Fremont is a city in Alameda County, United States. It was incorporated on January 23, 1956, from the annexing of Centerville, Irvington, Mission San José, Warm Springs; the city is named after John C. Frémont, an American explorer and former US Senator from California, Governor from Arizona, Major General in the Union Army, the first Republican presidential candidate, in 1856. Located in the southeast San Francisco Bay Area and straddling both the East Bay and South Bay regions, Fremont has a rapidly-growing population of around 230,000, it is one of the largest cities by land area and the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, behind San Jose, San Francisco, Oakland. It directly borders and is the closest East Bay city to Silicon Valley as formally defined, is thus associated with it; the city has an extensive and expanding base of both tech industry and workers. The area consisting of Fremont and the cities of Newark and Union City is known collectively as the Tri-City Area.
The recorded history of the Fremont area began on June 6, 1795, when Mission San José was founded by the Spaniard Father Fermin de Lasuen. The Mission was established at the site of the Ohlone village of Oroysom. On their second day in the area, the Mission party killed a grizzly bear in Niles Canyon; the first English-speaking visitor to Fremont was the renowned trapper and explorer Jedediah Smith in 1827. The Mission prospered reaching a population of 1,887 inhabitants in 1831; the influence of the missionaries declined after 1834, when the Mexican government enacted secularization. José de Jesus Vallejo, brother of Mariano Vallejo, was the grantee of the Rancho Arroyo de la Alameda Mexican land grant, his family was influential in the Fremont area in the late colonial era, owned and built a flour mill at the mouth of Niles Canyon. In 1846 the town's namesake John C. Frémont led a military expedition to map a trail through Mission Pass for reaching the Pacific coast and to take possession of California from Mexico for the United States.
The Fremont area grew at the time of the California Gold Rush. A town called Mission San José grew up around the old mission, with its own post office from 1850. Agriculture dominated the economy with nursery plants and olives as leading crops. In 1868 the 6.8-magnitude Hayward earthquake on the Hayward Fault collapsed buildings throughout the Fremont area, ruining Mission San José and its outbuildings. Until the 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused its destruction, the Fremont area's Palmdale Winery was the largest in California; the ruins of the Palmdale Winery are still visible near the Five Corners in Irvington. From 1912 to 1915 the Niles section of the Fremont area was the earliest home of California's motion picture industry. Charlie Chaplin filmed several movies in the Fremont area, most notably The Tramp. Fremont was incorporated under the leadership of Wally Pond in 1956, when five towns in the area, Centerville, Mission San José, Warm Springs came together to form a city. Glenmoor Gardens, the largest subdivision in Fremont, was under construction in the area, by developers Ralph E. Cotter, Jr. James R. Meyer, civil engineer Fred T. Duvall, contractors James L. Reeder, Robert H. Reeder.
When the Glenmoor Gardens Homeowners Association was incorporated, in March 1953, there were no more than 75 houses in the subdivision. It was the first such organization in the Fremont area; the five-member board of directors was set up to oversee a full range of services, from police and fire protection to street maintenance. Fremont became more industrialized between 1953 and 1962. A boom in high-tech employment in the 1980s to the late 1990s in the Warm Springs District, caused rapid development in the city and linked the city with the Silicon Valley; the Apple factory where the first Mac computer was manufactured was located in Fremont. Other semiconductor and telecommunications firms soon opened in the city, including Cirrus Logic, Asyst Technologies, Mattson Technology, Lam Research, Premisys Communications, Nextlink California. 750 high tech companies had offices, headquarters or production facilities in Fremont by 1999. These firms included fifteen of the top one hundred fastest-growing public companies in the San Francisco Bay Area and eighteen of the top fifty companies in the East Bay.
The high-tech growth in Fremont is a major industry for the city. The General Motors automotive assembly plant in South Fremont was the town's largest employer, Fremont was known for its drag strip. In the 1980s, the plant became a joint venture automotive assembly plant of Toyota and General Motors, was renamed NUMMI. Toyota and NUMMI shut down its operations in early 2010. Part of the plant was acquired in June 2010 by Tesla Motors as its primary production plant, known as the Tesla Factory. Solyndra, a solar panel manufacturer, was promoted in 2010 by President Barack Obama as a model for government investment in green technology after his administration approved a $535-million Department of Energy loan guarantee and the company built a $733 million state-of-the-art robotic facility, but in 2011 the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and laid-off 1,000 workers. Data storage company Seagate Technology, incorporated in the Republic of Ireland with executive offices in Cupertino, acquired the former Solyndra building.
The first Fremont post office o
Chasmaporthetes known as hunting or running hyena, is an extinct genus of hyenas distributed in Eurasia, North America, Africa during the Pliocene-Pleistocene epochs, living from 4.9 million to 780,000 years ago, existing for about 4.12 million years. The genus arose from Eurasian Miocene hyenas such as Thalassictis or Lycyaena, with C. borissiaki being the oldest known representative. The species C. ossifragus was the only hyena to cross the Bering land bridge into the Americas, ranged over what is now Arizona and Mexico during Blancan and early Irvingtonian Land Mammal ages, between 5.0 and 1.5 million years ago. Chasmaporthetes was one of the so-called "dog-like" hyenas, a hyaenid group which, in contrast to the now more common "bone-crushing" hyenas, evolved into slender-limbed, cursorial hunters like modern canids; the genus has entered the popular culture lexicon as a result of cryptozoologic claims, having been proposed as the origin of the American Shunka Warakin and the Cuitlamiztli.
Chasmaporthetes was named by Hay, who noted the name to be a reference to the possibility that the beginning of the Grand Canyon was witnessed by the North American species, C. ossifragus. The genus type species is Chasmaporthetes ossifragus, it was assigned to Hyaenidae by Hay and Flynn. At least nine species are recognised: Chasmaporthetes lunensis Del Campana, 1914 C. ossifragus Hay, 1921 C. borissiaki Khomenko, 1932 C. australis Hendey, 1974 C. bonisi Koufos, 1987 C. exitelus Kurtén & Werdelin, 1988 C. nitidula Geraads, 1997 C. melei Rook et al, 2004 C. gangsriensis Tseng, Li, & Wang, 2013 The limb bones of Chasmaporthetes were long and slender like those of cheetahs, its cheek teeth were slender and sharp-edged like those of a cat. Chasmaporthetes inhabited open ground and was a daytime hunter. In Europe, the species C. lunensis competed with the giant cheetah Acinonyx pardinensis, may have preyed on the small bourbon gazelle and the chamois antelope. The North American C. ossifragus was similar in build to C. lunensis, but had more robust jaws and teeth.
It may have preyed on the giant marmot Paenemarmota, competed with the far more numerous Borophagus diversidens. A study on the genus' premolar intercuspid notches indicated Chasmaporthetes was hypercarnivorous rather than durophagous as its modern cousins are. Anton, M. Turner, A. Salesa, M. J. Morales, J. A complete skull of Chasmaporthetes lunensis from the Spanish Pliocene site of La Puebla de Valverde Estudios Geol. Vol. 62, n.º 1, 375-388, enero-diciembre 2006. ISSN 0367-0449
The Subboreal is a climatic period before the present one, of the Holocene. It lasted from 3710 to 450 BCE; the composite scientific term Subboreal, meaning "below the Boreal," is derived from the Latin sub and the Greek Βορέας, from Boreas, the god of the North Wind. The word was first introduced in 1889 by Rutger Sernander to distinguish it from Axel Blytt's Boreal, established in 1876; the Subboreal was followed by the Subatlantic. The Subboreal is equivalent to W. H. Zagwijn's pollen zones IVa and IVb and T. Litt's pollen zone VIII. In the pollen scheme of Fritz Theodor Overbeck, it occupies pollen zone X. In paleoclimatology, it is divided into a Younger Subboreal; the Subboreal is equivalent to most of the Neolithic and the entire Bronze Age, which started 4200 to 3800 years ago. The Subboreal is defined as 3710 to 5660 years BP; the lower limit is flexible, as some authors prefer to use 4400 BCE, or 6350 BP in northwestern Poland 4830 BC, or 6780 BP, And others use 5000 calendar years, or 3050 BCE.
The upper limit of the Subboreal and, therefore the beginning of the Subatlantic, is flexible and can be attributed to 1170 to 830 BCE, but it is fixed at 450 BCE. In varve years, the Subboreal corrsponds to 5660 to 2750 years BP; the boundary between the older and the younger Subboreal is considered to be 1350 BCE. The climate was dryer and cooler than in the preceding Atlantic but still warmer than today; the temperatures were 0.7 °C higher than during the following Subatlantic. In Scandinavia the lower limit of glaciers was 100 to 200 m higher than during the Subatlantic. On the whole, the oscillating temperatures receded in the course of the Subboreal by about 0.3 °C. In the Aegean, the beginning of the Subboreal was marked by a pronounced drought, centered around 5600 years BP. Of far greater importance as the coming to an end of the African Humid Period, reflected in the lakes of subtropical Africa experiencing a rapid fall in their water levels. During the interval 6200 to 5000 years BP, drier conditions were in southern Mesopotamia, causing great demographic changes and instigating the end of Uruk.
In Germany, a drastic climatic cooling can be observed around 5000 varve years BP in the maars of the Eifel. In the preceding interval lasting from 8200 till 5000 varve years, the July temperatures were on average still 1 °C higher. At the same time, the January temperatures were rising and the yearly precipitation increased. In Northern Africa and in the Near East, the interval from 4700 to 4100 years BP had renewed and lasting dry conditions, as is indicated by lake level minima. Between 4500 and 4100 years BP, monsoonal precipitations weakened, a possible cause for the upheavals that led to the end of the Old Kingdom of Egypt; the Levant shows a similar climatic evolution. The dry conditions prevailing in Mesopotamia around 4200 years BP resulted in the downfall of the Akkadian Empire. Levels of carbon dioxide had reached beginning of the Subboreal its Holocene minimal value of 260 ppm. During the Subboreal, it reached 293 ppm at the end of the period; as a comparison, today's value is over 400 ppm.
In Scandinavia, the Atlantic/Subboreal boundary shows a distinct vegetational change. Tat is less pronounced in Western Europe, but its typical mixed oak forest shows quite a fast decline in elm and linden; the decline in linden is not understood. The decline in elm is most due to elm disease, caused by the ascomycete Ceratocystis ulmi, but climatic changes and anthropogenic pressure on the forests must be considered as well; the decline in elm, with a recession from 20 to 4%, as observed in Eifel maar pollen, has been dated in Central and Northern Europe as 4000 years BC, but it more was diachronous over the interval 4350 to 3780 BC. Another important event was the immigration of European beech and hornbeam from their retreats on the Balkan and south of the Apennines; this happened diachronously: beech pollen are found for the first time in the interval 4340 to 3540 BC, hornbeam pollen somewhat between 3400 and 2900 BC. With the start of the Younger Subboreal is the massive spreading of beech.
The establishment of beech and hornbeam was accompanied by indicator plants for human settlements and agriculture like cereals and plantain, hazel was receding. The relatively-dry climate during the subboreal furthered the spreading of heath plants. Like in the Atlantic, the global sea level kept on rising during the Subboreal but at a much slower rate; the increase amounted to about 1 m. At the end of the Subboreal, the sea level was about 1 m below the current value. In the Baltic the Litorina Sea had established itself before the onset of the Subboreal. During the Older Subboreal the second Litorina transgression raised the sea level to 1 m below the actual value. After an intermediate Post-litorine Regression the third Litorina transgression reached 60 cm below present and during the beginning Subatlantic, it reached today's value. In the North Sea region, the Flandrian transgression of the Atlantic was followed by a slight regression or standstill at the beginning of the Subboreal
Turnstones are two bird species that comprise the genus Arenaria in the family Scolopacidae. They are related to calidrid sandpipers and might be considered members of the tribe Calidriini; the genus Arenaria was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760 with the ruddy turnstone as the type species. The genus name arenaria is from Latin arenarius, "inhabiting sand", from arena, "sand"; the genus contains two species: the black turnstone. Both birds are distinctive medium-sized waders, their length is between 20 and 25 cm, with a wingspan between 50 and 60 cm and a body mass between 110 and 130gm. For waders their build is stocky, with short upturned, wedge shaped bills, they are high Arctic breeders, are migratory. Their strong necks and powerful upturned bills are adapted to their feeding technique; as the name implies, these species overturn stones and similar items in search of invertebrate prey. They are coastal, prefer stony beaches to sand, share beach space with other species of waders such as purple sandpipers.
Their appearance in flight is striking, with white patches on the back and tail. The ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres, has a circumpolar distribution, is a long distance migrant, wintering on coasts as far south as South Africa and Australia, it is thus a common sight on coasts everywhere in the world. In breeding plumage, this is a showy bird, with a black-and-white head, chestnut back, white underparts and red legs; the drabber winter plumage is brown above and white below. This is a tame bird and is an opportunist feeder. Unlike most waders, it will scavenge, has a phenomenal list of recorded food items, including human corpses and coconut; the call is a staccato tuck- tuck- tuck. The ruddy turnstone is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies; the black turnstone has a similar structure to its widespread relative, but has black upperparts and chest, white below. It has a much more restricted range than the ruddy turnstone, breeding in western Alaska, wintering on the Pacific coast of the United States.
There exists a fossil bone, a distal piece of tarsometatarsus found in the Edson Beds of Sherman County, Kansas. Dating from the mid-Blancan some 4-3 million years ago, it appears to be from a calidriid somewhat similar to a pectoral sandpiper, but has some traits reminiscent of turnstones. Depending on which traits are apomorphic and plesiomorphic, it may be an ancestral representative of either lineage. Ruddy turnstone – Cornell Lab of Ornithology Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres – USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter Turnstones feeding and bathing
The Atlantic in palaeoclimatology was the warmest and moistest Blytt-Sernander period, pollen zone and chronozone of Holocene northern Europe. The climate was warmer than today, it was preceded by the Boreal, with a climate similar to today’s, was followed by the Subboreal, a transition to the modern. Because it was the warmest period of the Holocene, the Atlantic is referenced more directly as the Holocene climatic optimum, or just climatic optimum; the Atlantic is equivalent to Pollen Zone VII. Sometimes a Pre-atlantic or early Atlantic is distinguished, on the basis of an early dividing cold snap. Other scientists place the Atlantic after the cold snap, assigning the latter to the Boreal; the period is still in the process of definition. It is a question of definition and the criteria: Beginning with the temperatures, as derivable from Greenland ice core data, it is possible to define an'Early' or'Pre-Atlantic' period at around 8040 BC, where the 18O isotope line remains above 33 ppm in the combined curve after Rasmussen et al. which would end at the well-known 6.2 ka BC -cold-event.
Or one single Atlantic period is defined, starting at that just mentioned cold-event. After a lake-level criterion, Kul’kova and others define the Atlantic as running from 8000 to 5000 BP. Early Atlantic, or AT1, was a time of high lake levels, 8000–7000 BP; each period has its distinctive ratios of species. According to the ice-core criterion it is difficult to find a clear boundary, because the measurements still differ too much and alignments are still under construction. Many find a decline of temperature significant enough after 4800 BC. Another criterion comes from bio-stratigraphy: the elm-decline. However, this appears in different regions between 4300 and 3100 BC; the Atlantic was a time of rising temperature and marine transgression on the islands of Denmark and elsewhere. The sea rose to 3 m above its present level by the end of the period; the oysters found. Tides of up to 1 m were present. Inland, lake levels in all north Europe were higher, with fluctuations; the temperature rise had the effect of extending southern climates northward in a short period.
The treelines on northern mountains rose by 600 to 900 m. Thermophilous species migrated northward, they did not replace the species that shifted the percentages in their favor. Across middle Europe, the boreal forests were replaced by climax or "old growth" deciduous ones, though providing a denser canopy, were more open at the base; the dense canopy theory, has been questioned by F. Vera. Oak and hazel require more light. Vera hypothesizes that the lowlands were more open and that the low frequency of grass pollen was caused by the browsing of large herbivores, such as Bos primigenius and Equus ferus. During the Atlantic period the deciduous temperate zone forests of south and central Europe extended northward to replace the boreal mixed forest, which found refugia on the mountain slopes. Mistletoe, Water Chestnut and Ivy were present in Denmark. Grass pollen decreased. Softwood forests were replaced by hardwood. Quercus, both cordata and platyphyllos, oak, linden, Ulmus glabra and ash replaced Betula and Pinus, spreading to the north from further south.
The period is sometimes called "the alder-elm-lime period". In northeast Europe, the Early Atlantic forest was but affected by the rise in temperature; the forest had been pine with an underbrush of hazel, alder and willow. Only about 7% of the forest became broad-leaved deciduous, dropping to Boreal levels in the cooling of the Middle Atlantic. In the warmer Late Atlantic, the broad-leaved trees became 34% of the forest. Along the line of the Danube and the Rhine, extending northward in tributary drainage systems, a new factor entered the forest country: the Linear Pottery culture, clearing the arable land by slash and burn methods, it flourished about 5500–4500 BC, falling within the Atlantic. By the end of the Atlantic and pasture lands extended over much of Europe and the once virgin forests were contained within refugia; the end of the Atlantic is signaled by the "Elm decline", a sharp drop in Elm pollen, thought to be the result of climate, disease or human food-producing activities. In the subsequent cooler Sub-Boreal, forested country gave way to open range once more.
The best picture of Atlantic Period fauna comes from the kitchen middens of the Ertebølle culture of Denmark and others like it. Denmark was more of an archipelago. Humans lived on the shorelines, exploiting waters rich in marine life, marshes teeming with birds, forests where cervids and suids as well as numerous small species were plentiful; the higher water levels offset the effects of the submarine toxic zone in the Baltic Sea. It contained fish now rare there, such as the anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Available were pike, whitefish and ling. Three kinds of seals were found there, the ringed and grey. Mesolithic man whales in the estuaries; the main birds were maritime: the red-throated diver, the black-throated diver, the gannet. The Dalmatian pelican, now found only as far north as south-eastern Europe, has been found in Denmark; the capercaillie, as is the case now, was found in forested areas. In the lofty canopy could be found a continuous zone of smaller animals, such as the ubiquitous squirrel, Sciur
The Hesperocyoninae are a subfamily of extinct canids. The subfamily Hesperocyoninae was named by Martin; the members were reassigned to the family Canidae by Xiaoming Wang in 1999. Hesperocyoninae are basal canids that, according to Wang and Tedford, gave rise to the other canid groups, such as the Borophaginae and Caninae; this disused subfamily was endemic to North America, living from the Duchesnean stage of the Late Eocene through to the early Barstovian stage of the Miocene, lasting around 20 million years. It comprises 26 recognized species. Four major lineages can be defined based on shared characteristics: Mesocyon-Enhydrocyon clade Osbornodon clade Paraenhydrocyon Ectopocynus cladeThe genus Caedocyon forms a distinct clade of its own. Hesperocyon, which lacks the shared derived characters that would include it within any of the aforementioned clades, is ancestral to many of the lineages; some evidence indicates the Paraenhydrocyon clade may be directly descended from Hesperocyon gregarius.
According to Xiaoming Wang, Hesperocyon coloradensis provides an important link between H. gregarius and the Mesocyon-Enhydrocyon clade. According to an analysis of the fossil record of North American fossil carnivorans, the decline of hesperocyonines to extinction during the period from about 20 to 10 million years ago was driven by competition with felids and borophagines. Xiaoming Wang, Richard H. Tedford, Mauricio Antón, Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
A lynx is any of the four species within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx. The name lynx originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ, derived from the Indo-European root leuk- in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes. Two other cats that are sometimes called lynxes, the caracal and the jungle cat, are not members of the genus Lynx. Lynx have a short tail, characteristic tufts of black hair on the tips of their ears, padded paws for walking on snow and long whiskers on the face. Under their neck they have a ruff which has black bars resembling a bow tie, although this is not visible. Body colour varies from medium brown to goldish to beige-white, is marked with dark brown spots on the limbs. All species of lynx have white fur on their chests, bellies and on the insides of their legs, fur, an extension of the chest and belly fur; the lynx's colouring, fur length and paw size vary according to the climate in their range. In the Southwestern United States, they are short-haired, dark in colour and their paws are smaller and less padded.
As climates get colder and more northerly, lynx have progressively thicker fur, lighter colour, their paws are larger and more padded to adapt to the snow. Their paws may be larger than foot; the smallest species are the bobcat and the Canada lynx, while the largest is the Eurasian lynx, with considerable variations within species. The four living species of the genus Lynx are believed to have evolved from the "Issoire lynx", which lived in Europe and Africa during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene; the Pliocene felid Felis rexroadensis from North America has been proposed as an earlier ancestor. Of the four lynx species, the Eurasian lynx is the largest in size, it is native to European, Central Asian, Siberian forests. While its conservation status has been classified as "least concern", populations of Eurasian lynx have been reduced or extirpated from Europe, where it is now being reintroduced; the Eurasian lynx is the third largest predator in Europe after the grey wolf. It is consuming about one or two kilograms of meat every day.
The Eurasian lynx is one of the widest-ranging. During the summer, the Eurasian lynx has a short, reddish or brown coat, replaced by a much thicker silver-grey to greyish-brown coat during winter; the lynx hunts by stalking and jumping on its prey, helped by the rugged, forested country in which it resides. A favorite prey for the lynx in its woodland habitat is roe deer, it will feed however on whatever animal appears easiest, as it is an opportunistic predator much like its cousins. The Canada lynx, or Canadian lynx, is a North American felid that ranges in forest and tundra regions across Canada and into Alaska, as well as some parts of the northern United States; the Canadian lynx ranged from Alaska across Canada and into many of the northern U. S. states. In the eastern states, it resided in the transition zone in which boreal coniferous forests yielded to deciduous forests. By 2010, after an 11-year effort, it had been reintroduced into Colorado, where it had become extirpated in the 1970s.
In 2000, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated the Canada lynx a threatened species in the lower 48 states; the Canada lynx is swimmer. It has a thick coat and broad paws, is twice as effective as the bobcat at supporting its weight on the snow; the Canada lynx feeds exclusively on snowshoe hares. It will hunt medium-sized mammals and birds if hare numbers fall; the Iberian lynx is an endangered species native to the Iberian Peninsula in Southern Europe. It was the most endangered cat species in the world, but conservation efforts have changed its status from critical to endangered. According to the Portuguese conservation group SOS Lynx, if this species dies out, it will be the first feline extinction since the Smilodon 10,000 years ago; the species used to be classified as a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx, but is now considered a separate species. Both species occurred together in central Europe in the Pleistocene epoch, being separated by habitat choice; the Iberian lynx is believed to have evolved from Lynx issiodorensis.
In 2004, a Spanish government survey showed just two isolated breeding populations of Iberian lynx in southern Spain, totaling about 100 lynx. An agreement signed in 2003 by the Spanish Environment Ministry and the Andalusian Environment Council seeks to breed the Iberian lynx in captivity. Three Iberian lynx cubs were born as part of the Spanish program in 2005, at the Centro El Acebuche facility in Doñana National Park; as a result of the Spanish government program and efforts by others, the Iberian lynx "has recovered from the brink of extinction". The IUCN reassessed the species from "critically endangered" to "endangered" in 2015. A 2014 census of the species showed 327 animals in Andalucia in the "reintroduction areas" of Sierra Morena and Montes de Toledo, the Matachel Valley, the Guadiana Valley; the bobcat is a North American wild cat. With 12 recognized subspecies, the bobcat is common throughout southern Canada, the continental United