The Erie people were a Native American people historically living on the south shore of Lake Erie. An Iroquoian group, they lived in what is now western New York, northwestern Pennsylvania and their villages were burned as a lesson to those who dare oppose the Iroquois, adding to their loss of life and likely forcing emigration. Whatever their individual fates, the remnant tribes living among the Iroquois, the names Erie and Eriez are shortened forms of Erielhonan, meaning long tail. The Erielhonan were called the Chat or Raccoon people, referring to that characteristic and it appears that the cat reference may be to depict a connection to the sacred Underwater Panther, who was believed to have lived in the Great Lakes. Like all the Iroquoian stock, they lived in long houses in villages enclosed in palisades. They cultivated the Three Sisters, varieties of corn, beans, in winter, tribal members lived off the stored crops and animals taken in hunts. The Erie encroached on other tribes considered theirs.
During 1651, theyd angered their eastern neighbors, the Iroquois League, by accepting refugees from their allies, though rumored to use poison-tipped arrows, the Erie were disadvantaged in armed conflict with the Iroquois because they had few firearms. By the mid-1650s, the Erie became a broken tribe— beginning in 1653 the Erie launched an attack on western tribes of the Iroquois. As a result, over five years of war destroyed the Erie confederacy, the Neutrals. Dispersed groups survived a few decades before being absorbed into the Iroquois. Anthropologist Marvin T. Smith theorized that some Erie fled to Virginia and South Carolina, some were said to flee to Canada. Members of other tribes claimed to be descended from refugees of this defunct culture, among those are members of the Seneca people in Oklahoma and Kansas. Because the Erie were located further from the areas of early European exploration. Only the Dutch fur traders from Fort Orange and Jesuit missionaries in Canada reported on them in historic records.
The Jesuits learned more about them during the Beaver Wars, but most of what they learned, what little is known about them has been derived from oral history of other Native American tribes and comparisons with other Iroquoian peoples. The Erie spoke an Iroquoian language said to have similar to Wyandot. Neutral Nation Wenrohronon - known as the Tabacco people Shawnee Susquehannock people Bowne, the Westo Indians, slave traders of the early colonial South
The Genesee River is a tributary of Lake Ontario flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York in the United States. The river provided the power for the Rochester areas 19th century mills. It begins in exposing the Allegheny Plateaus characteristic conglomerates and shales in the columns of the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subperiods. With cuttings in the record showing so many early ages. The most recent glacier that left evidence here was about 100,000 years ago, about 12,000 years ago, the area underwent massive changes, which included the rerouting of the Genesee and other water bodies. Nowadays only a creek flows in what is left of this large paleogeologic valley. The area of the river was affected. Since the earth rebounded from the melting glaciers more rapidly in Canada than in New York, during this time, the original outlet of the Genesee River, Irondequoit Bay, was flooded out, creating the current bay. As these waters retreated, glacial debris caused the river to be rerouted to the west along its current path, the Seneca nation traditionally lived between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake.
The region was surveyed by Thomas Davies in 1766, the High Falls was also known as the Great Seneca Falls, and the Genesee river was spelled Zinochsaa by early writers. If not for hydropower, the mills, clothing mills, and tool fabricators would not have located in Rochester. A few hundred feet north of the center of the village of Rochester, the Erie Canal crossed the Genesee River via an 1823 stone aqueduct, from 1801 to 1846 the entire region was sold to individual owners from the Holland Land office in Batavia, New York. The river demarcates the Genesee Country of New York to the west and the Finger Lakes geographic region, on Friday, November 13,1829, the daredevil Sam Patch jumped to his death before 8,000 spectators at the Upper Falls in Rochester. In 1836 the Genesee Valley Canal was begun to build a new canal from the Erie Canal near Rochester, up the Genesee Valley, construction of new sections extended upriver until 1880. Although an important commercial route, the canal was plagued by frequent flood damage, the most difficult section to build was the bypass around the gorge and falls at present day Letchworth Park.
The canal followed the old Native American portage route, which necessitated many locks and these old locks can still be seen near Nunda. The project was abandoned and the right of way was sold in 1880, the property became the roadbed for the Genesee Valley Canal Railroad, which eventually merged with the Pennsylvania Railroad. Much of the canal and railroad right-of-way is open to the today as the Genesee Valley Greenway
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
University of Waterloo
The University of Waterloo is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario. The main campus is on 404 hectares of land in Uptown Waterloo, the university offers academic programs administered by six faculties and ten faculty-based schools. The university operates four campuses and four affiliated university colleges. Waterloo is a member of the U15, a group of universities in Canada. University of Waterloo is most famous for its education programs. University of Waterloo operates the largest post secondary program of its kind in the world. The institution was established on 1 July 1957 as the Waterloo College Associate Faculties and this entity formally separated from Waterloo College and was incorporated as a university with the passage of the University of Waterloo Act by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1959. It was established to fill the need to train engineers and technicians for Canadas growing postwar economy and it grew substantially over the next decade, adding a faculty of arts in 1960, and the College of Optometry of Ontario which moved from Toronto in 1967.
The university is co-educational, and as of 2016 has 30,600 undergraduate and 5,300 postgraduate students and former students of the university can be found across Canada and in over 140 countries. Waterloos varsity teams, known as the Waterloo Warriors, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport. The University of Waterloo traces its origins to Waterloo College, the outgrowth of Waterloo Lutheran Seminary. When Gerald Hagey assumed the presidency of Waterloo College in 1953, following that method, Waterloo College established the Waterloo College Associate Faculties on 4 April 1956, as a non-denominational board affiliated with the college. The academic structure of the Associated Faculties was originally focused on education in the applied sciences – largely built around the proposals of Ira Needles. On 25 January 1958, the Associated Faculties announced the purchase of over 74 hectares of land west of Waterloo College, by the end of the same year, the Associated Faculties opened its first building on the site, the Chemical Engineering Building.
In 1959, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed an act which split the Associated Faculties from Waterloo College. The president, appointed by the board, was to act as the chief executive officer. While the agreements sought to safeguard the existence of the two colleges, they aimed at federating them with the newly established University of Waterloo. Due to disagreements with Waterloo College, the College was not formally federated with the new university and this was something that the Associated Faculties was not prepared to accept
Syracuse University, commonly referred to as Syracuse, Cuse, or SU, is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States. The institutions roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, after several years of debate over relocating the college to Syracuse, the university was established in 1870, independent of the college. Since 1920, the university has identified itself as nonsectarian, although it maintains a relationship with The United Methodist Church, the campus is in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse and southeast of downtown, on one of the larger hills. Its large campus features a mix of buildings, ranging from nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival structures to contemporary buildings. Syracuse University athletic teams, known as the Orange, participate in 20 intercollegiate sports, SU is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference for all NCAA Division I athletics, except for the mens rowing and womens ice hockey teams.
SU is a member of the Eastern College Athletic Conference, the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary was founded in 1831 by the Genesee Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Lima, New York, south of Rochester. In 1850, it was resolved to enlarge the institution from a seminary into a college, or to connect a college with the seminary, the location was soon thought by many to be insufficiently central. Its difficulties were compounded by the set of technological changes. The trustees of the college decided to seek a locale whose economic. Meanwhile, there were years of dispute between the Methodist ministers and contending cities across the state, over proposals to move Genesee College to Syracuse. At the time, the ministers wanted a share of the funds from the Morrill Land Grant Act for Genesee College and they agreed to a quid pro quo donation of $25,000 from Senator Cornell in exchange for their support for his bill. Cornell insisted the bargain be written into the bill and Cornell became New York States Land Grant University in 1865.
In 1869, Genesee College obtained New York State approval to move to Syracuse, but Lima got an injunction to block the move. By that time, the injunction had been made moot by the founding of a new university on March 24,1870. On that date the State of New York granted the new Syracuse University its own charter, the City of Syracuse had offered $100,000 to establish the school. Bishop Jesse Truesdell Peck had donated $25,000 to the school and was elected the first president of the Board of Trustees. Rev. Daniel Steele, a former Genesee College president, served as the first administrative leader of Syracuse until its Chancellor was appointed, the university opened in September 1871 in rented space downtown. George F. Comstock, a member of the new Universitys Board of Trustees, had offered the school 50 acres of farmland on a hillside to the southeast of the city center
The Allegheny River /ælᵻˈɡeɪni/ is a principal tributary of the Ohio River, it is located in the Eastern United States. The Allegheny River joins with the Monongahela River to form the Ohio River at the Point of Point State Park in Downtown Pittsburgh, the Allegheny River is, by volume, the main headstream of the Ohio River. The river is approximately 325 miles long, running through the U. S. states of New York and it drains a rural dissected plateau of 11,580 square miles in the northern Allegheny Plateau, providing the northeastern most drainage in the watershed of the Mississippi River. Its tributaries reach to within 8 miles of Lake Erie in southwestern New York, the Allegheny Valley has been one of the most productive areas of fossil fuel extraction in U. S. history, with its extensive deposits of coal and natural gas. The name Allegheny probably comes from Lenape welhik hane or oolikhanna, there is a Lenape legend of a tribe called Allegewi who used to live along the river. The river itself, however, is called Alligewi Sipo, the whites have made Alleghene out of this, the Six Nations calling the river the Ohio.
The Geographic Names Information System lists O-hee-yo and O-hi-o as variant names, the river is called Ohi, i, o in the Seneca language. In New York, areas around the river are named with the alternate spelling Allegany in reference to the river, for example. Port Allegany, located along the river in Pennsylvania near the border with New York, the Allegheny River rises in north central Pennsylvania, on Cobb Hill in central Potter County, approximately 10 miles south of the New York border. South of Franklin it turns southeast across Clarion County in a course, turns again southwest across Armstrong County, flowing past Kittanning, Ford City, Clinton. The river enters both Allegheny and Westmoreland counties, the Pittsburgh suburbs, and the City of Pittsburgh from the northeast, the Allegheny joins with the Monongahela River at the Point in Downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to form the Ohio River. Water from the Allegheny River eventually flows into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
In its upper reaches, the Allegheny River is joined from the south by Potato Creek 1.7 miles downstream of Coryville and from the north by Olean Creek at Olean, many additional streams enter or join with the Allegheny River along its course. The Allegheny River has eight locks and dams, which form corresponding pools, the Seneca Pumped Storage Generating Station is associated with Kinzua Dam. Numerous bridges and tunnels span the river throughout its course, the Allegheny River Tunnel, utilized by Pittsburgh Light Rail, went into service in 2012. In the 16th century, control of the river valley passed back-and-forth between Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and the Iroquois, the conflict over the expansion of British settlement into the Allegheny Valley and the surrounding Ohio Country was a primary cause of the French and Indian War in the 1750s. During the war, the village of Kittanning – the principal Shawnee settlement on the river – was completely destroyed by British reprisal raids from Central Pennsylvania.
Nevertheless, the British, after gaining control of the area in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, kept the area closed to settlement, in part to repair
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in the western portion of the U. S. state of New York, and the seat of Monroe County. The citys population was the third largest — after New York City. This area, which is part of the Western New York region, had a population of 1,079,671 at the time of the 2010 Census, a Census estimate of July 1,2012, raised that number to 1,082,284. Rochester was one of Americas first boomtowns, and rose to prominence as the site of many mills along the Genesee River. Several of the universities have renowned research programs. In addition, Rochester is the site of important inventions and innovations in consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, internal Revenue Service, after the New York City metropolitan area. Rochesters GMP has since ranked just below that of Buffalo, New York, the 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the most livable city in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas.
In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family, in 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, and a low jobless rate. Of the 19 places in the United States named Rochester at least eight were named directly after Rochester, New York, having been founded or settled by former residents. These include Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester and Rochester, Ohio. The Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown, development of modern Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced from New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land and they would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power, beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville, by 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County
Waterloo is a city in Southern Ontario, Canada. It is the smallest of the three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, and is adjacent to the city of Kitchener and Waterloo are often jointly referred to as Kitchener-Waterloo, KW, the Twin Cities or the Tri-City. Years ago, there had been attempts to combine the two cities into one but they were not successful. After 1973, when the Regional government was formed, there was less motivation to do so, at the time of the 2016 census, the population of Waterloo was 104,986. Waterloo started on land that was part of a parcel of 675,000 acres assigned in 1784 to the Iroquois alliance that made up the League of Six Nations. The rare gift of land from Britain to indigenous people took place to compensate for wartime alliance during the American Revolution, almost immediately—and with much controversy—the native groups began to sell some of the land. Between 1796 and 1798,93,000 acres were sold through a Crown Grant to Richard Beasley, the first wave of immigrants to the area comprised Mennonites from Pennsylvania.
They bought deeds to land parcels from Beasley and began moving into the area in 1804, the following year, a group of 26 Mennonites pooled resources to purchase all of the unsold land from Beasley and to discharge the mortgage held by the Six Nations Indians. The Tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands, many of the first farms were least four hundred acres in size. The payment to Beasly, in cash, arrived from Pennsylvania in kegs, the Mennonites divided the land into smaller lots, two lots owned by Abraham Erb became the central core of Waterloo. Erb, often called the founder of Waterloo, had come to Waterloo County in 1806 from Franklin County and he bought 900 acres of bush land in 1806 from the German Company and founded a sawmill and grist mill, these the focal point of the area. The grist mill operated continuously for 111 years, other early settlers of what would become Waterloo included Samuel and Elia Schneider who arrived in 1816. Until about 1820, settlements such as this were quite small, in 1816 the new township was named after Waterloo, the site of the Battle of Waterloo, which had ended the Napoleonic Wars in Europe.
After that war, the new township became a destination for German immigrants. By the 1840s, German settlers had overtaken the Mennonites as the dominant segment of the population, many Germans settled in the small hamlet to the southeast of Waterloo. In their honour, the village was named Berlin in 1833, the Smiths Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes Waterloo as follows. Contains about 200 inhabitants, principally Germans, who have a Lutheran meeting-house and Trades, —One grist and saw mill, one distillery, two stores, two taverns, two blacksmiths. Berlin was chosen as the site of the seat for the County of Waterloo in 1853, Waterloo was incorporated as a village in 1857 and became the Town of Waterloo in 1876 and the City of Waterloo in 1948
Renison University College
Renison University College is an affiliated university college of the University of Waterloo and located in Waterloo, Canada. Renisons campus is situated on the border of Waterloos main campus. The university college offers programs that count as credit toward a University of Waterloo degree. Most academic courses are offered within Waterloos Faculty of Arts, focusing on social sciences, Renison’s social engagement and Innovation focus is developed in the work of the department of Social Development Studies and Renison’s School of Social Work. The focus on global engagements finds expression in a variety of forms, most notably through the work of the department of Culture and Language Studies and its focus on Community Engagement is gathered in the Centre for Community and Professional Education. Renison University College maintains a residence that houses up to 220 University of Waterloo students, residents may be in any field of undergraduate study at the University of Waterloo and are not mandated to take courses at Renison.
The university college residence maintains one of the lowest don to student ratios of all the on-campus residences, the institution was established on January 14,1959 as Renison College, under the authority of the Synod of the Anglican Diocese of Huron. In 2010, it officially became Renison University College as a reflection of Renisons academic focus and it was founded by members of the local Anglican community in Waterloo and Kitchener, Ontario and continues to be affiliated with the Anglican Church of Canada. The efforts of Renison Founder The Ven, harvey Southcott, who was rector of Church of the Holy Saviour at the time, were particularly influential as he had the original vision for an Anglican college in Waterloo. Renison continues to support from the Anglican community and, in particular. The College offered courses in Religious Knowledge and Philosophy, the University transferred five acres of land on the west side of its campus to Renison in 1961, and Renison purchased an additional acre.
Originally incorporated in 1959 as Renison College, it was felt that the addition of the word ‘university’ would strengthen Renison’s reputation, during her tenure as Principal, Dr. Gail Cuthbert Brandt had explored the option of gaining an individual charter for Renison. However, it wasnt until Dr. John Crossley’s tenure in the mid-2000s that the process began to move forward, Renison University College was named after a contemporary Canadian church leader, The Most Reverend Robert John Renison. Archbishop Renison served in the Anglican Church of Canada with great distinction for nearly six decades, before his death in 1957, he became Metropolitan of Ontario and Archbishop of Moosonee. Archbishop Renison’s widow, presented the College with his portrait, the family agreed to let the new institution use his heraldic emblem and accompanying motto, Sed Coelum Solum, until the college was granted its own unique coat of arms in 1978. Renison is situated on 6 acres of land in Waterloo, Ontario and is adjacent to the University of Waterloo campus.
Most buildings on the University of Waterloo campus are a five-minute walk from Renison, Renison’s campus is bordered by the University of Waterloo, St. Jerome’s University and St. Paul’s University College. One numbered road intersects Renison’s campus, Westmount Road North, in 1962, Renison completed its first building on the current campus, the Founders Building, which provided offices and two residence wings to house 40 men and 40 women