Jules Léger was a Canadian diplomat and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 21st since Canadian Confederation. Léger was born and educated in Quebec and France prior to starting a career in the Canadian Department of External Affairs, served as ambassador to a number of countries, he was in 1973 appointed as governor general by Queen Elizabeth II, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau, to replace Roland Michener as viceroy, he occupied the post until succeeded by Edward Schreyer in 1979. As the Queen's representative, Léger was credited for modernising the office and fostering Canadian unity. On June 1, 1979, Léger was sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, giving him the accordant style of The Honourable. However, as a former Governor General of Canada, Léger was entitled to be styled for life with the superior form of The Right Honourable, he died on November 22, 1980. Born in Saint-Anicet, Quebec, to Ernest and Alda, Léger, along with his brother, Paul-Émile, was raised in a devoutly religious family.
After completing high school, Léger went on to the Collège de Valleyfield and the Université de Montréal, where he completed a law degree. Léger subsequently enrolled at the Sorbonne in Paris, from which he was awarded a doctorate in 1938, the same year that, on August 13, he married Gabrielle Carmel, whom he'd met at the University of Paris; the couple together had two daughters and Helene. When Léger returned to Canada at the end of 1938, he was hired as an associate editor of Le Droit in Ottawa, but remained there for only one year before he went on to become a professor of diplomatic history at the University of Ottawa until 1942. Léger joined in 1940 the Department of External Affairs, in just over 13 years received his first overseas diplomatic posting as Canada's ambassador to Mexico. After his retirement from that office on August 1, 1954, he returned to Ottawa to act as under-secretary of state for external affairs, until, on September 25, 1958, he was commissioned as ambassador and permanent representative to the North Atlantic Council, occupying that post until 5 July 1962, as well as the Canadian representative to the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation in Paris.
From 1962 to 1964, Léger held the commission of ambassador to Italy, from 1964 to 1968 was the ambassador to France. It was during this time, in July 1967, that French president Charles de Gaulle visited Canada to attend Expo 67, in Montreal gave his Vive le Québec libre speech; this event caused a diplomatic chill for many years between France. By 1968, Léger had returned to Canada's capital and was appointed as under-secretary of state, providing the administrative basis for Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson's foreign policy, the policies on bilingualism and multiculturalism developed by the Cabinet chaired by Pearson's successor, Pierre Trudeau. Léger left that position in 1972, served as ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg between March 1973 and January 1974, it was on October 5, 1973 that Queen Elizabeth II had, by commission under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada, appointed Pierre Trudeau's choice of Léger to succeed Roland Michener as the Queen's representative. He was subsequently sworn-in during a ceremony in the Senate chamber on January 14, of the following year.
Only six months just prior to a ceremony wherein he was to receive an honorary degree from the Université de Sherbrooke, Léger suffered a stroke, leaving him with impeded speech and a paralysed right arm. Though he returned to his viceregal duties not long after, presiding over an Order of Canada investiture in December 1974, his wife assisted him on many occasions reading parts of the Speech from the Throne in 1976 and 1978. Still, the Légers travelled across the country, encouraging Canadian unity at a time fraught with Quebec sovereignty disputes and perceived alienation by other regions, as well promoting the fine arts and artistic endeavours, aided at such by their friendships with painters such as Jean Paul Lemieux, Alfred Pellan, Jean Dallaire. In 1978 Léger established the Jules Léger Prize for New Chamber Music, he established an award for heritage conservation and the Jules Léger Scholarship to promote academic excellence in bilingual programs at the University of Regina. Léger was credited with modernising the Office of the Governor General, among other things, eschewed the traditional court dress of the Windsor uniform in favour of morning dress at state functions, though he was negatively criticised for the same, as well as for asking that decorations those from the Second World War, not be worn at certain state events.
He was further critiqued for remaining in such an important office despite his incapacitation. Still, he remained focused on the person and institution he represented, was known to write to the Queen on a monthly basis, his official portrait was a first for including the viceregal consort, done to recognise Gabrielle's contributions to her husband's service. After leaving Rideau Hall, the Légers continued to live in Ottawa. Léger died on November 22, 1980, was survived by his wife and daughter. October 14, 1953 – 8 July 1954: His Excellency Jules Léger, Her Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Canada to Mexico 28 May 1962 – February 20, 1964: His Excellency Jules Léger, Her Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Canada to Italy February 20, 1964 – April 17, 1964: His Excellency Jules Léger, Her Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Canada to
Hugh Edwin Munroe
Hugh Edwin Munroe, OBE, M. D. was the fifth Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan during the Great Depression. He was born in Glengarry County and educated at McGill University where he earned his medical degree before undertaking post-graduate studies at the University of Edinburgh. Munroe subsequently settled in Saskatchewan, he was involved in local and provincial politics - he was defeated as a candidate for the Provincial Rights Party in the 1905 provincial election when he was a candidate in Saskatoon County. In the 1912 provincial election he ran as the Conservative candidate in Saskatoon City but was again defeated, he served in World War I as a lieutenant colonel and was appointed Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire for his military service. He resumed his medical practice and political activity, he was appointed lieutenant governor of the province by Conservative federal Prime Minister R. B. Bennett in 1931. In the midsts of the economic crisis, Muroe used his office to raise money for relief projects and charity.
Many Canadians viewed the ceremonial office as a frivolity and excess during times of hardship and there was a movement to abolish the position. However, the provincial Legislature overwhelmingly defeated a motion to suspend the Office of the Lieutenant-Governor in 1934. Munroe retired from office in 1936. Munroe, Hugh Edwin, Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan Munroe, Hugh Edwin, Dictionary of Glengarry Biography
William John Patterson
William John Patterson was a Liberal politician and Premier of Saskatchewan, Canada. He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan in the 1921 election, he succeeded James G. Gardiner to become the province's first Saskatchewan-born premier in 1935. Patterson's leadership was considered to be uninspired, he was unable to resist the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation's rise to power in the 1944 election under Tommy Douglas. Patterson's Liberals were reduced to five seats in the Legislature, he resigned as Liberal leader in 1946. Patterson served as the tenth Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan from 1951 to 1958, becoming the first person to have been both Premier and lieutenant governor of the province. Paterson was born on May 13, 1886, in Grenfell in what was the District of Assiniboia of the North-West Territories, his father, John Patterson, had moved to Grenfell in 1882 to work as a railway section foreman during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. His mother, Catherine Fraser, was an immigrant from Scotland.
Patterson left school at 15 and found work first at a bank and in the Saskatchewan Department of Telephones. Following the outbreak of World War I, Patterson in 1916 enlisted in the Canadian Army, serving as a cavalry officer, he was wounded in September 1918. Upon his return to Saskatchewan after the war, he studied law in Grenfell under lawyer G. C. Neff and moved to Windthorst, Saskatchewan to set up a financial and insurance agency. Patterson ran in the Saskatchewan general election of 1921, as the Saskatchewan Liberal Party's candidate for the constituency of Pipestone. Patterson took his seat in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. Patterson held several cabinet positions in governments headed by Premier James Garfield Gardiner, he was reelected in the 1925 election and the 1929 election, but in the latter case, the Liberals lost the election and so Patterson moved to the Opposition. In the 1934 election, the Liberals returned to power, Patterson returned to cabinet. In 1935, Premier Gardiner left provincial politics to become Canadian Minister of Agriculture under Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King.
Patterson was elected as Gardiner's successor as leader of the Liberal Party of Saskatchewan and Premier of Saskatchewan. Taking office in the midst of the Great Depression, Patterson sought to extend social programs to assist those in need, his government increased funding for education, enacted pension and debt relief legislation, expanded public funding for treatment of tuberculosis and polio. However, Patterson subscribed to the conventional wisdom of the day that deficit spending would ruin the province's credit and he thus therefore refused to run a budget deficit, instead funding the increased government spending through a new sales tax, his government passed legislation making it easier to form credit unions, permitting the formation of unions, increasing labour standards. Patterson continued to serve as premier. In the 1944 election, the Liberals were defeated by the Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, under the leadership of Tommy Douglas. Patterson served as Leader of the Opposition until 1946.
He remained a Member of the Legislative Assembly and was a candidate in the 1948 election, was re-elected as the member from Cannington. Following his resignation, Patterson took up a position with the federal Board of Transport Commissioners. In 1951, Patterson was appointed as the first Saskatchewan-born Lieutenant Governor, he served in this post until 1958. Upon Patterson's retirement, Douglas introduced special legislation to provide Patterson with a pension to thank for his many years of service to the province. Patterson lived in retirement until his death in Regina, on June 10, 1976. William John Patterson, Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
Allan Emrys Blakeney was the tenth Premier of Saskatchewan from 1971 to 1982, leader of the Saskatchewan New Democratic Party. Born in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, Blakeney took his law degree at Dalhousie Law School, was a Rhodes Scholar at Queen's College, where he played for the Oxford University Ice Hockey Club. On returning to Canada, he became a senior civil servant in Saskatchewan before entering politics in 1960, representing part of Regina, he would represent a Regina-based riding without interruption until his retirement in 1988. Blakeney served as a cabinet minister in the governments of Tommy Douglas and Woodrow S. Lloyd, until the government's defeat in 1964; as minister of health, he played a crucial role in the introduction of Medicare. In 1969, Blakeney was elected national president of the New Democratic Party of Canada, succeeding James Renwick. In 1970, Blakeney succeeded Lloyd as leader of the Saskatchewan NDP, in opposition, his election as leader has been interpreted as a victory of the provincial NDP's "establishment" over the left-wing Waffle faction, because Lloyd was trying to move the party more to the political left, which meant he supported the Waffle Manifesto at the October 1969 Federal NDP convention in Winnipeg.
As well, Lloyd backed The Waffle's right to debate issues after the convention which disturbed many of his MLAs, who forced him to resign in March 1970. In the 1971 provincial election, Blakeney led the party to power, defeating Ross Thatcher's Liberal government. Blakeney's government practised state-led economic intervention in the economy; the farmers were a high priority, as globalization began transforming agriculture, weakening the traditional family farm through consolidation and corporatization. The NDP promised a "revitalized rural Saskatchewan," and Blakeney's introduced programs to stabilize crop prices, retain transportation links, modernize rural life. Looking back he lamented the gradual conversion of Saskatchewan's family farms into larger agricultural ventures: Without resorting to the "very high costs" and "billions of dollars" used to preserve family farming in Europe and the United States, "e were, it seems, King Canute trying to hold back the tide."His government created a Crown corporation in the potash industry in an attempt to further diversify the province's agrarian economy and threatened expropriation of private potash mines within the province.
Blakeney pointed out that the sums paid for these mines were in excess of their appraised "book" value. However, the mere threat of expropriation created a political firestorm that involved the U. S. government. Blakeney created a state-owned oil and gas corporation, SaskOil, to handle oil exploration and production; the private oil industry had abandoned Saskatchewan following the NDP's imposition of high royalty rate policy of the early 1970s. Prime Minister Trudeau's policies outraged Blakeney, he moved closer to Alberta's position of open hostility. Blakeney joined Alberta Progressive Conservative Premier Peter Lougheed in a fight for provincial rights over minerals and gas. Blakeney played an important role in the federal-provincial negotiations that led to the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution. Blakeney's government was defeated in the 1982 provincial election, in its attempt to win a fourth successive term, it was defeated by the Progressive Conservative Party, led by Grant Devine.
The NDP lost 35 of its 44 seats—the third-worst defeat of a sitting government in the province's history at the time. The party was cut down to only nine seats, its smallest presence in the legislature since its first election in 1934. Once in opposition, Blakeney continued to lead the party up to the 1986 provincial election; the NDP not only regained much of what it had lost in its severe beating of four years earlier, but gained more votes overall than Devine's Progressive Conservatives. However, much of that margin was wasted on landslide margins in Regina and Saskatoon, leaving the NDP eight seats short of regaining power. Blakeney resigned in 1987 to be succeeded by Roy Romanow. On April 30, 1992, he was appointed as an Officer of the Order of Canada for his work as Premier of Saskatchewan, his enormous contribution to the field of public administration and as a key player in introducing the first comprehensive public medical health care plan in Canada. In 2000, he was awarded the Saskatchewan Order of Merit.
In 2001, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Blakeney is a past president of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association; as a private citizen Blakeney served as a consultant to the Romanow government in the 1990s when they sold the SaskOil to Occidental Petroleum. Blakeney served on the board of directors of the successor corporation. Blakeney died on April 2011 at his home in Saskatoon of complications from cancer. Federal NDP leader Jack Layton dedicated the rest of his federal election campaign to Blakeney, who died about halfway through the campaign. About 600 people attended his memorial, including federal NDP leaders Jack Layton and Ed Broadbent, former provincial premiers Roy Romanow, Lorne Calvert, Peter Lougheed, Ed Schreyer, Bill Davis, Bob Rae, as well as former Saskatchewan premier Brad Wall. Allan Blakeney. An Honourable Calling: Political Memoirs 258 pp. ISBN 978-0-8020-9891-7. Gruending, Dennis. Promises to keep: a political biography of Allan Blakeney. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Western Producer Prairie Books.
ISBN 0-88833-324-2. McLeod, Thomas; the Road to Jerusalem. Calgary: Fifth House. ISBN 1-894856-48-1
Amédée E. Forget
Amédée Emmanuel Marie Forget was a Canadian lawyer, civil servant, politician. He was the last Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories and the first Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Saskatchewan. Born in Marieville, Canada East, the son of Jeremie Forget and Marie Guenette, he was called to the Bar of Lower Canada in 1871. In 1875, he served in different positions. In 1898, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories on the advice of Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, served until the creation of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905. At that time, he was appointed the first Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan, served until 1910. In 1911, he was appointed to the Senate of Canada representing the senatorial division of Banff, Alberta, he died while in office in 1923. He is buried in the Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery in Quebec, he is the namesake of Mount Forget, in Alberta. The town of Forget and Forget Street in Regina, Saskatchewan are both named in his honor.
Amédée Emmanuel Forget married October 1876, Henriette Drolet, daughter of Lieutenant Colonel C. J. R Drolet, a descendant of François Jarret de Verchères, she was born at Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada East, September 29, 1853. She was educated at l'Institut des Sœurs des Saints Noms de Jésus et de Ville Marie; the couple travelled in 1877 to Battleford, North-West Territories, when Mr Forget was appointed to an official position. When the seat of Government was transferred to Regina in 1882, the couple moved there; the couple moved to Winnipeg in 1895. The couple moved to Government House, when Mr Forget was appointed lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories in October 1898; the couple received and entertained the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall in 1901. Madame Forget served as honorary president of the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire and of the National Council of Women, she volunteered with the Victorian Order of the Aberdeen Association. She served as treasurer of the committee to erect a statue to Queen Victoria.
"The Honourable Amédée E. Forget, 1898-1905". Archived from the original on 27 October 2005. Retrieved November 11, 2005. Titley, E. Brian. "Forget, Amédée-Emmanuel". In Cook, Ramsay. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV. University of Toronto Press. Amédée E. Forget – Parliament of Canada biography
Sylvia Olga Fedoruk, was a Canadian physicist, medical physicist and the 17th Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. Born in Canora, the daughter of Ukrainian immigrants, Annie Romaniuk and Theodore Fedoruk. Fedoruk attended a one room schoolhouse in Wroxton north east of the city of Yorkton, her father was her teacher. During World War II, the family relocated to Ontario. In 1946, she completed her studies at Walkerville Collegiate in Windsor Ontario, at the top of her class and was awarded the Ernest J. Creed Memorial Medal and an entrance scholarship to attend University, but the family chose to return to Saskatchewan where Sylvia entered the University of Saskatchewan at Saskatoon in the fall of 1946. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in physics, at the University of Saskatchewan, in 1949 and was awarded the Governor General's Gold Medal. Fedoruk completed her M. A. in physics in 1951. Fedoruk was recruited by Dr. Harold E. Johns to be the radiation physicist at Saskatoon Cancer Clinic, she became the chief medical physicist at the Saskatoon Cancer Clinic and director of physics services at the Saskatchewan Cancer Clinic.
She was associate member in physics at the University of Saskatchewan. She was involved in the development of the world's first cobalt-60 unit and one of the first nuclear medicine scanning machines, she was the first woman member of the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. From 1986 to 1989 she was chancellor of the University of Saskatchewan, she was the first woman to fill this position at the University of Saskatchewan. She is a past president of the Canadian Ladies Curling Association. In 1986, she was inducted into the Canadian Curling Hall of Fame, as a builder, was awarded the Saskatchewan Order of Merit. In 1961, she played in the first Diamond'D' Championships for team Saskatchewan as the third for Joyce McKee. Saskatchewan won the tournament. In 1987, she was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. From 1988 to 1994, she was Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. In the 1990s, the City of Saskatoon named Fedoruk Drive in her honour; the roadway runs from Central Avenue to McOrmond Drive, north of the communities of Silverspring and Evergreen and south of the community of Aspen Ridge and the Northeast Swale.
Fedoruk Drive serves as a minor arterial roadway in the northeast sector of the city. On October 3, 2012 the name of the Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation was changed to the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation in honor of the pioneering work she did in the treatment of cancer using cobalt-60 radiation therapy in the 1950s. In 2009, she was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Monarchy in Saskatchewan Sylvia Olga Fedoruk - Canadian Women in Government
Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan
The Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan is the viceregal representative in Saskatchewan of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is shared with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties; the present, 22nd, Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan is W. Thomas Molloy, in the role since 21 March 2018; the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan is vested with a number of governmental duties and is expected to undertake various ceremonial roles. For instance, the lieutenant-governor acts as patron, honorary president, or an honorary member of certain Saskatchewan institutions, such as the Saskatchewan Music Festival Association, the Saskatchewan Craft Council, the provincial poet laureate program.
Further, Saskatchewan's lieutenant-governor acts, by law, as the visitor to both the University of Saskatchewan and the University of Regina, under special circumstances may be called upon in this role, as happened in the University Crisis of 1919 at the University of Saskatchewan. The lieutenant-governor, him or herself a member and Chancellor of the order, will induct deserving individuals into the Saskatchewan Order of Merit and, upon installation, automatically becomes a Knight or Dame of Justice and the Vice-Prior in Saskatchewan of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem; the viceroy further presents other provincial honours and decorations, as well as various awards that are named for and presented by the lieutenant-governor. These honours are presented at official ceremonies, which count amongst hundreds of other engagements the lieutenant-governor partakes in each year, either as host or guest of honour. At these events, the lieutenant-governor's presence is marked by the lieutenant-governor's standard, consisting of a blue field bearing the escutcheon of the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Saskatchewan surmounted by a crown and surrounded by ten gold maple leaves, symbolizing the ten provinces of Canada.
Within Saskatchewan, the lieutenant-governor follows only the sovereign in the province's order of precedence, preceding other members of the Canadian Royal Family and the Queen's federal representative. The former Lieutenant Governors of Saskatchewan are honoured in official portraits collected together in the dedicated Qu'Appelle Gallery in the Saskatchewan Legislative Building; the office of Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan came into being in 1905, upon Saskatchewan's entry into Canadian Confederation, evolved from the earlier position of Lieutenant Governor of the North-West Territories. Since that date, 20 lieutenant-governors have served the province, amongst whom were notable firsts, such as Sylvia Fedoruk – the first female lieutenant-governor of the province; the shortest mandate by a Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan was Thomas Miller, from 27 February 1945 to 20 June 1945, while the longest was Henry William Newlands, from 18 February 1921 to 30 March 1931. It was in 1929 that the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan's personal discretion was required in the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, when Henry Newlands had to select a new Premier after James Garfield Gardiner lost the confidence of the Legislative Assembly and the opposing Progressive Conservative Party had managed to form a coalition with the Progressive Party and independent members of the assembly.
With the election in 1944 of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Party to a majority in the Legislative Assembly, the Office of the Lieutenant Governor in Saskatchewan was targeted for spending cutbacks. Government House was closed and the viceroy given only a small office at the Hotel Saskatchewan as a replacement, guards of honour and playing of the Viceregal Salute were dispensed with; this trend continued, due to lack of initiative rather than hostility towards the Crown, until the 1980s when the viceroy's honours were restored and Government House was saved from demolition. Monarchy in the Canadian provinces Government of Saskatchewan Lieutenant Governors of Canada Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan