Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States. The system was operated by various companies under the names Southern Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Company and Southern Pacific Transportation Company; the original Southern Pacific began in 1865 as a land holding company. The last incarnation of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, was founded in 1969 and assumed control of the Southern Pacific system; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and merged with their Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific Transportation Company was the surviving railroad as it absorbed the Union Pacific Railroad and changed its name to "Union Pacific Railroad"; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company is now the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific legacy founded hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson and elsewhere.
In the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This telecommunications network became part of Sprint, a company whose name came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony; the original Southern Pacific, Southern Pacific Railroad, was founded as a land holding company in 1865 acquiring the Central Pacific Railroad through leasing. By 1900, the Southern Pacific system was a major railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad, it extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento. Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. Other subsidiaries included the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at 328 miles, the 1,331-mile Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico, a variety of 3 ft narrow gauge routes.
The SP was the defendant in the landmark 1886 United States Supreme Court case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, interpreted as having established certain corporate rights under the Constitution of the United States; the Southern Pacific Railroad was replaced by the Southern Pacific Company and assumed the railroad operations of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1929, Southern Pacific/Texas and New Orleans operated 13,848 route-miles not including Cotton Belt, whose purchase of the Golden State Route circa 1980 nearly doubled its size to 3,085 miles, bringing total SP/SSW mileage to around 13,508 miles. In 1969, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was established and took over the Southern Pacific Company. By the 1980s, route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles due to the pruning of branch lines. In 1988, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was taken over by Rio Grande Industries, the parent company that controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Rio Grande Industries did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad together, but transferred direct ownership of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad to the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, allowing the combined Rio Grande Industries railroad system to use the Southern Pacific name due to its brand recognition in the railroad industry and with customers of both the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.
A long time Southern Pacific subsidiary, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway was marketed under the Southern Pacific name. Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, the total length of the D&RGW/SP/SSW system was 15,959 miles. Rio Grande Industries was renamed Southern Pacific Rail Corporation. By 1996, years of financial problems had dropped Southern Pacific's mileage to 13,715 miles; the financial problems caused the Southern Pacific Transportation Company to be taken over by the Union Pacific Corporation. The Union Pacific Corporation merged the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway and the SPCSL Corporation into their Union Pacific Railroad, but did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company into the Union Pacific Railroad. Instead, the Union Pacific Corporation merged the Union Pacific Railroad into the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1998; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company became the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad.
Like most railroads, the SP painted most of its steam locomotives black during the 20th century, but after 1945 SP painted the front of the locomotive's smokebox silver (almost
Downtown Long Beach station
Downtown Long Beach is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located on 1st Street between Pine Avenue and Pacific Avenue in Downtown Long Beach in southwestern California; this station is the southern terminus of the Blue Line route and only offers northbound service, as it is located in a loop. The light rail station is a key part of the Long Beach Transit Mall, which extends along 1st Street between Pacific Avenue and Long Beach Boulevard; as the city's major transit center, this section of 1st Street is closed to private vehicles and only trains and transit vehicles are allowed. From 1990 to July 2013, the station was known as Transit Mall Station. In 2010, a $7 million project was undertaken by Long Beach Transit to upgrade the transit mall. New bus shelters were constructed, with new artwork; the project was completed in spring 2011. During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the station will serve spectators traveling to and from Olympic venues located in Long Beach.
Blue Line service hours are from 04:45 until 01:00 weekdays and 04:45 until 02:00 on weekends. Metro Local: 60, 232 Long Beach Transit: 1, 21, 22, 46, 51, 52, 61, 71, 81, 91, 92, 93, 94, 111, 112, 121, 151, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 191, 192, Passport LADOT Commuter Express: 142 Torrance Transit: 3, Rapid 3 Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach: 1b FlyAway to LAX Flixbus Aquarium of the Pacific Rainbow Harbor and Shoreline Village The Pike Entertainment Complex Pine Avenue Entertainment District Long Beach Performing Arts Center Media related to Transit Mall at Wikimedia Commons Long Beach Transit Mall info
The Siemens P2000 is an articulated light rail car used on the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It was manufactured by Siemens AG and is used on Metro's Blue and Green, Expo Lines, it was used on the Gold Line, but transferred to the Blue and Expo lines. The trains feature automatic train control, air conditioning, emergency intercoms, wheelchair spaces and emergency braking. In June 2013, Metro awarded a fixed price contract to PAMCO Machine Works in Monrovia, California, to overhaul the powered axle assemblies for the eleven year old P2000's. Media related to Siemens P2000 at Wikimedia Commons
The Kinkisharyo P3010 is an articulated light rail car used on the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is used on all of Metro's light rail lines; the trains feature automatic train control, air conditioning, emergency intercoms, wheelchair spaces and emergency braking. AnsaldoBreda delivered 50 P2550 LRVs to Metro between 2006 and 2011 for use on the newly expanded Gold Line. Delivery of the vehicles was three years behind schedule, Metro claimed they were overweight. However, with multiple light rail lines under construction or in planning and the P865s approaching their end of life, Metro anticipated a substantial need for LRVs and thus requested bids for a new contract, for vehicles which were dubbed the P3010 series; the base P3010 contract order was for 78 cars: 63 cars for the Expo and Blue lines, 15 cars for the Gold Line Foothill Extension. Metro completed a contract on April 30, 2012, with delivery of the first LRV projected for 30 months in 2014; the contract included options for an additional 157 cars.
Metro awarded the contract for the first 78 cars to Kinki Sharyo for $299 million. The remaining cars are split into four options with 39, 21 and 69, respectively. If all the options are exercised, the number of LRVs would total 235, valued at a total $890 million. On July 25, 2013, Metro exercised two options totaling 97 additional cars for $396.7 million. This brought the total of ordered cars to 175; as part of the option, the El Segundo-based U. S. arm of Kinki Sharyo Co. Ltd. of Osaka, announced in December 2014 that they would retrofit an existing space in Palmdale to build the vehicles. Final assembly work was being performed in hangar space the company leased in Palmdale from Los Angeles World Airports; the first car was delivered to Metro in October 2014 for testing. The cars began entering service in early 2016, though many were still in the testing stage when the Expo Line and Gold Line extensions opened that year, resulting in longer-than-expected headways and some crush loads. By October 2016, four LRVs were being delivered per month.
In June 2017, P3010s began to be rolled out on the Blue Line, allowing Metro to begin phasing out the P865s. At the end of 2017, some of the P3010s from the Blue Line were routed for Green Line service using the Willowbrook spur and pocket track to transfer between the two lines
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Southern California Railway
Southern California Railway was formed on November 7, 1889. It was formed by consolidation of California Southern Railroad Company, the California Central Railway Company, the Redondo Beach Railway Company. A second consolidation and reforming on the Southern California Railway was on June 27, 1892 this was done by consolidation of former Southern California Railway Company with Santa Fe And Santa Monica Railway and the San Bernardino & Eastern Railway. On May 1, 1899 the Southern California Railway as took control of the Elsinore, Pomona And Los Angeles Railway. All of lines of Southern California Railway Company line were deeded to the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway Company on January 17, 1906. San Bernardino and Eastern Railway was chartered on August 11, 1890 to build a rail line from City of San Bernardino, California via Highland, California to connect with line of Southern California Railway Company at or near its terminus in San Bernardino County, connecting at Mentone, California with rail tracks built to that point in 1887 under charter of San Bernardino Valley Railway Company.
Santa Fe And Santa Monica Railway Company was chartered to build from a point at or near "Mesmer Station" on line of Southern California Railway Company between Inglewood and Port Ballona, to Santa Monica, California. This franchise and its track were sold on March 21, 1902, to Los Angeles Pacific Railroad Company, including the rail line from Inglewood to near Mesmer Station built under charter of Los Angeles and Santa Monica Railroad Company. Elsinore, Pomona And Los Angeles Railway Company was charted on December 6, 1895 to build from Lake Elsinore, California in Riverside County, in a north-westerly direction by way of Pomona to Azusa, in Los Angeles County, with a branch from Pomona to Lordsburg College. Construction was only completed from Elsinore Junction on line of Southern California Railway to Alberhill a total of 7.8 miles. This rail line was deeded to Southern California Railway Company on May 1, 1899. List of California railroads History of rail transportation in California Cajon Pass Southern Transcon Union Station Pacific Electric's Red Cars that connected with the rail lines.
Santa Fe 3751 David B. Jones Special HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE ATCHISON, TOPEKA AND SANTA FE RAILWAY COMPANY. Annual meetings, directors and officers, Volumes 7-12 By Atchison and Santa Fe Railway Company Annual Report on the Statistics of Railways in the United States. STATISTICS OF RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION. NINTH ANNUAL REPORT ON THE STATISTICS OF RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES Los Angeles Herald, Volume 38, Number 52, 2 June 1892 abandonedrails.com Inglewood Branch, Mesmer
San Gabriel Valley
The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of Southern California, lying to the east of the city of Los Angeles. Surrounding features include: San Gabriel Mountains on the north, San Rafael Hills to the west, with Los Angeles Basin beyond; the valley derives its name from the San Gabriel River that flows southward through the center of the valley, which itself was named for the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel built in the Whittier Narrows in 1771. At one time predominantly agricultural, the San Gabriel Valley is today entirely urbanized and is an integral part of the Greater Los Angeles metropolitan area, it is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the country. About 200 square miles in size, the valley includes thirty-one cities and five unincorporated communities. In 1886, Pasadena was the first independent incorporated city still located in Los Angeles County; the San Gabriel Valley is in Los Angeles County. The incorporated cities and unincorporated neighborhoods of the San Gabriel Valley include: Whittier, like Montebello, is considered both a San Gabriel Valley city and part of the Gateway Cities region.
An unincorporated portion of Whittier, Rose Hills, sits below the Puente Hills. Although these hills are small compared to the San Gabriel Mountains, the fact that most of the city sits around them makes Whittier a San Gabriel Valley city; this is similar to Montebello, a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments, despite geographically being part of the San Gabriel Valley. Claremont, Diamond Bar, La Verne, San Dimas and Walnut are adjacent to the San Gabriel Valley, although are properly considered part of the Pomona Valley, they are commonly considered part of the San Gabriel Valley; the 57 Freeway is considered the dividing line between the Pomona and San Gabriel valleys. However, for statistical and economic development purposes, the County of Los Angeles includes these six cities as part of the San Gabriel Valley; the community of El Sereno, in the city of Los Angeles, is situated at the westernmost edge of the Valley. Unofficial estimates place the combined population of the San Gabriel Valley at around 2 million—roughly a fifth of the population of Los Angeles County.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the land along the Rio Hondo River, a branch of the San Gabriel River, was populated by the Tongva part of the Uto-Aztecan family Native Americans. The Tongva occupied much of the Los Angeles basin and the islands of Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, San Clemente and Santa Barbara. In the northern part of the valley were the Hahanog-na Indian tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation who lived in villages scattered along the Arroyo Seco and the canyons from the mountains down to the South Pasadena area. In 1542, when the explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo arrived off the shores of San Pedro and Santa Catalina; the Tongva were the people. The language of the Tongva was different from the neighboring Indian tribes and it was called Gabrielino by the Spanish; the Tongva provide the origin of many current names. The Gabrielinos lived in dome-like structures with thatched exteriors. Both sexes tattooed their bodies. During warm weather the men wore little clothing, but the women would wear minimal skirts made of animal hides.
During the cold weather they would wear animal skin capes. European diseases killed many of the Tongva and by 1870 the area had few remaining native inhabitants. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area; the first Europeans to see inland areas of California were the members of the 1769 Portolà expedition, which traveled north by land after establishing the first Spanish settlement in today's state of California at San Diego. On July 30, the expedition crossed the San Gabriel River and continued north toward what is now the city of Los Angeles. To cross the river, the expedition built a rough bridge, which gave the name La Puente to today's San Gabriel Valley city, hills to the south are called the Puente Hills. A few years a mission was established near the river crossing. Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was founded by Franciscan Father Junipero Serra, first head of the Spanish missions in California, on September 8, 1771, its original location was near where San Gabriel Boulevard now crosses the Rio Hondo, near the present day Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe.
Angel Somera and Pedro Cambon were the first missionary priests at the new mission, which marked the beginning of the Los Angeles region's settlement by Spaniards. The San Gabriel mission was the third of twenty-one missions that would be established along California's El Camino Real; the San Gabriel mission did well in establishing cattle ranching and farming, but six years after its founding a destructive flood led the mission fathers to relocate the establishment to its current location farther north in present-day city of San Gabriel. The original mission site is now marked by a California Historical Landmark. During the early years of the mission, the region operated under a Rancho system; the lands which now compose the city of Montebello were parts of Rancho San Antonio, Rancho La Merced, Rancho Paso de Bartolo. The Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe, built in 1844, remains standin