The Amazon rainforest known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2; this region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, with minor amounts in Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana and France. States or departments in four nations contain "Amazonas" in their names; the Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world, with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species. The name Amazon is said to arise from a war Francisco de Orellana fought with the Tapuyas and other tribes; the women of the tribe fought alongside the men. Orellana derived the name Amazonas from the Amazons of Greek mythology, described by Herodotus and Diodorus.
The rainforest formed during the Eocene era. It appeared following a global reduction of tropical temperatures when the Atlantic Ocean had widened sufficiently to provide a warm, moist climate to the Amazon basin; the rainforest has been in existence for at least 55 million years, most of the region remained free of savanna-type biomes at least until the current ice age, when the climate was drier and savanna more widespread. Following the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the wetter climate may have allowed the tropical rainforest to spread out across the continent. From 66–34 Mya, the rainforest extended as far south as 45°. Climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics. During the Oligocene, for example, the rainforest spanned a narrow band, it expanded again during the Middle Miocene retracted to a inland formation at the last glacial maximum. However, the rainforest still managed to thrive during these glacial periods, allowing for the survival and evolution of a broad diversity of species.
During the mid-Eocene, it is believed that the drainage basin of the Amazon was split along the middle of the continent by the Purus Arch. Water on the eastern side flowed toward the Atlantic, while to the west water flowed toward the Pacific across the Amazonas Basin; as the Andes Mountains rose, however, a large basin was created. Within the last 5–10 million years, this accumulating water broke through the Purus Arch, joining the easterly flow toward the Atlantic. There is evidence that there have been significant changes in Amazon rainforest vegetation over the last 21,000 years through the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation. Analyses of sediment deposits from Amazon basin paleolakes and from the Amazon Fan indicate that rainfall in the basin during the LGM was lower than for the present, this was certainly associated with reduced moist tropical vegetation cover in the basin. There is debate, over how extensive this reduction was; some scientists argue that the rainforest was reduced to small, isolated refugia separated by open forest and grassland.
This debate has proved difficult to resolve because the practical limitations of working in the rainforest mean that data sampling is biased away from the center of the Amazon basin, both explanations are reasonably well supported by the available data. More than 56% of the dust fertilizing the Amazon rainforest comes from the Bodélé depression in Northern Chad in the Sahara desert; the dust contains phosphorus, important for plant growth. The yearly Sahara dust replaces the equivalent amount of phosphorus washed away yearly in Amazon soil from rains and floods. Up to 50 million tonnes of Sahara dust per year are blown across the Atlantic Ocean. NASA Video. NASA's CALIPSO satellite has measured the amount of dust transported by wind from the Sahara to the Amazon: an average 182 million tons of dust are windblown out of the Sahara each year, at 15 degrees west longitude, across 1,600 miles over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 degrees West longitude at the eastern coast of South America, 27.7 million tons of dust fall over the Amazon basin, 132 million tons of dust remain in the air, 43 million tons of dust are windblown and falls on the Caribbean Sea, past 75 degrees west longitude.
CALIPSO uses a laser range finder to scan the Earth's atmosphere for the vertical distribution of dust and other aerosols. CALIPSO tracks the Sahara-Amazon dust plume. CALIPSO has measured variations in the dust amounts transported – an 86 percent drop between the highest amount of dust transported in 2007 and the lowest in 2011. A possibility causing the variation is the Sahel, a strip of semi-arid land on the southern border of the Sahara; when rain amounts in the Sahel are higher, the volume of dust is lower. The higher rainfall could make more vegetation grow in the Sahel, leaving less sand exposed to winds to blow away. Based on archaeological evidence from an excavation at Caverna da Pedra Pintada, human inhabitants first settled in the Amazon region at least 11,200 years ago. Subsequent development led to late-prehistoric settlements along the periphery of the forest by AD 1250, which induced alterations in the fores
C&A is an international chain of fashion retail clothing stores, with European head offices in Vilvoorde, Düsseldorf, Germany. It has retail stores in many European countries, it serves only the largest markets of North America and South America. C&A's brands include Angelo Litrico, Clockhouse, Here+There, Rodeo, Yessica, Yessica Pure, Your Sixth Sense; the Brenninkmeijer family owns the C&A group through its Swiss company Cofra Holding AG. The company's success has led the family to be considered, by the Dutch, among the wealthiest in the Netherlands; the Brenninkmeijer family, live in Geneva and Zug, Switzerland. The company was founded by brothers Clemens and August Brenninkmeijer in 1841 as a Dutch textile company, taking its company name from their initials. In 1906 Clemens' son, Bernard Joseph, started discounting in Amsterdam and by 1910 there were ten stores in the Netherlands; these were from the German Brenninkmeyer family that traded in linen and textiles since the 17th century from its hometown of Mettingen, Germany.
For many years, C&A retail clothing stores were a major presence in town centres throughout the United Kingdom. C&A opened stores in a number of out-of-town locations, most notably its store at the Merry Hill Shopping Centre in the West Midlands, which opened in November 1989; the company's strategy of selling budget clothes from high-rent city-centre retail stores made it vulnerable to a new breed of competitors operating in cheaper, out-of-town locations, including Matalan and the expanding clothing operations of supermarket food chains such as Tesco and Asda, to expanding high street names such as H&M, Topshop. C&A in the United Kingdom was a notable example of an incorporated private unlimited company, which meant that it was not required to publish its financial statements under United Kingdom company law. In 2000, C&A announced its intention to withdraw from the British market, where it had been operating since 1922, the last UK retail stores closed in 2001. Primark bought 11 of the C&A stores.
In June 2009, the company withdrew from the Argentinian market. C&A China competes with main clothing companies such as Zara; the popular entertainer Beyoncé released her own clothing line, Deréon, in cooperation with C&A in the summer of 2010. On 14 January 2018, German newsmagazine Der Spiegel reported on its web site that C&A's owners were considering selling the company to an unnamed Chinese investor. In a statement, Cofra Holding AG said that they "remain committed to a successful, future-proof C&A business and as such at C&A we have embarked on a transformation and growth program." Without directly mentioning the sale, they added: "The ongoing transformation of C&A includes an investigation of ways to accelerate in high growth priority areas such as China, emerging markets and digital, that could include partnerships and other types of additional external investment." Number of C&A stores on 3 November 2017 China 84 Germany 467 Austria 124 Switzerland 99 Poland 65 Czech Republic 42 Romania 38 Hungary 36 Slovakia 16 Slovenia 15 Estonia Spain 76 Portugal 34 Croatia 20 Italy 16 Serbia 15 France 169 Belgium 138 Netherlands 124 Luxembourg 10 Mexico 75 Brazil 297 United Kingdom ska act The Specials referenced the store in "Man at C&A" on the 1980 album More Specials.
The phrase "Man at C&A" was used to typify someone, "sartorially challenged". In an episode of the popular sitcom Only Fools and Horses Delboy tells his brother Rodney that when they become millionaires, their clothes will "come from Man at C&A". C&A Europe company website
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Warner Music Latina
Warner Music Latina is a record label part of Warner Music Group that focuses on Latin music. The record label was established in 1987. El Tri List of record labels Warner Music Latina on Facebook Warner Music Latina on Twitter Warner Music Latina's channel on YouTube
Alessandro Lindblad known by his stage name Alesso, is a Swedish DJ and record producer. Alesso is managed by John Shahidi of Shots Studios, he has worked with numerous artists, including Tove Lo, Theo Hutchcraft, Ryan Tedder, Hailee Steinfeld, Calvin Harris, David Guetta and Sebastian Ingrosso. He has performed at numerous music festivals, including Coachella, Electric Daisy Carnival and Tomorrowland. In 2012, MTV named Alesso one of the "EDM Rookies to Watch", Madonna, who invited him to open select dates on her MDNA Tour, called Alesso "the next big thing in dance music."He was ranked 13th on DJ Magazine's 2015 list of the top 100 DJs and number 20th in year 2016 on DJ Magazine among the list of Top 100 DJs in the world. His debut full-length album Forever was released on 22 May 2015 by Def Jam Recordings. Lindblad was born in Stockholm, is of Swedish and Italian descent, he started playing piano at age 7, but became interested in Electronic Dance Music when he was 16. He first gained recognition with the release of his Alesso EP in 2010.
In early 2011, Sebastian Ingrosso of Swedish House Mafia contacted Alesso and asked if he wanted to work together. Ingrosso helped him with the production of tracks. Since that time, Ingrosso has acted as a mentor for Alesso, who referred to the elder Swede as a "big brother."Despite having learned to DJ in 2011, Alesso made his debut on DJ Magazine's list of the top 100 DJs at number 70 in that same year. One of the first songs Alesso produced with Sebastian Ingrosso was a 2011 track named "Calling" that reached number 2 on the Beatport charts; the song would be renamed "Calling" with an additional feature from Ryan Tedder. Alesso's 2011 remix of "Pressure" by Nadia Ali premiered at the #1 spot on The Hype Machine and was one of the most played EDM songs of 2011. From that point on, his popularity continued to rise. MTV named him one of the "EDM Rookies to Watch in 2012", he recorded a BBC Radio 1 Essential Mix in March 2012, he played for a crowd of 60,000 at Creamfields, accompanied Madonna on her MDNA World Tour at select European shows.
By the end of 2012, Alesso had released another original mix called "Years" featuring Matthew Koma that performed well in the United Kingdom. He was ranked 20th on the list of the top 100 DJs of 2012 by DJ Magazine. By 2013, Alesso had played at music festivals like Coachella, Electric Daisy Carnival, Ultra Music Festival, Tomorrowland, he released a remix of "If I Lose Myself" by OneRepublic, nominated for Grammy and garnered a million listens on SoundCloud in a short time. In a collaboration with Calvin Harris and Hurts, Alesso released "Under Control" which racked up 88 million views. In 2013, he achieved his highest ranking on the list of the top 100 DJs at number 13. In July 2014, Alesso signed with Def Jam Recordings, becoming only the second EDM producer to sign with the label, he debuted a new track called "Tear the Roof Up", named a "Future Exclusive" by Zane Lowe. The music video for "Tear The Roof Up" was released through SnapChat in September 2014, he embarked on his "Heroes Tour", named after his single "Heroes" featuring Tove Lo.
During the tour, Alesso teamed up with Chime for Change, a global charity that seeks to "improve the lives of women around the world." Alesso's involvement with the charity has raised over $50,000 as of October 2014. His debut studio album was set to be released in the first quarter of 2015, but was released on 22 May 2015, it includes both "Heroes" and "Tear the Roof Up". The single "Heroes" was released on December 15, 2014, his new single, titled "Cool" and featuring Roy English, premiered on February 13, 2015, on BBC Radio 1. The track, which samples Kylie Minogue's "Get Outta My Way", was released in Europe on 16 February 2015 and in North America on 17 February 2015. On 30 September 2016, his new version of "I Wanna Know" featuring Taiwanese singer Jolin Tsai was released. Alesso and Tsai closed International Music Summit with an discussion of what it takes to bridge the gap between East and West in electronic music. On 1 October 2016, Alesso and Tsai performed the single "I Wanna Know" and a remix version of Tsai's hit "Play" together at the Storm Music Festival in Shanghai.
On 4 October 2016, it was announced that Alesso would be releasing a new version of the song "Years", collaborating with K-pop band Exo's member, Chen. The song was released on October 7 through SM Station. On 7 October 2016, Alesso premiered a new single, co-produced by Dillon Francis, called "Take My Breath Away" during Ultra Music Festival Taiwan; the single was released on October 21, 2016. On 8 September 2017, Hailee Steinfeld released her new song “Let Me Go”, a collaboration between Alesso and Florida Georgia Line. On 13 October 2017, Alesso released his new single “Is That for Me”, a collaboration with Brazilian singer Anitta. In 2018, Alesso went on his European Tour, highlighted by his closing performance at the Tomorrowland festival in Belgium. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of Electric Zoo that year, Alesso is invited to be the headliner along with Tiesto. In August 2018, Alesso performed on ABC's Good Morning America's summer concert series where he debuted his new single, "Remedy".
The concert was held in New York City's Central Park while Alesso was joined by singer Conor Maynard for the song's performance. Remedy reached number one on the US Dance Airplay chart. In October 2018, Alesso played three back to back sold out shows at the Hollywood Palladium in Los Angeles. In the year he performed shows in Brooklyn and San Francisco. Alesso's final single release of 2018
Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After talent manager Scooter Braun discovered his YouTube videos covering songs, he was signed to RBMG in 2008. Bieber released his debut EP, My World, in late 2009, it was certified platinum in the US. Bieber released his first studio album, My World 2.0, in 2010. It debuted at number one in several countries, was certified triple platinum in the US, contained his single "Baby", which debuted at number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and sold 12 million units. Following his debut album and promotional tours, he released his 3D biopic-concert film Justin Bieber: Never Say Never and his second studio album, Under the Mistletoe, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, his third studio album, Believe generated the single "Boyfriend", which reached number one in Canada. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in 2015, spawning three number one singles: "What Do You Mean?", "Sorry", "Love Yourself". Afterwards, Bieber was featured on several successful collaborations, including "Cold Water", "Let Me Love You", "Despacito", "I'm the One".
His US album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 150 million records, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists, became the second person to reach 100 million followers on Twitter in August 2017 after Katy Perry. Bieber has won numerous awards throughout his career, including an American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012, a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song "Where Are Ü Now", a Latin Grammy Award, he has been listed three times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world, in 2011, 2012, 2013. In 2016, Bieber became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo. Bieber was born on March 1, 1994, in London, Ontario, at St Joseph's Hospital, was raised in Stratford, Ontario, he is the only child of Jeremy Jack Patricia "Pattie" Mallette, who were never married. Mallette was was underage when she gave birth, her mother Diane and stepfather Bruce helped her raise her son.
His mother is of French-Canadian descent. He has claimed that he has some undetermined Aboriginal Canadian ancestry. Through Jeremy, Bieber has three younger half-siblings. Jeremy and his ex-girlfriend Erin Wagner, who broke up in 2014 after seven years together, have two children, daughter Jazmyn and son Jaxon. Jeremy married his girlfriend Chelsey in February 2018, they have a daughter named Bay. Bieber has a stepsister named Allie, the daughter of his stepmother. Pattie worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a single mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father. Bieber attended a French-language immersion elementary school in Stratford, the Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School. Growing up, he learned to play the piano, drums and trumpet, he graduated from high school in Stratford, the St. Michael Catholic Secondary School in 2012 with a 4.0 GPA. In early 2007, aged 12, Bieber sang Ne-Yo's "So Sick" for a local singing competition in Stratford and was placed second.
Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and friends to see. She continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, Bieber's popularity on the site grew. In the same year, Bieber busked shows in front of Avon Theatre steps during tourism season; when searching for videos of a different singer, Scooter Braun, a former marketing executive of So So Def Recordings, clicked on one of Bieber's 2007 videos by accident. Impressed, Braun tracked down the theatre that Bieber was performing in, located Bieber's school, contacted Mallette, reluctant because of Braun's Judaism, she remembered praying, "God, I gave him to you. You could send me a Christian man, a Christian label!", and, "God, you don't want this Jewish kid to be Justin's man, do you?" However, church elders convinced her to let Bieber go with Braun. At 13, Bieber went to Atlanta, with Braun to record demo tapes. Bieber began singing for Usher one week later. Bieber was soon signed to a joint venture between Braun and Usher.
Justin Timberlake was reportedly in the running to sign Bieber but lost the bidding war to Usher. Usher sought assistance in finding a label home for the artist from manager Chris Hicks, who helped engineer an audition with his contact L. A. Reid of The Island Def Jam Music Group. Reid signed Bieber to Island Records in October 2008 and appointed Hicks as executive Vice-President of Def Jam, where he could manage Bieber's career at the label. Bieber moved to Atlanta with his mother to pursue further work with Braun and Usher. Braun became Bieber's manager in 2008. Bieber's first single, "One Time", was released to radio while Bieber was still recording his debut album; the song reached number 12 on the Canadian Hot 100 during its first week of release in July 2009 and peaked at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100. During fall 2009, it had success in international markets; the song was certified the US and gold in Australia and New Zealand. His first release, an extended play entitled My World, was released on November 17, 2009.
The album's second single, "One Less Lonely Girl", two promo singles, "Love Me" and "Favorite Girl", were released on the iTunes Store and charted within the top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100."One Less Lonely Girl" was also released
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa