New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Pierre Dewey LaFontaine Jr. known professionally as Pete Fountain, was an American jazz clarinetist. Pierre Dewey Fountain, Jr. was born on White Street, in New Orleans, between Dumaine and St. Ann, in a small Creole cottage-style frame house, to Pierre, Sr. and Madeline. Pete was the great-grandson of a French immigrant, François Fontaine, born in Toulon, circa 1796, came to the U. S. in the early 19th century, died on the Mississippi Gulf Coast circa 1885. Pete's father, a truck driver and part-time musician, changed the family name to Fountain, he started playing clarinet as a child at the McDonogh 28 school located on Esplanade Avenue. As a child, young Pete was sickly battling respiratory infections due to weakened lungs, he was given expensive medication but it proved to be not effective. During a pharmacy visit, Pete's father began a discussion with a neighborhood doctor, there shopping and talked with him about his son's condition; the doctor agreed to see the boy the following day. After a short exam, the doctor confirmed the weak lung condition and advised the father to try an unorthodox treatment: purchase the child a musical instrument, anything he has to blow into.
The same day, they went to a local music store and, given his choice of instruments, Pete chose the clarinet. At first, Pete was unable to produce a sound from the instrument, but he continued to practice and not only made sounds and music, but improved the health of his lungs, he took private lessons but learned to play jazz by playing along with phonograph records of first Benny Goodman and Irving Fazola. By the time he reached his teens, he was playing regular gigs in the nightclubs on Bourbon Street. According to Fountain: When I was a high school senior, my history teacher asked me why I didn’t study more... I answered that I was too busy playing clarinet every night, when I told him I was making scale — about $125 a week — he said, more than he made and I should play full time. I guess. One of Fountain's early engagements were with the bands of Monk Hazel. Fountain founded the Basin Street Six in 1950 with trumpeter George Girard. In 1954, after the Basin Street Six folded, Fountain went to Chicago to play with the Dukes of Dixieland returned to New Orleans and teamed up with Al Hirt to lead a band, playing an extended residence at Dan Levy’s Pier 600.
A talent scout for Lawrence Welk, who saw Fountain performing at the Pier 600, invited him to join Welk's orchestra in Los Angeles, where he relocated and lived for two years. Fountain became well known for his many solos on Welk's ABC television show, The Lawrence Welk Show, he was rumored to have quit when Welk refused to let him "jazz up" a Christmas carol on the 1958 Christmas show. Other accounts, including one in Fountain's autobiography A Closer Walk With Pete Fountain, indicate he in fact played a jazzy rendition of "Silver Bells" on the show which upset Welk, leading to Fountain's departure in early 1959. In an interview, Fountain said he left The Lawrence Welk Show because "champagne and bourbon don't mix." Fountain was hired by Decca Records A&R head Charles "Bud" Dant and went on to produce 42 hit albums with Dant. After Welk's death, Fountain would join with the Welk musical family for reunion shows. Fountain returned to New Orleans, played with the Dukes of Dixieland began leading bands under his own name.
He owned his own club in the French Quarter in the 1970s. He acquired "Pete Fountain's Jazz Club" at the Riverside Hilton in downtown New Orleans; the New Orleans Jazz Club presented "Pete Fountain Day" on October 19, 1959, with celebrations honoring the pride of their city, concluding with a packed concert that evening. His Quintett was made up of his studio recording musicians, Stan Kenton's bassist Don Bagley, vibeist Godfrey Hirsch, pianist Merle Koch, the double bass drummer Jack Sperling. Fountain brought these same players together in 1963. Pete would make the trek to Hollywood many times, appearing on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson 56 times. Fountain opened his club, the French Quarter Inn, located in the heart of the famed French Quarter district, at 800 Bourbon Street, in the spring of 1960, his group members were Oliver "Stick" Felix on bass, John Probst on piano, Paul Guma on guitar, Godfrey Hirsch on vibes, Jack Sperling on drums. In no time at all, major entertainers found their way there.
Cliff Arquette and Jonathan Winters performed their comedy routines. Over the next few years Frank Sinatra, Phil Harris, Carol Lawrence and Robert Goulet, Keely Smith, Robert Mitchum, Brenda Lee, among many others, came to the club. Many would perform with the band, Brenda Lee's sit-in resulted in a duet record album recorded by her and Pete. Benny Goodman came without bringing his clarinet, his greatest friendly rivalry was with trumpeter Al Hirt, whose club was down the street from Fountain's. They stole musicians from each other, sometimes came into each other's clubs and played together, they were good friends who came up together and recorded several albums together. In 2003, Fountain closed his club at the Hilton with a performance before a packed house filled with musical friends and fans, he began performing two nights a week at Casino Magic in Bay St. Louis, where he had a home. After heart surgery in 2006, he performed at the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival and helped reopen the Bay St. Louis casino.
It has since been renamed the
The E-flat clarinet is a member of the clarinet family. It is considered the sopranino or piccolo member of the clarinet family. Smaller in size and higher in pitch than the more common B♭ clarinet, it is a transposing instrument in E♭, sounding a minor third higher than written. In Italian it is sometimes referred to as a terzino and is listed in B♭-based scores as terzino in Mi♭, The E♭ clarinet is used in orchestras, concert bands, marching bands, plays a central role in clarinet choirs, carrying the high melodies that would be treacherous for the B♭ clarinet. Solo repertoire is limited; the E♭ clarinet is required to play at the top of its range for much of the time to take advantage of its piercing quality. Fingerings in that register are more awkward than on the lower part of the instrument, making high, fast passages difficult. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the clarinet in high F took this role until the E♭ clarinet took over beginning sometime in the second decade of the 1800s.
Although the E♭ is somewhat of a rarity in school bands, it is a staple instrument in college and other upper level ensembles. Unlike the B♭ soprano clarinet which has numerous musicians performing on each part, the E♭ clarinet part is played by only one musician in a typical concert band; this is because the E♭ clarinet has a bright, shrill sound similar to the sound of the piccolo. It plays the role of a garnish instrument along with the piccolo, duo segments between the two instruments are quite common; the E♭ clarinet is heard playing along with the flutes and/or oboes. Important soloistic parts in standard band repertoire for the E♭ clarinet include the second movement of Gustav Holst's First Suite in E-flat for Military Band and his piece "Hammersmith", Paul Hindemith's Symphony in B-flat for Band, Gordon Jacob's William Byrd Suite; the E♭ clarinet is a featured player in modern wind band repertoire, such as Adam Gorb's Yiddish Dances, where it takes on a solo role for much of the five-movement piece.
While most E♭ clarinets are built and marketed for professionals or advanced students, an inexpensive plastic E♭ clarinet dubbed the "Kinder-Klari" has been produced for beginning children's use. It has a simplified fingering system, lacking some of alternative fingerings; the larger D clarinet is rare, although it was common in the early and mid-eighteenth century. From the end of that century to the present it has become less common than the clarinets in E♭, B♭, A, or C. Handel’s Overture in D major for two clarinets and horn was written for two D clarinets. D clarinets were once employed by some composers to be used by one player equipped with instruments in D and E♭ — analogous to a player using instruments in B♭ and A. In modern performance, it is normal to transpose D clarinet parts for E♭ clarinet; the rationale underlying a composer's choice between E♭ and D clarinet is difficult to discern and can seem perverse when the option not chosen would be easier for the player to execute. For instance, the original version of Arnold Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony No. 1 is for E♭ clarinet while the orchestral version is for D.
Certain passages of Maurice Ravel's Daphnis et Chloe, are set in concert D but are scored for E♭ clarinet, with the effect that some fingerings in those passages are difficult on the E-flat clarinet, forced to play in its B major, but would be much easier on a D clarinet, which would play in its C major. Another famous example is the D clarinet part of Richard Strauss's Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche. Solo literature for these instruments is sparse; the following are notable: Johann Melchior Molter: Six Clarinet Concerti. Concerti by Jerome Neff and William Neil. Ernesto Cavallini: Carnival of Venice variations, Fantasia on a Theme from Ultimo Giorno Di Pomeii, I figli di Eduardo 4th. Henri Rabaud: "Solo de Concours" for E♭ clarinet. Amilcare Ponchielli: Quartetto for B♭ and E♭ clarinets and oboe, with piano accompaniment. Giacinto Scelsi: "Tre Pezzi for E♭ Clarinet" William Bolcom: "Suite of Four Dances for E♭ Clarinet" Manuel Lillo Torregrosa: "Teren Rof", "Vivencias", "Obviam ire siglo", "Angular": Concerts 1, 2, 3, 4 for E♭ Clarinet and Band Arnold Schoenberg: Suite, op.
29. Anton Webern: Drei Lieder fur Singstimme, Es-Klarinette und Gitarre Op.18. Parts written for D clarinet are played on the more popular E♭ clarinet, with the player transposing or playing from a written part transposed a semitone lower. Orchestral compositions and operas with notable E♭ or D clarinet solos include: Hector Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique Maurice Ravel: Boléro Richard Strauss: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche Igor Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring Dmitri Shostakovich - Symphony No. 6, The Age of Gold Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk Gustav Mahler - Symphony No. 1 in D Major Other orchestral compositions and operas making extensive use of E♭ or D clarinet include: Béla Bartók - Bluebeard's Castle, Miraculous Mandarin Leonard Bernstein - Candide, West Side Story, On the Town, Divertimento for Orchestra, Slava! A Political Overture Aaron Copland - El Salon Mexico Edward Elgar - Symphony No. 2 Leoš Janáček - Sinfonietta Gustav Mahler - Symphonies Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (4th movement
Edmond Hall was an American jazz clarinetist and bandleader. Over his long career Hall worked extensively with many top performers as both a sideman and bandleader and is best known for the 1941 chamber jazz song "Profoundly Blue,", regarded as a pre-World War II jazz classic. Born in Reserve, about 40 miles west of New Orleans on the Mississippi River and his siblings were born into a musical family, his father, Edward Blainey Hall, mother, Caroline Duhe, had eight children, Moretta, Robert, Clarence and Herbert. His father, played the clarinet in the Onward Brass Band, joined by Edmond's maternal uncles, Jules Duhe on trombone, Lawrence Duhe on clarinet, Edmond Duhe on guitar; the Hall brothers, Robert and Herbert, all became clarinetists, but Edmond was first taught guitar by his uncle Edmond. When Hall picked up the clarinet, "he could play it within a week, he started Monday and played it Saturday," his brother Herb recalled in an interview with Manfred Selchow, who wrote a biography of Hall titled Profoundly Blue.
Hall worked as a farmhand, but by 1919 he had become tired of the hard work, despite his parents' worries of finding a decent job as a musician, he left for New Orleans. The first New Orleans band he played with was that of Bud Rousell, he played with Jack Carey and blues cornetist Chris Kelley. In 1920, he went to a dance at Economy Hall in New Orleans. Petit needed a replacement on clarinet, he hired Hall. After two years, he moved to Pensacola and joined Lee Collins's band, followed by Mack Thomas, the Pensacola Jazzers, he met trumpeter Cootie Williams and with Williams he joined the Alonzo Ross DeLuxe Syncopators. Hall moved to New York City in 1928 and was a member of the Claude Hopkins orchestra until 1935. Hall had been featured on alto and baritone saxophone since 1922; when he joined Billy Hicks's band, the Sizzling Six, he had a position as a full-time clarinetist. On June 15, 1937, he had his first recording session with Billie Holiday, accompanied by Lester Young on tenor saxophone.
In 1940 Henry "Red" Allen arrived at the Café Society, Hall became the band's clarinetist. Hall spent nine years at the Cafe Society and recording in between jobs with many of his contemporaries, such as Sid Catlett, Charlie Christian, Ida Cox, Wild Bill Davison, Sidney De Paris, Vic Dickenson, Roy Eldridge, Bud Freeman, Coleman Hawkins, Eddie Heywood, J. C. Higginbotham, Meade Lux Lewis, Lucky Millinder, Hot Lips Page, Zutty Singleton, Joe Sullivan, Art Tatum, Jack Teagarden, Big Joe Turner, Helen Ward, Josh White, he recorded for the first time as a leader in February 1941. Late in 1941 Hall left Allen to join Teddy Wilson, who played at the Café Society. Around this time Hall's style changed, his admiration for Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw caused him to work on his technique. Hall tried a Boehm system clarinet, he soon went back to his beloved Albert System clarinet. During this period, he made many recordings as Edmond Hall's Blue Note Jazzmen, the Edmond Hall Sextet, the Edmond Hall Celeste Quartet, Edmond Hall's Star Quintet, Ed Hall and the Big City Jazzmen, Edmond Hall's Swingtet.
The recording sessions always took place between the work hours of the Café Society and included many of the musicians who performed there. Hall became popular among musicians and critics and was invited to the Town Hall Concerts led by Eddie Condon. In 1944 Teddy Wilson formed a trio. Hall became a bandleader after being asked by owner of Cafe Society, he performed at Town Hall. In an Esquire magazine poll, he was voted the second-best clarinet player, behind the clarinetist he admired most, Benny Goodman; as bop became the dominant style of jazz in the mid-1940s, Barney Josephson sought new musicians to play Café Society. In June 1947 Hall left the club. Early in 1947 Louis Armstrong's appearance at Carnegie Hall was announced. Hall and his small combo were picked to accompany Armstrong during half of the program; as a result of this concert, Armstrong would abandon his big band and switch a small combo, the All Stars. In September 1947 Hall joined the All Star Stompers with Wild Bill Davison, Ralph Sutton and Baby Dodds.
Meanwhile, Barney Josephson again asked Hall to return to Uptown Café Society with a new band. Business worsened and Josephson closed Uptown in December 1947. Hall took his men back to Downtown Café Society, but in June 1948 Hall's band was replaced with the Dave Martin Trio. In the fall of 1948 Hall took a job at Boston's Savoy Cafe, playing with members of Bob Wilber's band, he promoted a concert with George Wein. Steve Connolly of the Savoy Cafe asked Hall to replace Bob Wilber. Hall's band, the Edmond Hall All Stars, began playing the Savoy on April 4, 1949. Hall left the Savoy in early March 1950 to return to New York, he played festivals, including one job in San Francisco. Eddie Condon called Hall in San Francisco. Hall stayed with Condon, playing other jobs as well with members from Condon's band. An example was the Annual Steamboat Ball in June 1951 and the frequent sessions for the Dr. Jazz broadcasts during 1952. Condon's band recorded many sessions during Hall's engagement. In November 1952 Hall participated in a special concert, "Hot Versus Cool," which pitted New Orleans-style jazz against bop.
The New Orleans-style musicians were Hall, Dick Cary, Vic
Candy Candido was an American radio performer, bass player and animation voice actor, best remembered for his famous line, "I'm feeling mighty low." Born Jonathan Joseph Candido on Christmas Day in 1913 in New Orleans, Candido, who used the legal name John B. Candido, was a bassist and vocalist in Ted Fio Rito's big band, they can be seen in a Soundie, "Ma, He's Making Eyes at Me". In 1933 he married Anita Bivona. Candido's distinctive, four-octave speaking voice became familiar to radio moviegoers. Speaking his lines in his normal tenor, he would adopt a high, squeaky soprano and just as plunge into a gruff bass, his weekly repetition of "I'm feeling mighty low" on Jimmy Durante's radio show made it a national catchphrase. The running gag became so familiar; the line can be heard in the 1950 Bugs Bunny cartoon Homeless Hare, although it was not spoken there by Candido. Candido provided the voice of a skeleton in Abbott and Costello in the Foreign Legion, he teamed with Bud Abbott during Abbott's attempted comeback in 1960.
He was the voice of the bear in the Gentle Ben TV series, he worked as a voice actor on animated films, notably for Walt Disney, where he portrayed the voice of the Indian Chief in Peter Pan, one of Maleficent's goons in Sleeping Beauty, the Captain of the Guard the crocodile in Robin Hood, the deep voiced prisoner in the Haunted Mansion attraction, Fidget the peg-legged bat and a Reprobate in the Pub in The Great Mouse Detective. Other animated films with Candido voices include Chuck Jones' adaptation of The Phantom Tollbooth, the Ralph Bakshi movies Hey Good Lookin' and Heavy Traffic, his various credited and uncredited roles as an actor and vocalist in live-action films include Sadie McKee, Only Angels Have Wings, The Wizard of Oz, Rhythm Parade, Campus Rhythm, Sarge Goes to College, Smart Politics and The Great Rupert. Candido recorded a few children's 78 RPM records for Capitol Records: CAS-3105 - Side One "I'm Popeye the Sailor Man", Side Two "The Little White Duck" CAS-3156 - Side One "You're Nothin' But a Nothin'", Side Two "Barnacle Bill the Sailor" Candido died in his sleep at his Burbank, California home.
He was interred in San Fernando Mission Cemetery. Candy Candido on IMDb
The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B♭ clarinet, it is pitched in B♭, but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B♭ clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A exist, but are rare. Bass clarinets perform in orchestras, wind ensembles/concert bands in marching bands, play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular. Someone who plays a bass clarinet is called a bass clarinetist. Most modern bass clarinets are straight-bodied, with a small upturned silver-colored metal bell and curved metal neck. Early examples varied in some having a doubled body making them look similar to bassoons; the bass clarinet is heavy and is supported either with a neck strap or an adjustable peg attached to its body. While Adolphe Sax imitated its upturned metal bell in his design of the larger saxophones, the two instruments are fundamentally different. Bass clarinet bodies are most made of grenadilla or plastic resin, while saxophones are made of metal.
More all clarinets have a bore, the same diameter along the body. This cylindrical bore differs from the saxophone's conical one and gives the clarinet its characteristic tone, causing it to overblow at the twelfth compared with the saxophone's octave. A majority of modern bass clarinets, like other clarinets in the family, have the Boehm system of keys and fingering. However, bass clarinets are manufactured in Germany with the Oehler system of keywork, most known as the'German" system in the US, because it is used in Germany and Austria, as well as Eastern Europe and Turkey. Most modern Boehm system bass clarinets have an "extension" key allowing them to play to the E♭; this key was added to allow easy transposition of parts for the rare bass clarinet pitched in A, but it now finds significant use in concert band and other literature. A significant difference between soprano and bass clarinet key work is a key pad played by the left-hand index finger with a vent that may be uncovered for certain high notes.
This allows a form of "half-hole" fingering that allows notes in higher registers to be played on the instrument. In addition, older bass clarinets have two register keys, one for middle D♯ and below, the other for middle E and higher. Newer models only have one, mechanically performing the role of two separate register keys. Many professional and advanced bass clarinetists own instruments with extensions down to a C (sounding B♭ identical to the bassoon's lowest B♭, two octaves below written middle C. At concert pitch this note is the B♭ below the second ledger line below the bass staff or B♭1 in scientific pitch notation. Overall, the instrument sounds an octave lower than the B♭ soprano clarinet; as with all wind instruments, the upper limit of the range depends on the quality of the instrument and skill of the clarinetist. According to Aber and Lerstad, who give fingerings up to written C7, the highest note encountered in modern solo literature is the E below that; this gives the bass clarinet a usable range of up to four octaves, quite close to the range of the bassoon.
The bass clarinet has been used in scoring for orchestra and concert band since the mid-19th century, becoming more common during the middle and latter part of the 20th century. A bass clarinet is not always called for in orchestra music, but is always called for in concert band music. In recent years, the bass clarinet has seen a growing repertoire of solo literature including compositions for the instrument alone, or accompanied by piano, orchestra, or other ensemble, it is used in clarinet choirs, marching bands, in film scoring, has played a minor, but persistent, role in jazz. The bass clarinet has an appealing, earthy tone quite distinct from other instruments in its range, drawing on and enhancing the qualities of the lower range of the soprano and alto instrument; the earliest solo passages for bass clarinet—indeed, among the earliest parts for the instrument—occur in Mercadante's 1834 opera Emma d'Antiochia, in which a lengthy solo introduces Emma's scene in Act 2. Two years Giacomo Meyerbeer wrote an important solo for bass clarinet in Act 4 of his opera Les Huguenots.
French composer Hector Berlioz was one of the first of the Romantics to use the bass clarinet in his large-scale works such as the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Op. 15, the Te Deum, Op. 22, the opera Les Troyens, Op. 29. French composers to use the instrument included Maurice Ravel, who wrote virtuosic parts for the bass clarinet in his ballet Daphnis et Chloé, La valse, his orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition; the operas of Richard Wagner make extensive use of the bass clarinet, beginning with Tannhäuser. He incorporated the instrument into the wind section as both a solo and supporting instrument. Wagner pioneered in exploiting the instrument's dark, somber tone to
The contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet are the two largest members of the clarinet family that are in common usage. Modern contrabass clarinets are pitched in BB♭, sounding two octaves lower than the common B♭ soprano clarinet and one octave lower than the B♭ bass clarinet; some contrabass clarinet models have a range extending down to low E♭, while others can play down to low D or further to low C. This range, C – E, sounds B♭ – D; some early instruments were pitched in C. The contrabass clarinet is sometimes known by the name pedal clarinet, this term referring not to any aspect of the instrument's mechanism but to an analogy between its low tones and the pedal division of the organ. Subcontrabass clarinets, lower in pitch than the contrabass, have been built on only an experimental basis; the EE♭ contra-alto clarinet is sometimes referred to as the "EE♭ contrabass clarinet". The earliest known contrabass clarinet was the contre-basse guerrière invented in 1808 by a goldsmith named Dumas of Sommières.
The batyphone was a contrabass clarinet, the outcome of W. F. Wieprecht's endeavor to obtain a contrabass for the reed instruments; the batyphone was made to a scale twice the size of the clarinet in C, the divisions of the chromatic scale being arranged according to acoustic principles. For convenience in stopping holes too far apart to be covered by the fingers, crank or swivel keys were used; the instrument was constructed of maple-wood, had a clarinet mouthpiece of suitable size connected by means of a cylindrical brass crook with the upper part of the tube and a brass bell. The pitch was two octaves below the clarinet in C, the compass being the same, thus corresponding to the modern bass tuba; the tone was pleasant and full, but not powerful enough for the contrabass register in a military band. The batyphone had besides one serious disadvantage: it could be played with facility only in its nearly related keys, G and F major; the batyphone was invented and patented in 1839 by F. W. Wieprecht, director general of all the Prussian military bands, E. Skorra, the court instrument manufacturer of Berlin.
In practice the instrument was found to be of little use, was superseded by the bass tuba. A batyphone bearing the name of its inventors formed part of the Snoeck collection, acquired for Berlin's collection of ancient musical instruments at the Hochschule für Musik. Soon after Wieprecht's invention, Adolphe Sax created his clarinette-bourdon in B♭. In 1889, Fontaine-Besson began producing a new pedal clarinet; this instrument consists of a tube 10 feet long, in which cylindrical and conical bores are combined. The tube is doubled up twice upon itself. There are 13 keys and 2 rings on the tube, the fingering is the same as for the B♭ clarinet except for the eight highest semitones; the tone is rich and full except for the lowest notes, which are unavoidably a little rough in quality, but much more sonorous than the corresponding notes on the double bassoon. The upper register resembles the chalumeau register of the B ♭ clarinet, being sweet. None of these instruments saw widespread use, but they provided a basis for contrabass clarinets made beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by several manufacturers, notably those designed by Charles Houvenaghel for Leblanc, which were more successful.
The contra-alto clarinet is higher-pitched than the contrabass and is pitched in the key of E♭ rather than B♭. The unhyphenated form "contra alto clarinet" is sometimes used, as is "contralto clarinet", but the latter is confusing since the instrument's range is much lower than the contralto vocal range, it is referred to as the E♭ contrabass clarinet and the great bass It is the second-largest member of the clarinet family in regular use, larger than the more common bass clarinet but not as large as the B♭ contrabass clarinet. Like other clarinets, the contra-alto clarinet is a wind instrument that uses a reed to produce sound; the keys of the contra-alto are similar to the keys on smaller clarinets, are played in the same way. Some contra-alto clarinet models have a range extending down to low E♭, sounding as the lowest G♭ on the piano, while others can play down to low C; the earliest contra-alto clarinets were developed in the first half of the nineteenth century. Albert built an instrument in F around 1890.
In the late 19th and early 20th century contra-alto clarinets in EE♭ attained some degree of popularity. The contra-alto clarinet is used in concert bands and clarinet choirs, where it though not always, plays the bass line of a piece of music. While there are few parts written for it, the contra-alto can play the baritone saxophone part and sounds the same pitch, it is used in jazz, a few solo pieces have been written for it. The contra-alto clarinet is used in a few Broadway pit orchestras, with its parts being written in reed books as a doubler instrument (e.g. with sop