Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (TV series)
Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea is an American science fiction television series based on the 1961 film of the same name. Both were created by Irwin Allen, which enabled the movie's sets, props, special effects models, sometimes footage, to be used in the production of the television series. Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea was the first of Irwin Allen's four science fiction television series, the longest-running; the show's theme was underwater adventure. Voyage was broadcast on ABC from September 14, 1964, to March 31, 1968, was the decade's longest-running American science fiction television series with continuing characters; the 110 episodes produced included 32 shot in black-and-white, 78 filmed in color. The first two seasons took place in the then-future of the 1970s; the final two seasons took place in the 1980s. The show starred David Hedison; the pilot episode "Eleven Days to Zero" was shown in black-and-white. It introduces the audience to the futuristic nuclear submarine S. S. R. N. Seaview and the lead members of her crew, including the designer and builder of the submarine Admiral Harriman Nelson, Commander Lee Crane, who becomes the Seaview's captain after the murder of her original commanding officer.
The submarine is based at the Nelson Institute of Marine Research in Santa Barbara, is moored some 500 feet beneath the facility in a secret underground submarine pen carved out of solid rock. The Seaview is for undersea marine research and visits many exotic locations in the Seven Seas, but its secret mission is to defend the planet from all world and extraterrestrial threats in the then-future of the 1970s; the first season's 31 episodes included gritty, atmospheric story lines devoted to Cold War themes and excursions into near-future speculative fiction, involving espionage and sci-fi elements. Aliens, sea monsters and dinosaurs were featured, but the primary villains were hostile foreign governments. While fantastic, the scripts had a semblance of reality; the first episodes began with Admiral Nelson and the crew of the Seaview fighting against a foreign government to prevent a world-threatening earthquake, continuing with a foreign government destroying American submarines with new technologies in "The Fear Makers" and "The Enemies".
The season had several ocean peril stories in which the Seaview crew spent the episode dealing with the normal perils of the sea. Two examples are "Submarine Sunk Here" and "The Ghost of Moby Dick"; the season introduced a diving bell and a mini-submarine, the first episodes featuring extraterrestrials and sea monsters. During the course of the first season, Nelson was promoted from a three-star to a four-star admiral, it was established that while a marine research vessel, SSRN Seaview was part of the U. S. nuclear armed fleet. The season ended with the Seaview crew fighting a foreign government to save a defense weapon; the second season began with a trip inside a whale, a trip inside a volcano, a few Cold War intrigue and nuclear war-themed episodes, saw several brushes with world disaster. The season ended with one of the show's few sequels. Due to ABC's demands for a somewhat "lighter" tone to the series, the second season saw an increase in monster-of-the-week type plots, yet there were still some episodes that harkened back to the tone of the first season.
The second season saw a change from black-and-white to color. The beginning of the second season saw the permanent replacement of Chief "Curly" Jones with Chief Francis Ethelbert Sharkey, due to the death of Henry Kulky, who portrayed Chief Jones; the most important change in the series occurred during this season when a notably redesigned Seaview interior was introduced, along with the Flying Sub, a yellow, two-man mini-submarine with passenger capacity. The Flying Sub could become airborne; the futuristic craft increased the Seaview crew's travel options. It was launched from a bay, access to, via a sealed hatch stairway at the bow section; the Seaview's private observation deck from the first season was never seen again. The Seaview control room was expanded and a large rectangular panel screen of flickering lights was added; the Seaview now had a powerful laser beam in its bow light. The small mini-sub from the first season was retained and still used in the color episodes; the ship's enlisted men were given more colorful uniforms and white Keds Champion sneakers.
The traditional sailor uniforms worn in the first season were only seen in stock footage from the first season and on characters who were newly filmed to match up with that footage. A second-season episode, "The Sky's On Fire", was a remake of the basic storyline of Irwin Allen's 1961 film Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea utilizing considerable film color footage, though several film sequences were removed and had been featured in other first-season episodes such as "The Village of Guilt" and "Submarine Sunk Here." A few season two episodes were filmed without Richard Basehart, hospitalized for a bleeding ulcer. He filmed the scenes in the Flying Sub for "The Monster's Web" before hospitalization, requiring a stand in and other characters taking over his lines, he was missing from the next two episodes. These episodes didn't feature his character at all, while in one story "The Menfish" Gary Merrill guested as Admiral Park, a colleague of Nelson's who substituted for him. Basehart returned for "Return of the Phantom," the final episode of the season.
The third season of Voyage to
Red Buttons was an American actor and comedian. He won a Golden Globe for his supporting role in the 1957 film Sayonara. Red Buttons was born Aaron Chwatt on February 5, 1919, in Manhattan, to Jewish immigrants Sophie and Michael Chwatt. At sixteen years old, Chwatt got a job as an entertaining bellhop at Ryan's Tavern in City Island, Bronx; the combination of his red hair and the large, shiny buttons on the bellhop uniforms inspired orchestra leader Charles "Dinty" Moore to call him "Red Buttons," the name under which he would perform. That same summer Buttons worked on the Borscht Belt. Buttons was working at the Irvington Hotel in South Fallsburg, New York, when the Master of Ceremonies became incapacitated, he asked for the chance to replace him. In 1939 Buttons started working for Minsky's Burlesque; the show was a farce set in Pearl Harbor, it was due to open on December 8, 1941. It never did. In years Buttons would joke that the Japanese only attacked Pearl Harbor to keep him off Broadway.
In September 1942 Buttons made his Broadway debut in Vickie with Uta Hagen. That year he appeared in the Minsky's show Wine and Song; this was the last classic Burlesque show in New York City history, as the Mayor La Guardia administration closed it down. Buttons was on stage. Drafted into the United States Army Air Forces, Buttons in 1943 appeared in the Army Air Forces' Broadway show Winged Victory, along with several future stars, including Mario Lanza, John Forsythe, Karl Malden and Lee J. Cobb. A year he appeared in Darryl F. Zanuck's movie version of Winged Victory, directed by George Cukor. Buttons entertained troops in the European Theater in the same Jeep Show unit as Mickey Rooney. After the war Buttons continued to do Broadway shows, he performed at Broadway movie houses with big bands. In 1952, Buttons received his own variety series on television, The Red Buttons Show, which ran for three years on CBS, it was the #11 show in prime time in 1952. In 1953 he recorded and had a two-sided hit with Strange Things Are Happening/The Ho Ho Song, with both sides/songs being the same.
His role in Sayonara was a dramatic departure from his previous work. In this film, co-starring with Marlon Brando, he played Joe Kelly, an American airman stationed in Kobe, Japan during the Korean War, who marries Katsumi, a Japanese woman, but is barred from taking her back to the United States, his moving portrayal of Kelly's calm resolve not to abandon the relationship, the touching reassurance of Katsumi, impressed audiences and critics alike. Buttons won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and Umeki won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the film. After his Oscar-winning role Buttons performed in numerous feature films, including the Africa adventure Hatari! with John Wayne, the adventure Five Weeks in a Balloon, the war epic The Longest Day, the biopic Harlow, the disaster film The Poseidon Adventure, the dance-marathon drama They Shoot Horses, Don't They?, the family comedy Pete's Dragon, the disaster film When Time Ran Out with Paul Newman and the age-reversal comedy 18 Again! with George Burns.
In 1966 Buttons again starred in his own TV series, a spy spoof called The Double Life of Henry Phyfe, which ran for one season. Buttons made memorable guest appearances on several TV programs including The Eleventh Hour, Little House on the Prairie, It's Garry Shandling's Show, Knots Landing and Roseanne, his last TV role was in ER. He became a nationally recognisable comedian, his "Never Got A Dinner" routine was a standard of The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast for many years, he was number 71 on Comedy Central's list of the 100 Greatest Stand-Ups of All Time. Another of his catchphrases was "I did not come here to be made sport of,", taken up by radio talk show host Howie Carr. Buttons received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for television, his star being located at 1651 Vine Street. Buttons married actress Roxanne Arlen in 1947, he married Helayne McNorton on December 8, 1949. They divorced in 1963, his last marriage was to Alicia Pratts, which lasted from January 27, 1964, until her death in March 2001.
Buttons had two Amy Buttons and Adam Buttons. He was the advertising spokesman for Florida, a retirement community. Buttons was an early member of the Synagogue for the Performing Arts, at the time Rabbi Jerome Cutler was the Rabbi. Buttons died of complications from cardiovascular disease on July 13, 2006, at age 87 at his home in Century City, Los Angeles, he was with family members when he died. His ashes were given to his family after cremation. Interview with Red Buttons' Television Writer, August 2012 Red Buttons on IMDb Red Buttons at the TCM Movie Database Red Buttons at the Internet Broadway Database Red Buttons at AllMovie Interview on YouTube by Leon Charney on The Leon Charney Report "Red Buttons on Dean Martin Roast" on YouTube, video, 4 minutes Actor Red Buttons dead at 87
Robert Charles Durman Mitchum was an American film actor, author, poet and singer. Mitchum rose to prominence for his starring roles in several classic films noir, is considered a forerunner of the antiheroes prevalent in film during the 1950s and 1960s, his best-known films include Out of the Past, The Night of the Hunter, Cape Fear. Mitchum was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Story of G. I. Joe. Mitchum is rated number 23 on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest male stars of Classic American Cinema. Robert Mitchum was born in Connecticut, in 1917 into a Norwegian-Irish Methodist family, his mother, Ann Harriet Gunderson, was a Norwegian immigrant and sea captain's daughter. His older sister, was born in 1914, their father James Mitchum was crushed to death in a railyard accident in Charleston, South Carolina, in February 1919, when Robert was less than two years old and Annette was not yet five. Their mother was awarded a government pension, she soon realized she was pregnant.
Her third child, was born in September of that year. Ann married again, to a former Royal Naval Reserve officer, he helped care for her three children. Ann and Morris had a daughter together, Carol Morris, born July 1927 on the family farm in Delaware; when all of the children were old enough to attend school, Ann found employment as a linotype operator for the Bridgeport Post. As a child Mitchum was known as a prankster involved in fistfights and mischief; when he was 12, his mother sent him to live with her parents in Delaware. A year in 1930, he moved in with his older sister Annette, in New York's Hell's Kitchen. After being expelled from Haaren High School, he left his sister and traveled throughout the country on railroad cars, taking a number of jobs, including ditch-digging for the Civilian Conservation Corps and professional boxing, he had many adventures during his years as one of the Depression era's "wild boys of the road". At age 14 in Savannah, Georgia, he was put on a local chain gang.
By Mitchum's own account, he returned to his family in Delaware. During this time, while recovering from injuries that nearly cost him a leg, he met Dorothy Spence, whom he would marry, he soon went back on the road riding the rails to California. Mitchum arrived in Long Beach, California in 1936, staying again with his sister Annette, now going by the name of Julie, she had migrated to the West Coast in the hope of acting in movies. Soon, the rest of the Mitchum family joined them in Long Beach. During this time, Mitchum worked as a ghostwriter for astrologer Carroll Righter, his sister Julie convinced him to join the local theater guild with her. In his years with the Players Guild of Long Beach, Mitchum made a living as a stagehand and occasional bit-player in company productions, he wrote several short pieces which were performed by the guild. According to Lee Server's biography, Mitchum put his talent for poetry to work writing song lyrics and monologues for Julie's nightclub performances. In 1940, he returned to Delaware to marry Dorothy Spence, they in turn moved to California.
He remained a footloose character until the birth of their first child nicknamed Josh. They had two more children and Petrine. Back in California, Mitchum managed to find steady employment as a machine operator with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, but the noise of the machinery damaged his hearing, he suffered a nervous breakdown due to job-related stress. He sought work as a film actor, performing as an extra and in small speaking parts, his agent got him an interview with Harry Sherman, the producer of Paramount's Hopalong Cassidy western film series, which starred William Boyd. In 1943 he and Randolph Scott were soldiers in the Pacific Island war film Gung Ho! Mitchum continued to find work as an extra and supporting actor in numerous productions for various studios. After impressing director Mervyn LeRoy during the making of Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Mitchum signed a seven-year contract with RKO Radio Pictures, he was groomed for B-Western stardom in a series of Zane Grey adaptations. Following the moderately successful Western Nevada, Mitchum was lent from RKO to United Artists for The Story of G.
I. Joe. In the film, he portrayed war-weary officer Bill Walker, who remains resolute despite the troubles he faces; the film, which followed the life of an ordinary soldier through the eyes of journalist Ernie Pyle, became an instant critical and commercial success. Shortly after making the film, Mitchum was drafted into the United States Army, serving at Fort MacArthur, California, as a medic. At the 1946 Academy Awards, The Story of G. I. Joe was nominated including Mitchum's only nomination for Best Supporting Actor, he finished the year with a Western and a story of returning Marine veterans, before filming in a genre that came to define Mitchum's career and screen persona: film noir. Mitchum was known for his work in film noir, his first foray into the genre was a supporting role in the 1944 B-movie When Strangers Marry, about newlyweds and a New York City
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
Science fiction on television
Science fiction first appeared in television programming in the late 1930s, during what is called the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Special effects and other production techniques allow creators to present a living visual image of an imaginary world not limited by the constraints of reality; the need to portray imaginary settings or characters with properties and abilities beyond the reach of current reality obliges producers to make extensive use of specialized techniques of television production. Through most of the 20th century, many of these techniques were expensive and involved a small number of dedicated craft practitioners, while the reusability of props, effects, or animation techniques made it easier to keep using them; the combination of high initial cost and lower maintenance cost pushed producers into building these techniques into the basic concept of a series, influencing all the artistic choices. By the late 1990s, improved technology and more training and cross-training within the industry made all of these techniques easier to use, so that directors of individual episodes could make decisions to use one or more methods, so such artistic choices no longer needed to be baked into the series concept.
Special effects have been an essential tool throughout the history of science fiction on television: small explosives to simulate the effects of various rayguns, squibs of blood and gruesome prosthetics to simulate the monsters and victims in horror series, the wire-flying entrances and exits of George Reeves as Superman. The broad term "special effects" includes all the techniques here, but more there are two categories of effects. Visual effects involve photographic or digital manipulation of the onscreen image done in post-production. Mechanical or physical effects involve props and other physical methods used during principal photography itself; some effects involved a combination of techniques. Stunts are another important category of physical effects. In general, all kinds of special effects must be planned during pre-production. Babylon 5 was the first series to use computer-generated imagery, or "CGI", for all exterior space scenes those with characters in space suits; the technology has made this more practical, so that today models are used.
In the 1990s, CGI required expensive processors and customized applications, but by the 2000s, computing power has pushed capabilities down to personal laptops running a wide array of software. Models have been an essential tool in science fiction television since the beginning, when Buck Rogers took flight in spark-scattering spaceships wheeling across a matte backdrop sky; the original Star Trek required a staggering array of models. Models fell out of use in filming in the 1990s as CGI became more affordable and practical, but today, designers sometimes construct scale models which are digitized for use in animation software. Models of characters are puppets. Gerry Anderson created a series of shows using puppets living in a universe of models and miniature sets, notably Thunderbirds. ALF depicted an alien living in a family. In Stargate SG-1, the Asgard characters are puppets in scenes where they are sitting, standing, or lying down. In Mystery Science Theater 3000, the characters of Crow T.
Robot and Tom Servo, two of the show's main characters, are puppets constructed from random household items. As animation is free of the constraints of gravity and physical reality, it is an ideal technique for science fiction and fantasy on television. In a sense all animated series allow characters and objects to perform in unrealistic ways, so they are all considered to fit within the broadest category of speculative fiction The artistic affinity of animation to comic books has led to a large amount of superhero-themed animation, much of this adapted from comics series, while the impossible characters and settings allowed in animation made this a preferred medium for both fantasy and for series aimed at young audiences. Animation was all hand-drawn by artists, though in the 1980s, beginning with Captain Power, computers began to automate the task of creating repeated images. In recent years as technology has improved, this has become more common, notably since the development of the Massive software application permits producers to include hordes of non-human characters to storm a city or space station.
The robotic Cylons in the new version of Battlestar Galactica are animated characters, while the Asgard in Stargate SG-1 are animated when they are shown walking around or more than one is on screen at once. In general, science fiction series are subject to the same financial constraints as other television shows. However, high production costs increase the financial risk, while limited audiences further complicate the business case for continuing production. Star Trek was the first television series to cost more than $100,000 per episode, while Star Trek: The Next Generation was the first to cost more than $1 million per episode; the innovative nature of science fiction means that new shows cannot rely on predictable market-tested formulas like legal dramas or sitcoms. In the past, science fiction television shows have maintained a family friendly format that rend
Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx was an American comedian, stage, film and television star. A master of quick wit, he is considered one of America's greatest comedians, he made 13 feature films with his siblings the Marx Brothers. He had a successful solo career, most notably as the host of the radio and television game show You Bet Your Life, his distinctive appearance, carried over from his days in vaudeville, included quirks such as an exaggerated stooped posture, cigar, a thick greasepaint mustache and eyebrows. These exaggerated features resulted in the creation of one of the world's most recognizable and ubiquitous novelty disguises, known as Groucho glasses: a one-piece mask consisting of horn-rimmed glasses, a large plastic nose, bushy eyebrows and mustache. Julius Marx was born on October 1890, in Manhattan, New York. Marx stated that he was born in a room above a butcher's shop on East 78th Street, "Between Lexington & 3rd", as he told Dick Cavett in a 1969 television interview; the Marx children grew up on East 93rd Street off Lexington Avenue in a neighborhood now known as Carnegie Hill on the Upper East Side of the borough of Manhattan.
The turn-of-the-century building that his brother Harpo in his memoir Harpo Speaks called "the first real home they knew", was populated with European immigrants artisans. Just across the street were the oldest brownstones in the area, owned by people such as the well-connected Loew Brothers and William Orth; the Marx family lived there "for about 14 years", Groucho told Cavett. Marx's family was Jewish. Groucho's mother was Miene "Minnie" Schoenberg, whose family came from Dornum in northern Germany when she was 16 years old, his father was Simon "Sam" Marx, who changed his name from Marrix, was called "Frenchie" by his sons throughout his life, because he and his family came from Alsace in France. Minnie's brother was Al Schoenberg, who shortened his name to Al Shean when he went into show business as half of Gallagher and Shean, a noted vaudeville act of the early 20th century. According to Groucho, when Shean visited, he would throw the local waifs a few coins so that when he knocked at the door he would be surrounded by adoring fans.
Marx and his brothers respected his opinions and asked him on several occasions to write some material for them. Minnie Marx did not have an entertainment industry career but had intense ambition for her sons to go on the stage like their uncle. While pushing her eldest son Leonard in piano lessons, she found that Julius had a pleasant soprano voice and the ability to remain on key. Julius's early career goal was to become a doctor, but the family's need for income forced him out of school at the age of twelve. By that time, young Julius had become a voracious reader fond of Horatio Alger. Marx would continue to overcome his lack of formal education by becoming well-read. After a few stabs at entry-level office work and jobs suitable for adolescents, Julius took to the stage as a boy singer with the Gene Leroy Trio, debuting at the Ramona Theatre in Grand Rapids, MI, on July 16, 1905. Marx reputedly claimed that he was "hopelessly average" as a vaudevillian, but this was typical Marx, wisecracking in his true form.
By 1909, Minnie Marx had assembled her sons into an undistinguished vaudeville singing group billed as "The Four Nightingales". The brothers Julius and Arthur and another boy singer, Lou Levy, traveled the U. S. vaudeville circuits to little fanfare. After exhausting their prospects in the East, the family moved to La Grange, Illinois, to play the Midwest. After a dispiriting performance in Nacogdoches, Julius and Arthur began cracking jokes onstage for their own amusement. Much to their surprise, the audience liked them better as comedians than as singers, they modified the then-popular Gus Edwards comedy skit "School Days" and renamed it "Fun In Hi Skule". The Marx Brothers would perform variations on this routine for the next seven years. For a time in vaudeville, all the brothers performed using ethnic accents. Leonard, the oldest, developed the Italian accent he used as Chico Marx to convince some roving bullies that he was Italian, not Jewish. Arthur, the next oldest, donned a curly red wig and became "Patsy Brannigan", a stereotypical Irish character.
His discomfort when speaking on stage led to his uncle Al Shean's suggestion that he stop speaking altogether and play the role in mime. Julius Marx's character from "Fun In Hi Skule" was an ethnic German, so Julius played him with a German accent. After the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915, public anti-German sentiment was widespread, Marx's German character was booed, so he dropped the accent and developed the fast-talking wise-guy character that became his trademark; the Marx Brothers became the biggest comedic stars of the Palace Theatre in New York, which billed itself as the "Valhalla of Vaudeville". Brother Chico's deal-making skills resulted in three hit plays on Broadway. No other comedy routine had so infected the Broadway circuit. All of this stage work predated their Hollywood career. By the time the Marxes made their first movie, they were major stars with honed skills. Groucho Marx started his career in vaudeville in 1905 when he joined up with an act called The Leroy Trio, he was asked to join the group as a singer, along with fellow vaudeville actor Johnny Morris, by a man named Robin Leroy.
Through this act, Groucho got his first taste of life as a vaudeville performer. In 1909, Groucho and his brothers had become a gro
Great Depression in the United States
The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession. Everyone in the Great Depression struggled financially due to the collapse of the banking system. Although the country spent two months with declining GDP, it was not until the Wall Street Crash in October 1929 that the effects of a declining economy were felt, a major worldwide economic downturn ensued; the stock market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, low profits, plunging farm incomes, lost opportunities for economic growth as well as for personal advancement. Altogether, there was a general loss of confidence in the economic future; the usual explanations include numerous factors high consumer debt, ill-regulated markets that permitted overoptimistic loans by banks and investors, the lack of high-growth new industries. These all interacted to create a downward economic spiral of reduced spending, falling confidence and lowered production. Industries that suffered the most included construction, mining and agriculture.
Hard hit was the manufacturing of durable goods like automobiles and appliances, whose purchase could be postponed. The economy hit bottom in the winter of 1932–33; the Depression caused major political changes in America. Three years into the depression, President Herbert Hoover shamed for not doing enough to combat the crisis, lost the election of 1932 to Franklin Delano Roosevelt by an embarrassingly wide margin. Roosevelt's economic recovery plan, the New Deal, instituted unprecedented programs for relief and reform, brought about a major realignment of American politics; the Depression resulted in an increase of emigration for the first time in American history. Some immigrants went back to their native countries, some native U. S. citizens went to Canada and South Africa. There were mass migrations of people from badly hit areas in the Great Plains and the South to places such as California and the cities of the North. Racial tensions increased during this time. By the 1940s immigration had returned to normal, emigration declined.
A well-known example of an emigrant was Frank McCourt, who went to Ireland, as recounted in his book Angela's Ashes. The memory of the Depression shaped modern theories of economics and resulted in many changes in how the government dealt with economic downturns, such as the use of stimulus packages, Keynesian economics, Social Security, it shaped modern American literature, resulting in famous novels such as John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men. Examining the causes of the Great Depression raises multiple issues: what factors set off the first downturn in 1929. Many banks began to fail in October 1930. There was no federal deposit insurance during that time as bank failures were considered a normal part of economic life. Worried depositors started to withdraw savings, so the money multiplier worked in reverse. Banks were forced to liquidate assets; this caused the money supply to shrink and the economy to contract, resulting in a significant decline in aggregate investment.
The decreased money supply further aggravated price deflation, putting more pressure on struggling businesses. The U. S. Government's commitment to the gold standard prevented it from engaging in expansionary monetary policy. High interest rates needed to be maintained in order to attract international investors who bought foreign assets with gold. However, the high interest inhibited domestic business borrowing; the U. S. interest rates were affected by France's decision to raise their interest rates to attract gold to their vaults. In theory, the U. S. would have two potential responses to that: Allow the exchange rate to adjust, or increase their own interest rates to maintain the gold standard. At the time, the U. S. was pegged to the gold standard. Therefore, Americans converted their dollars into francs to buy more French assets, the demand for the U. S. dollar fell, the exchange rate increased. One of the only things the U. S. could do to get back into equilibrium. Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman and his fellow monetarist Anna Schwartz argued that the Federal Reserve could have stemmed the severity of the Depression, but failed to exercise its role of managing the monetary system and ameliorating banking panics, resulting in a Great Contraction of the economy from 1929 until the New Deal began in 1933.
This view was endorsed by Fed Governor Ben Bernanke who made this statement in a speech honoring Friedman and Schwartz: Let me end my talk by abusing my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to say to Milton and Anna: Regarding the Great Depression, you're right. We did it. We're sorry, but thanks to you, we won't do it again. — Ben S. Bernanke The Wall Street Crash of 1929 is cited as the beginning of the Great Depression, it began on October 24, 1929, was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States. Much of the stock market crash can be attributed to exuberance and false expectations. In the years leading up to 1929, the rising stock market prices had created vast sums of wealth for those invested, in turn encouraging borrowing to further buy more stock. How