In psychology, trait theory is an approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior and emotion. According to this perspective, traits are aspects of personality that are stable over time, differ across individuals, are consistent over situations, influence behavior. Traits are in contrast to states. In some theories and systems, traits are something a person either has or does not have, but in many others traits are dimensions such as extraversion vs. introversion, with each person rating somewhere along this spectrum. There are two approaches to define traits: as internal causal properties or as purely descriptive summaries; the internal causal definition states that traits influence our behaviours, leading us to do things in line with that trait. On the other hand, traits as descriptive summaries are descriptions of our actions that don't try to infer causality. Gordon Allport was an early pioneer in the study of traits.
This early work was viewed as the beginning of the modern psychological study of personality. He referred to traits within his work as dispositions. In his approach, "cardinal" traits are those that shape a person's behavior. By contrast, "central" traits such as honesty are characteristics found in some degree in every person - and "secondary" traits are those seen only in certain circumstances, which are included to provide a complete picture of human complexity. A wide variety of alternative theories and scales were developed, including: Raymond Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire J. P. Guilford's Structure of Intellect Henry Murray's System of Needs Timothy Leary's Interpersonal circumplex Myers–Briggs Type Indicator Gray's Biopsychological theory of personalityCurrently, two general approaches are the most popular: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Using factor analysis Hans Eysenck suggested that personality is reducible to three major traits: neuroticism and psychoticism. Big Five personality traits.
Many psychologists believe that five factors are sufficient: neuroticism, openness to experience and conscientiousness. Cultures are known and accepted as being different in varying degrees; this can make the study of personality difficult as meaning and the expression of traits may be different within cultural groups. Trait theory uses a hierarchy of traits in order to separate culture from the traits, it can be said the culture is ignored in order to focus of the individual traits and how they are connected to the individual. Gordon Allport's trait theory not only served as a foundational approach within personality psychology, but is continued to be viewed and discussed by other disciplines such as anthropology because of how he approached culture within trait theory. Trait theory tends to focus on the individual over the situation; this focus has relaxed within modern studies allowing for a consideration of the external factors outside of the self. As the focus becomes more relaxed research expands.
Both the EPQ and Big Five approaches extensively use self-report questionnaires. The factors are intended to be orthogonal, though there are small positive correlations between factors; the five factor model in particular has been criticized for losing the orthogonal structure between factors. Hans Eysenck has argued that fewer factors are superior to a larger number of related ones. Although these two approaches are comparable because of the use of factor analysis to construct hierarchical taxonomies, they differ in the organization and number of factors. Whatever the causes, psychoticism marks the two approaches apart, as the five factor model contains no such trait. Moreover, unlike any of the other factors in either approach, does not fit a normal distribution curve. Indeed, scores are high, thus skewing a normal distribution. However, when they are high, there is considerable overlap with psychiatric conditions such as antisocial and schizoid personality disorders. High scorers on neuroticism are more susceptible to sleep and psychosomatic disorders.
Five factor approaches can predict future mental disorders. There are two higher-order factors that both taxonomies share: extraversion and neuroticism. Both approaches broadly accept that extraversion is associated with sociability and positive affect, whereas neuroticism is associated with emotional instability and negative affect. Many lower-order factors, or facets, are similar between the two taxonomies. For instance, both approaches contain factors for sociability/gregariousness, for activity levels, for assertiveness within the higher order factor extraversion. However, there are differences too. First, the three-factor approach contains nine lower-order factors and the five-factor approach has six. Eysenck's psychoticism factor incorporates some of the polar opposites of the lower order factors of openness and conscientiousness. A high scorer on tough-mindedness in psychoticism would score low on tender-mindedness in agreeableness. Most of the differences between the taxonomies stem from the three factor model's emphasis on fewer high-order factors.
Although both major trait models are descriptive, only the three-factor model offers a detailed causal explanation
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Arrow (season 6)
The sixth season of the American television series Arrow, based on the DC Comics character Oliver Queen / Green Arrow, premiered on the CW on October 12, 2017, concluded on May 17, 2018, with a total of 23 episodes. The season focuses on Oliver, who must balance being a vigilante, the mayor, a father to his son William Clayton. At the same time, new enemies emerge led by hacker Cayden James, who puts together a team with drug dealer Ricardo Diaz, metahuman vigilante Vincent Sobel, Russian mobster Anatoli Knyazev, metahuman Black Siren, it is set in the Arrowverse. The showrunners for this season were Wendy Mericle; the season was ordered in January 2017. Filming began in Vancouver, British Columbia that July and ended in April 2018. Stephen Amell stars as Oliver, with principal cast members David Ramsey, Willa Holland, Emily Bett Rickards, Echo Kellum and Paul Blackthorne returning from previous seasons. Katie Cassidy, a principal cast member from seasons one to four and a guest actor for season five, was reinstated as a series regular for the sixth season.
They are joined by Rick Gonzalez and Juliana Harkavy, who were promoted to series regulars from their recurring status in the previous season. On January 8, 2017, The CW renewed Arrow for a sixth season; this was the final season to feature Marc Wendy Mericle as showrunners. The fifth season finale ended with Oliver Queen and William Clayton witnessing the island Lian Yu explode as a result of Adrian Chase shooting himself, a dead man's switch, with many of Oliver's allies still on the island. Guggenheim said the fates of the characters would be revealed in the sixth season, but cautioned, "I know everyone is trying to determine who survives, who dies, what is the result of the cliffhanger based upon people's contractual status, I would say that's not a good idea The example I like to point to is, true in Walking Dead, they had a season finale similar where you had a group of characters, all of whom were series regulars, in a dire situation at the end of their season. Just because they were series regulars did not mean that everyone came out of that cliffhanger alive.
He said the theme of the sixth season would be "family", adding that "last year we spent a whole season building up this team, this new Team Arrow, this year we’ve got the team in place – what sort of damage can we do? So much of Arrow lives in the challenges and trials that we put the characters through." Main cast members Stephen Amell, David Ramsey, Willa Holland, Emily Bett Rickards, Echo Kellum and Paul Blackthorne return from previous seasons as Oliver Queen, John Diggle, Thea Queen, Felicity Smoak, Curtis Holt and Quentin Lance. Rick Gonzalez and Juliana Harkavy, who recurred in the fifth season as Rene Ramirez and Dinah Drake were promoted to the principal cast for the sixth season. Katie Cassidy, who portrayed Laurel Lance / Black Canary as a regular from season one to four and recurred as the character's Earth-2 doppelganger Black Siren in season five, was reinstated as a regular for season six, playing the latter role. Cassidy portrayed the Earth-1 Laurel in "Fundamentals"; as with the fifth season, Holland was contracted only to appear in a limited number of episodes, but Guggenheim declined to reveal how many exactly.
Holland left the series after her contract expired, her final appearance as a regular being "The Thanatos Guild". This was Blackthorne's final season as a regular. Former series regulars Manu Bennett and Josh Segarra returned as Slade Wilson and Adrian Chase in a guest capacity. Colin Donnell a former series regular, returned for two different roles as a guest: the Earth-X version of Tommy Merlyn, that Earth's Prometheus. Colton Haynes, who starred as Roy Harper / Arsenal in seasons two and three and was a guest star in season four, again returned in a guest capacity. Maya Mani designed the costumes for the season. Oliver's Green Arrow suit from the fifth season is retained in the sixth without any changes. Additionally, he wears his original "Hood" outfit from the first season during the episode "Fundamentals". In the sixth season, Diggle gains a new Spartan costume and helmet, which eschew the gray overtones of previous Spartan costumes, instead have a black and red scheme; the Wild Dog costume for the season was revamped.
The Black Canary costume introduced in the season consists of a domino mask, long gloves and a bo staff. Filming for the season began on July 6, 2017, in Vancouver, British Columbia; the episode "Thanksgiving" re-uses archive footage of Billy Joel from his concert of August 4, 2015 at the Nassau Coliseum in Long Island, performing the song "No Man's Land". To do this, Guggenheim wrote to Joel seeking permission. Filming for the season ended in late April 2018. In May 2017, The CW president Mark Pedowitz announced plans for a four-show Arrowverse crossover event, crossing over episodes of the television series Supergirl, The Flash, Legends of Tomorrow, Arrow; the crossover, Crisis on Earth-X, began with Supergirl and a special airing of Arrow on November 27, 2017, concluded on The Flash and Legends of Tomorrow on November 28. Throughout the crossover, Stephen Amell portrayed Oliver's Earth-X doppelganger Dark Arrow. Patrick Sabongui, who recurs as David Singh on The Flash, made a guest appearance in the episode "All for Nothing", w
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case regardless of empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true. In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: pistis and doxa. Simplified, we may say that pistis refers to "trust" and "confidence", while doxa refers to "opinion" and "acceptance"; the English word "orthodoxy" derives from doxa. Jonathan Leicester suggests that belief has the purpose of guiding action rather than indicating truth. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts. However, "belief" does not require active circumspection. For example, we never ponder. We assume the sun will rise. Since "belief" is an important aspect of mundane life, according to Eric Schwitzgebel in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, a related question asks: "how a physical organism can have beliefs?"
Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, involved with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge. The primary problem in epistemology is to understand what is needed in order for us to have knowledge. In a notion derived from Plato's dialogue Theaetetus, where the epistemology of Socrates most departs from that of the sophists, who at the time of Plato seem to have defined knowledge as what is here expressed as "justified true belief"; the tendency to translate from belief to knowledge, which Plato utterly dismisses, results from failing to distinguish a dispositive belief from knowledge when the opinion is regarded true, in terms of right, juristically so, the task of the rhetors to prove. Plato dismisses this possibility of an affirmative relation between belief and knowledge when the one who opines grounds his belief on the rule, is able to add justification to it. Plato has been credited for the "justified true belief" theory of knowledge though Plato in the Theaetetus elegantly dismisses it, posits this argument of Socrates as a cause for his death penalty.
Among American epistemologists and Goldman, have questioned the "justified true belief" definition, challenged the "sophists" of their time. Mainstream psychology and related disciplines have traditionally treated belief as if it were the simplest form of mental representation and therefore one of the building blocks of conscious thought. Philosophers have tended to be more abstract in their analysis, much of the work examining the viability of the belief concept stems from philosophical analysis; the concept of belief presumes an object of belief. So, like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind, whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial. Beliefs are sometimes divided into dispositional beliefs. For example, if asked "do you believe tigers wear pink pajamas?" A person might answer that they do not, despite the fact they may never have thought about this situation before.
This has important implications for understanding the neuroscience of belief. If the concept of belief is incoherent any attempt to find the underlying neural processes that support it will fail. Philosopher Lynne Rudder Baker has outlined four main contemporary approaches to belief in her controversial book Saving Belief: Our common-sense understanding of belief is correct – Sometimes called the "mental sentence theory," in this conception, beliefs exist as coherent entities, the way we talk about them in everyday life is a valid basis for scientific endeavour. Jerry Fodor is one of the principal defenders of this point of view. Our common-sense understanding of belief may not be correct, but it is close enough to make some useful predictions – This view argues that we will reject the idea of belief as we know it now, but that there may be a correlation between what we take to be a belief when someone says "I believe that snow is white" and how a future theory of psychology will explain this behaviour.
Most notably, philosopher Stephen Stich has argued for this particular understanding of belief. Our common-sense understanding of belief is wrong and will be superseded by a radically different theory that will have no use for the concept of belief as we know it – Known as eliminativism, this view argues that the concept of belief is like obsolete theories of times past such as the four humours theory of medicine, or the phlogiston theory of combustion. In these cases science hasn't provided us with a more detailed account of these theories, but rejected them as valid scientific concepts to be replaced by different accounts; the Churchlands argue that our common-sense concept of belief is similar in that as we discover more about neuroscience and the brain, the inevitable conclusion will be to reject the belief hypothesis in its entirety. Our common-sense unders
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Irreconcilable Differences is a 1984 American comedy-drama film starring Ryan O'Neal, Shelley Long, Drew Barrymore. The film was a minor box-office success. For their performances, both Long and Barrymore were nominated for Golden Globe Awards; the film begins with media attention surrounding Casey Brodsky's decision to divorce her parents and have her nanny, Maria Hernandez, appointed as Casey's legal guardian, which results in her parents and Lucy Brodsky, both being brought out of their respective self-absorbed lives and made to testify in court about their personal lives. Much of the film is presented as flashbacks. At a truck stop in Indiana on the night of January 20th, 1973, film professor Albert Brodsky is hitchhiking across the country, where he gets picked up by Lucy van Patten, a woman who has ambitions of writing books for children, but her fiancé "Bink", a gruff Navy man, represses her, she is depressed about being relegated to the life of a military wife. Through getting to know Albert, Lucy loosens her inhibitions, breaks off her engagement to Bink, marries Albert shortly afterwards.
The couple moves to California, where Albert attaches himself to a famed Hollywood producer, who entrusts him to film a romantic script the producer has kept shelved for a long time. When Albert suffers from writer's block about the romance, Lucy aids him with her writing skills; the film becomes a box-office hit and garners him an Academy Award nomination for Best Director, but cracks are forming in Albert and Lucy's marriage since Albert was slow to credit Lucy for the screenplay and he is traveling to places such as Cannes, while leaving his daughter in the care of Lucy, or more Maria, their maid. When Albert sees a young woman named Blake Chandler working at a hot dog stand, he takes her home and casts her in his next movie, which becomes a moderate success; when Lucy sees signs that Albert is interested in Blake for more than just acting, she divorces him, further troubling Casey. Albert ensures. A turning point occurs when Lucy, angered both at Albert's procrastination in paying child support and at the sight of a sloppy, overweight woman in a supermarket buying the same comfort food as she is, hurries home and channels her anger into writing a tell-all novel.
Meanwhile, Albert's producers are warning him not to attempt his musical remake of Gone with the Wind, which he is calling Atlanta, but Albert ignores their advice, his budget for the picture skyrockets because of his own perfectionist attitude and Blake's mediocre singing voice, her diva-like behavior on set. Atlanta becomes an embarrassing box-office bomb, costing Albert any assignments in Hollywood and causing Blake to desert him. Meanwhile, Lucy's novel becomes a runaway success, allowing her to buy and move into Albert's former mansion, she begins to morph into a diva. In a final confrontation and Lucy quarrel in front of Casey about her custody, which degenerates into a literal tug of war, with each parent pulling on one of Casey's arms, ignoring her pained protests; that is the final straw for Casey, who decides to divorce both her parents. The film returns to the courtroom, where Casey gives testimony that just because two parents no longer love each other, that does not give them the right to ignore their children.
Both Albert and Lucy break down in tears. Maria is given legal custody of Casey; the film ends months with Casey still living with Maria and her family. Albert seems to be doing better now, getting modest but regular work directing TV commercials and sitcoms, is being considered to direct a B movie, Lucy has returned to her more down-to-earth personality. Both Lucy and Albert arrive at Maria's house for visitation with Casey at the same time by mistake, the three of them decide to go out and eat together at a family restaurant, suggesting now a more peaceful, though decidedly bittersweet, relationship exists among them. Ryan O'Neal as Albert Brodsky Shelley Long as Lucy Van Patten Brodsky Drew Barrymore as Casey Brodsky Sam Wanamaker as David Kessler Allen Garfield as Phil Hanner Sharon Stone as Blake Chandler Beverlee Reed as Dotty Chandler Hortensia Colorado as Maria Hernandez David Graf as Bink Jessica Christensen as infant Casey Brodsky Irreconcilable Differences was inspired by the divorce between director Peter Bogdanovich and his first wife, producer Polly Platt, after he left her for actress Cybill Shepherd.
Charles Shyer and Nancy Myers had produced Private Benjamin. The success of that movie enabled Shyer to direct this. "I love the movie," said Ryan O'Neal. "So I did it for no salary, just points. It was made for under $6 million, so they didn't have the money to pay us. Still, I think. Maybe I should work like that more often." The film received mixed to positive reviews from critics. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 57% based on 14 reviews, an average rating of 5.6/10. Nominated - Best Actress - Comedy or Musical Nominated - Best Supporting Actress List of American films of 1984 Irreconcilable Differences at Rotten Tomatoes Irreconcilable Differences on IMDb Irreconcilable Differences at Box Office Mojo
Divorce known as dissolution of marriage, is the process of terminating a marriage or marital union. Divorce entails the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state. Divorce laws vary around the world, but in most countries divorce requires the sanction of a court or other authority in a legal process, which may involve issues of distribution of property, child custody, child visitation / access, parenting time, child support, division of debt. In most countries, monogamy is required by law, so divorce allows each former partner to marry another person. Divorce is different from annulment, which declares the marriage null and void, with legal separation or de jure separation or with de facto separation. Reasons for divorce vary, from sexual incompatibility or lack of independence for one or both spouses to a personality clash; the only countries that do not allow divorce are the Philippines, the Vatican City and the British Crown Dependency of Sark.
In the Philippines, divorce for non-Muslim Filipinos is not legal unless the husband or wife is an alien and satisfies certain conditions. The Vatican City is an ecclesiastical state. Countries that have recently legalized divorce are Italy, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Ireland and Malta. Grounds for divorce vary from country to country. Marriage may be seen as a status, or a combination of these. Where it is seen as a contract, the refusal or inability of one spouse to perform the obligations stipulated in the contract may constitute a ground for divorce for the other spouse. In contrast, in some countries, divorce is purely no fault. Many jurisdictions offer both the option of a no fault divorce as well as an at fault divorce; this is the case, for example, in many US states. Though divorce laws vary between jurisdictions, there are two basic approaches to divorce: fault based and no-fault based; however in some jurisdictions that do not require a party to claim fault of their partner, a court may still take into account the behavior of the parties when dividing property, evaluating custody, shared care arrangements and support.
In some jurisdictions one spouse may be forced to pay the attorney's fees of another spouse. Laws vary as to the waiting period. Residency requirements vary. However, issues of division of property are determined by the law of the jurisdiction in which the property is located. In Europe, divorce laws differ from country to country, reflecting differing legal and cultural traditions. In some countries in some former communist countries, divorce can be obtained only on one single general ground of "irretrievable breakdown of the marriage". Yet, what constitutes such a "breakdown" of the marriage is interpreted differently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, ranging from liberal interpretations to quite restrictive ones. Separation constitutes a ground of divorce in some European countries. Note that "separation" does not mean separate residences – in some jurisdictions, living in the same household but leading a separate life is sufficient to constitute de facto separation. Divorce laws are not static.
In the 21st century, many European countries have made changes to their divorce laws, in particular by reducing the length of the necessary periods of separation, e.g. Scotland in 2006; some countries have overhauled their divorce laws, such as Spain in 2005, Portugal in 2008. A new divorce law came into force in September 2007 in Belgium, creating a new system, no-fault. Bulgaria modified its divorce regulations in 2009. In Italy, new laws came into force in 2014 and 2015 with significant changes in Italian law in matter of divorce: apart from shortening of the period of obligatory separation, are allowed other forms of getting a divorce – as an alternative to court proceedings, i.e. the negotiations with the participation of an advocate or agreement made before the registrar of Public Registry Office. Austria, instead, is a European country; the liberalization of divorce laws is not without opposition in the United States. Indeed, in the US, certain conservative and religious organizations are lobbying for laws which restrict divorce.
In 2011, in the US, the Coalition for Divorce Refor