there was an ancient English constitution, going back to the days of the Anglo-Saxons. Both James I and his son Charles I attempted to suppress the discussion of Magna Carta, until the issue was curtailed by the English Civil War of the 1640s and the execution of Charles. The political myth of Magna Carta and its protection of ancient personal liberties persisted after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 until well into the 19th century. In the 21st century, four exemplifications of the original 1215 charter remain in existence, held by the British Library, there are a handful of the subsequent charters in public and private ownership, including copies of the 1297 charter in both the United States and Australia.
The original charters were written on parchment sheets using quill pens, in heavily abbreviated medieval Latin, each was sealed with the royal great seal, very few of the seals have survived. The four original 1215 charters were displayed together at the British Library for one day,3 February 2015, to mark the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. Magna Carta originated as an attempt to achieve peace between royalist and rebel factions in 1215, as part of the events leading to the outbreak of the First Barons War. England was ruled by King John, the third of the Angevin kings, although the kingdom had a robust administrative system, the nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain. Following the defeat of his allies at the Battle of Bouvines, John had to sue for peace, John was already personally unpopular with many of the barons, many of whom owed money to the Crown, and little trust existed between the two sides. John held a council in London in January 1215 to discuss potential reforms, both sides appealed to Pope Innocent III for assistance in the dispute.
John began recruiting mercenary forces from France, although some were sent back to avoid giving the impression that the King was escalating the conflict. Letters backing John arrived from the Pope in April, but by the rebel barons had organised into a military faction and they congregated at Northampton in May and renounced their feudal ties to John, marching on London and Exeter. Johns efforts to moderate and conciliatory had been largely successful. The King offered to submit the problem to a committee of arbitration with the Pope as the supreme arbiter, John met the rebel leaders at Runnymede, a water-meadow on the south bank of the River Thames, on 10 June 1215. Here the rebels presented John with their demands for reform. By 15 June, general agreement had been made on a text, and on 19 June and it focused on the rights of free men—in particular the barons
The word excommunication means putting a specific individual or group out of communion. In some religions, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the member or group, Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the religion, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. 1 Corinthians 5, 1-8 directs the church at Corinth to excommunicate a man for sexual immorality, in 2 Corinthians 2, 5-11, the man, having repented and suffered the punishment by the majority is restored to the church. In Romans 16,17, Paul writes to mark those who cause divisions contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned and avoid them. Also, in 2 John 1, 10-11, the writer advises believers that whosoever transgresseth and he that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed, within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
Excommunication can be either latae sententiae or ferendae sententiae, according to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but simply forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities. g. A thus excommunicated bishop cannot validly invest a priest as pastor of a vacant parish and they are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life. These are the effects for those who have incurred a latae sententiae excommunication. Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure, in many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary and these can delegate a priest to act on their behalf.
Such ceremonies are not held today, and instead are simply announced by the bishop, interdict is a censure similar to excommunication. It too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, in the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between minor and major excommunication and those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can even be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there, the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. They are to be removed from participation in the Divine Liturgy, and they are deprived of the right to vote or to be elected. Minor excommunication is roughly equivalent to the interdict in Western law, under current law, an excommunicate is never vitandus.
Persons belonging to an Eastern Catholic Church are never subject to a latae sententiae punishment, according to the Code of Canon Law of 1917, the excommunications reserved to the Apostolic See were grouped in three categories, those reserved 1
Kate Rooney Mara is an American actress. She starred in the Netflix political drama House of Cards as Zoe Barnes and she made her film debut in 1999 with Random Hearts. She appeared in the FX horror miniseries American Horror Story, Kate Rooney Mara was born and raised in Bedford, New York. She is the daughter of Timothy Christopher Mara, a NFL scout and vice president of the New York Giants for player evaluation and she is the second of four siblings, with one older brother, one younger sister and one younger brother, Conor. Maras father has Irish and French Canadian ancestry and she is a great-granddaughter of both New York Giants founder Tim Mara and Pittsburgh Steelers founder Art Rooney, Sr. Her paternal grandparents were Wellington Mara and Ann Mara, Wellington co-owned the Giants football team from 1959 until his death in 2005, and was succeeded by her uncle, John Mara, who is currently President, CEO, and co-owner of the team. Her maternal grandfather, Timothy James Tim Rooney, has run Yonkers Raceway in Yonkers and her granduncle, Dan Rooney, chairman of the Steelers, was a former United States Ambassador to Ireland and the co-founder of the charitable organization The Ireland Funds.
An uncle, Art Rooney II, is the current President, Mara began acting at the age of nine in a school musical. She attended several youth theater-arts schools and appeared in community theater, Mara described herself to Esquire magazine as having been painfully shy while growing up and said she only had one friend. Her first audition was for the NBC police drama Homicide, Life on the Street and she did not get the role but knew from on that she just wanted to act. Maras first television role was in the NBC legal drama Law & Order in 1997 and she went on to guest star on numerous television series, including Madigan Men, Ed and Law & Order, Special Victims Unit. Mara appeared on Cold Case, Boston Public, CSI, Mara was cast as the lead in the 2004 WB pilot Prodigy, about a teenage child prodigy. She had a role on the WBs Jack & Bobby in 2005. Mara joined the cast of the HBO comedy-drama Entourage for the sixth season in 2009. She played Brittany, Eric E Murphy s assistant at his talent-management company, Mara filmed four episodes for the series in 2009.
In 2011, she guest starred on the FX horror series American Horror Story, as Hayden McClaine, a student who becomes Dr. Ben Harmon s dead mistress, Mara was offered the role by Ryan Murphy, her former producer on Nip/Tuck. She filmed a second season of the series, which was released on February 14,2014, on July 10,2014, she was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series. She made her debut in 2003 at the Williamstown Theatre Festival in John Guares Landscape of the Body with Lili Taylor
A trebuchet is a type of siege engine most frequently used in the Middle Ages. It is sometimes called a trebuchet or counterpoise trebuchet, to distinguish it from an earlier weapon called the traction trebuchet. The counterweight trebuchet appeared in both Christian and Muslim lands around the Mediterranean in the 12th century and it was commonly used to fling projectiles weighing between 50 kilograms and 100 kilograms at or into enemy fortifications located up to 300 metres away. Its use continued into the 15th century, well after the introduction of gunpowder, the three distinguishing characteristics of a trebuchet are, The trebuchet is a compound machine—a combination of simple machines. The trebuchet makes use of the advantage of a lever. Most trebuchets are powered exclusively by the force of gravity, potential energy is stored by means of an extremely heavy weight box attached to the counterweight portion of the throwing arm. When the trebuchet is fired, the box is permitted to fall. The throwing arm is usually four to six times the length of the counterweight portion and these factors multiply the acceleration transmitted to the throwing portion of the arm and its attached sling.
The sling is affixed to the end of the portion of the throwing arm. The sling contains the projectile and transmits the forces generated at the end of the arm to the projectile. The sling changes the trajectory, so that, at the time of release from the sling, the couillard is a smaller version with a single stem or platform instead of the usual double A frames. The counterweight is split into two halves to avoid hitting the center stem, the trebuchet derives from the ancient sling, and originated in China. A variation of the sling, called staff sling, contained a piece of wood to extend the arm. This evolved into the traction trebuchet in which a number of people pulled on ropes attached to the arm of a lever that has a sling on the long arm. This type of trebuchet was smaller and had a shorter range and these teams would sometimes be local citizens helping in the siege or in the defense of their town. Traction trebuchets had a range of 100 to 200 feet when casting weights up to 250 pounds, the first traction trebuchets were invented by the Chinese sometime before the 4th century BC.
The first traction trebuchets may have used by the Mohists in China as early as 4th century BC. At the Battle of Caishi in 1161, trebuchets operated by Song Dynasty soldiers fired bombs of lime, recent work showed that the traction trebuchet was transferred to the eastern Mediterranean by the late 6th century during the Northern Zhou or Sui dynasty
Kingdom of England
In the early 11th century the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, united by Æthelstan, became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway. The completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown, from the accession of James I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament and this concept became legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its state the United Kingdom. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn, originally names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning land of the English, by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period.
The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French, by the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum, Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first king to call himself King of England. In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with use of Rex Anglie. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum, from the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. In 1604 James VI and I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy, East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex, Sussex. The Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon life in general, the English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, the decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful. It absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825, the kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore, in 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he apparently regarded as a turning point in his reign. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred, asser added that Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly
Paul Edward Valentine Giamatti is an American character actor and producer. He has won two Golden Globe Awards, a Primetime Emmy Award and four Screen Actors Guild Awards, Giamatti was born June 6,1967, in New Haven, the youngest of three children. His father, A. Bartlett Giamatti, was a Yale University professor who became president of the university. His mother, Toni Marilyn Giamatti, was a homemaker and English teacher who taught at Hopkins School and had previously acted. His paternal grandfathers family were Italian immigrants from Telese Terme, the surname was originally spelled Giammattei. The rest of Giamattis ancestry is German, English, French and his paternal grandmother had deep roots in New England, dating back to the colonial era. His brother, Marcus, is an actor, and his sister, Giamatti was first educated at The Foote School and graduated from Choate Rosemary Hall in 1985. He attended Yale University, where he was elected to the Skull and he was active in the undergraduate theater scene, working alongside fellow actors and Yale students Ron Livingston and Edward Norton.
He graduated in 1989 with a degree in English, and went on to earn a Master of Fine Arts degree from the Yale School of Drama. In 1997, Giamatti landed in his first high-profile role as Kenny Pig Vomit Rushton in the adaptation of Howard Sterns Private Parts. Stern praised Giamattis performance often on his program, calling for him to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 1998, Giamatti appeared in a number of supporting roles in the films, The Truman Show, Saving Private Ryan. In 1999, he played Bob Zmuda and Tony Clifton in Miloš Formans Andy Kaufman biopic, Giamatti continued steadily during the early 2000s by appearing in major studio releases including Big Mommas House, Planet of the Apes and Big Fat Liar. In 2003, Giamatti began to earn critical acclaim after his role in the film American Splendor. In 2004, Giamatti gained mainstream recognition and fame with the 2004 independent romantic comedy Sideways and his portrayal of a depressed writer vacationing in the Santa Barbara wine country garnered him a Golden Globe nomination and an Independent Spirit Award.
Following the commercial success of Sideways, Giamatti appeared in Cinderella Man and he was nominated for a Golden Globe and won the Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture. Giamatti had his first major role in a movie in the 2007 film Shoot Em Up, while starring in The Nanny Diaries. That same year, he starred in the independent film Pretty Bird, Giamatti received his second Golden Globe win for his role in the 2010 film, Barneys Version
The pope is the Bishop of Rome and, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, the office of the pope is the papacy. The pope is considered one of the worlds most powerful people because of his diplomatic and he is head of state of Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within the Italian capital city of Rome. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history, the popes in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity and the resolution of various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of importance in Western Europe. Currently, in addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, who originally had no temporal powers, in some periods of history accrued wide powers similar to those of temporal rulers. In recent centuries, popes were gradually forced to give up temporal power, the word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning father.
The earliest record of the use of title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria. Some historians have argued that the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD180 reflect a belief that Peter founded and organised the Church at Rome. Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peters presence in the early Roman Church, Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the struggles in our time and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, the greatest and most just columns, the good apostles Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, many agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero. Protestants contend that the New Testament offers no proof that Jesus established the papacy nor even that he established Peter as the first bishop of Rome, using Peters own words, argue that Christ intended himself as the foundation of the church and not Peter.
First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches, episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas. Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome, some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, documents of the 1st century and early 2nd century indicate that the Holy See had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, though the detail of what this meant is unclear. It seems that at first the terms episcopos and presbyter were used interchangeably, the consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or indistinguishable
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
James Brian Mark Purefoy is an English actor and director. He was born in Somerset and attended Sherborne School before training at the Central School of Speech and his appearances in stage plays and a variety of television roles in the UK and USA have grown since the 1980s. Purefoy was born in Taunton, the eldest son of Anthony Chetwynd and he boarded at Sherborne School, which he left with only one O-level. He went to school and received 11 more O-levels. He worked as a porter at Yeovil District Hospital before studying acting at the Central School of Speech, Purefoys early professional roles included Romeo in Romeo and Juliet in Leatherhead, Walter in Mary Morgan at the Riverside Studios and Alan Strang in Equus on tour. He subsequently joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1988 and appeared in The Constant Couple, The Tempest, The Man Who Came to Dinner and he returned to the RSC for Simon Callows stage adaptation of the film classic, Les enfants du paradis at the Barbican. He played Hugh de Morville in Paul Corcorans Four Nights in Knaresborough at the Tricycle Theatre, Purefoy was screen tested for the role of James Bond in 1995 for GoldenEye, but ultimately lost the role to Pierce Brosnan.
Throughout 2004 and 2005 Purefoys name was rumoured as a candidate to replace Brosnan as Bond in future films. He played James McCarthy, a man accused of murdering his father, in The Boscombe Valley Mystery. One of his roles was as Nicholas Jenkins in the eight-part miniseries A Dance to the Music of Time for Channel 4 in 1997. He played Edward, the Black Prince in the film A Knights Tale, Rawdon Crawley in Vanity Fair with Reese Witherspoon and Tom Bertram in the 1999 production of Mansfield Park. He was originally the actor for V in the 2006 Film V for Vendetta but had creative differences with the production team, parts of the film contain scenes of Purefoy. Speculation suggested that his departure was due to an opportunity to play James Bond in the 2006 film Casino Royale and he played Mark Antony in the HBO/BBC original television series, Rome. At the time there were rumours that at least one body in the show had been digitally enhanced. Producer William J. MacDonald announced that James Purefoy would play Simon Templar in a new TV series of The Saint, the new series was scheduled to start shooting in Berlin and Australia in April 2008.
However, production ultimately did not occur and in August Purefoy was reported as negotiating with NBC to star in another series and he starred as Teddy Rist in the summer television series, The Philanthropist, which aired on NBC beginning on June 2009. His character is a playboy who decides to use his wealth. In 2013, The Following debuted, starring Purefoy as the lead antagonist of the series and he portrays Joe Carroll, a former professor who becomes a serial killer and leads a cult of followers, all whom help create Carrolls story
Walter Charles Dance, OBE is an English actor and film director. Dance typically plays assertive bureaucrats or villains, Charles Dance was born in Redditch, the son of Eleanor, a cook, and Walter Dance, an engineer. Growing up in Plymouth, he attended Widey Technical School for Boys in Crownhill, Dance was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company during the mid-to-late-1970s and was in many of their productions in London and Stratford-upon-Avon. Later he returned to the RSC to take the role in Coriolanus at Stratford-upon-Avon and Newcastle in 1989. He received rave reviews and a Critics Circle Best Actor award for his performance as the Oxford don C. S. Lewis in William Nicholsons Shadowlands, in the 2007 stage revival. He has starred in many other British television dramas such as Edward the Seventh, Murder Rooms and Hopkirk, The Phantom of the Opera and Bleak House. He played Guy Spencer, the pro-Hitler propagandist, in the installment of Foyles War. Dance made a guest appearance on the BBC drama series Merlin as the Witchfinder Aredian and he played Havelock Vetinari in the 2010 Sky adaptation of Terry Pratchetts Going Postal.
He played the role of Tywin Lannister in HBOs Game of Thrones, based on the Song of Ice, Dance was wooed for the role by the producers whilst filming Your Highness in Belfast. Dance played Conrad Knox on the British television series Strike Back and he appeared in Paris Connections as the Russian oligarch Aleksandr Borinski. Dance made one of his earliest big screen appearances in the 1981 James Bond film For Your Eyes Only as evil henchman Claus. Though he turned down the opportunity to screen test for the James Bond role, in 1989 he played Bond creator Ian Fleming in Anglia Televisions dramatised biography, Goldeneye. On 30 June 2013, Dance appeared amongst other celebrities in an episode of the BBCs Top Gear as a Star in a Reasonably Priced Car for the debut of the Vauxhall Astra. Dances debut film as a writer and director was Ladies in Lavender, in 2009, he directed his own adaptation of Alice Thomas Elliss The Inn at the Edge of the World. Dance married Joanna Haythorn in 1970 and he became engaged to sculptor Eleanor Boorman in September 2010.
They have a daughter, born in March 2012, Dance was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 17 June 2006. He lives in Kentish Town in north London
Sir Derek George Jacobi CBE is an English actor and stage director. A forceful, commanding presence, Jacobi has enjoyed a successful stage career, appearing in such stage productions as Hamlet, Uncle Vanya. He has twice awarded a Laurence Olivier Award, first for his performance of the eponymous hero in Cyrano de Bergerac in 1983. He received a Tony Award for his performance in Much Ado About Nothing in 1984 and his stage work includes playing Octavius Caesar, Edward II, Richard III and Thomas Becket. He holds a knighthood and has appointed a Knight First Class of the Order of the Dannebrog. His paternal great-grandfather had emigrated from Germany to England during the 19th century, Jacobi describes his childhood as happy. In his teens he went to the Leyton Sixth Form College and became a part of the drama club. While in the sixth-form, he starred in a production of Hamlet, at 18 he won a scholarship to the University of Cambridge, where he read history at St Johns College and earned his degree.
Younger members of the university at the time included Ian McKellen, during his studies at Cambridge, Jacobi played many parts including Hamlet, which was taken on a tour to Switzerland, where he met Richard Burton. As a result of his performance of Edward II at Cambridge and he played Laertes in the National Theatres inaugural production of Hamlet opposite Peter OToole in 1963. Olivier cast him as Cassio in the successful National Theatre stage production of Othello and he played Andrei in the NT production and film of Three Sisters, both featuring Olivier. On 27 July 1965, Jacobi played Brindsley Miller in the first production of Peter Shaffers Black Comedy and it was presented by the National Theatre at Chichester and subsequently in London. After eight years at the National Theatre, Jacobi left in 1971 to pursue different roles, in 1972, he starred in the BBC serial Man of Straw an adaptation of Heinrich Manns book Der Untertan, directed by Herbert Wise. Jacobi was increasingly busy with stage and screen acting, but his big breakthrough came in 1976 when he played the role in the BBCs series I.
He cemented his reputation with his performance as the stammering, twitching Emperor Claudius, in 1979, thanks to his international popularity, he took Hamlet on a theatrical world tour through England, Greece, Australia and China, playing Prince Hamlet. He was invited to perform the role at Kronborg Castle, known as Elsinore Castle, in 1978 he appeared in the BBC Television Shakespeare production of Richard II, with Sir John Gielgud and Dame Wendy Hiller. In 1980, Jacobi took the role in the BBCs Hamlet, made his Broadway debut in The Suicide. In 1986, he made his West End debut in Breaking the Code by Hugh Whitemore, starring in the role of Alan Turing, the play was taken to Broadway