Gabriel Shear Tregear known as Gabriel Shire Tregear, was an English publisher of caricatures and prints. Active from the late 1820s until his death, he operated his "Humorous and Sporting Print Shop" from quarters near today's 123 Cheapside, London. Artists and caricaturists published by Tregear included a member of the Cruikshank family of caricaturists, Isaac Robert Cruikshank. In 1821 Tregear married Ann McLean, sister of printseller and publisher Thomas McLean, with whom he was to have thirteen children. In 1823 he published the third edition of Francis B. Spilsburyʼs "Picturesque Scenery in the Holy Land and Syria" from an address in Southwark. By 1826 he had moved to Drury Lane, published caricatures and other prints from St Peter's Alley, Cornhill. In 1827-1828 he published theatrical prints from 104 St Martins Lane. From 1828-1835 he occupied number 123 on the northwestern corner of Wood Street; this building has since been demolished, but during his day the printshop window was crowded with caricatures.
The Times of 7 May 1832 reports: On Saturday morning, about 11 oʼclock, as a boy named William Gunton, son of a watch-spring-maker, No. 3 City-gardens, was standing at the corner of Wood-street, looking at a caricature-shop window, a wagon in passing caught his arm between the stump and nearly severed it from the body. He was taken to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, the arm was amputated. There is every possibility of his recovery; the corner of Wood-street is rendered exceedingly dangerous by the exhibition of caricatures, as it invariably induces a crowd to assemble round the shop. On the Saturday previous, a gentleman named Bragge nearly lost his life, within a few yards of the same spot, numerous robberies are continually occurring. A policeman was subsequently stationed on the corner and Tregear forced to reduce the number of prints displayed. In 1834 he moved to 96 Cheapside, where he worked until his death in 1841, he died on 21 February 1841, at 18 Goulden Terrace, Islington, of inﬂuenza, was buried at St. Martin in the Fields in Camden Town.
His widow continued to operate the business with Thomas Crump Lewis as Tregear & Lewis selling musical instruments. The firm went bankrupt in 1844. Tregear published many series, of which Flights of Humour appears to be the longest, running to 95 prints or more, they are undated. The "Rum Jokes" series ran to at least 43 prints, cover hunting and fishing, plus racing events, skating and the building trade, his "Black Jokes" were described in an advertisement as "being a Series of Laughable Caricatures on the March of Manners Amongst the Blacks." Produced from drawings by a W. Summers, these caricatures of black life included about 19 images, of which the following are known: "No. 3: Marriage à la Mode. The Print Shop Window articleTregear's Black Jokes: being a series of racist caricatures on the march of manners amongst the blacks. London: G. S. Trigger, 1834; the catalogue consists of leaf, leaves of plates: chiefly ill.. Harvard University owns a copy, which I have not seen: HOLLIS Number: 005694336.
On Plate no. 7, Tregear adds the note "See Tregear's catalogue" below the caption
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th
History of slavery
The history of slavery spans many cultures and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places. Slavery occurs rarely among hunter-gatherer populations because it develops under conditions of social stratification. Slavery operated in the first civilizations. Slavery features in the Mesopotamian Code of Hammurabi, which refers to it as an established institution. Slavery became common within much of Europe during the Dark Ages and it continued into the Middle Ages; the Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the capture of large numbers of Christian slaves. The Dutch, Spanish, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade after 1600. David P. Forsythe wrote: "The fact remained that at the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom."
The Republic of Ragusa became the first European country to ban the slave trade - in 1416. In modern times Denmark-Norway abolished the trade in 1802. Although slavery is no longer legal anywhere in the world, human trafficking remains an international problem and an estimated 25-40 million people were enslaved as of 2013, the majority in Asia. During the 1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic child-slavery and -trafficking on cacao plantations in West Africa. Slavery continues into the 21st-century. Although Mauritania criminalized slavery in August 2007, an estimated up to 600,000 men and children, or 20% of the population of Mauritania, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor. Slavery in 21st-century Islamism continues, Islamist quasi-states such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and Boko Haram have abducted and enslaved women and children. Evidence of slavery predates written records, has existed in many cultures.
However, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11,000 years ago. Slavery was known in civilizations as old as Sumer, as well as in every other ancient civilization, including Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia, Ancient Iran, Ancient Greece, Ancient India, the Roman Empire, the Arab Islamic Caliphate and Sultanate and the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas; such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, the birth of slave children to slaves. French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. "Slavery came in different guises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries as traders".
During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 Britain, which held extensive, although coastal, colonial territories on the African continent, made the international slave trade illegal, as did the United States in 1808. In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the Western Sudan, including Ghana, Mali and Songhai, about a third of the population was enslaved. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves; the population of the Kanem was about a third slave.
It was 40% in Bornu. Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves; the population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated. Half the population of Madagascar was enslaved; the Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when it was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery; when British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves.
Slavery in northern Nigeria was outlawed in 1936. Elikia M'bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quot
Mary Anne Clarke
Mary Anne Clarke was the mistress of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Their relationship began in 1803. In 1809, she wrote her memoirs which were published, she was the subject of a portrait by Adam Buck, a caricature by Isaac Cruikshank. In 1811, she commissioned Irish sculptor Lawrence Gahagan to sculpt a marble bust of her. Through her daughter who married Louis-Mathurin Busson du Maurier, Clarke was an ancestress of author Daphne du Maurier, who wrote the novel Mary Anne about her life. Mary Anne Thompson was born on 3 April 1776 in the daughter of a humble tradesman. Attractive and intelligent, she was married before the age of 18, to a man named Clarke, who worked as a stonemason. However, shortly after the marriage, her husband went bankrupt, Mary Anne Clarke left him because of this. By 1803 Clarke had been established long enough in the world of courtesans to receive the attention of Frederick, Duke of York the Commander in Chief of the army. Taking her as his mistress, he set her up in a fashionable residence.
However, he failed to supply the funds necessary to support their lavish lifestyle. In 1809, a national scandal arose when Clarke testified before the House of Commons that she had sold army commissions with the Duke of York's knowledge; the scandal was the subject of much humour and mockery by caricaturists such as Isaac Cruikshank who created multiple graphics making fun of the scandal. Cruikshank combined mockery of the scandal while satirizing Napoleon, portraying him and his generals reading four of his caricatures of the Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany and Mary. Frederick was forced to resign from his position, though he was reinstated. After the Duke of York resigned his post as Commander in Chief of the Army, before he was reinstated, he cut all ties to Clarke, paying her a considerable sum to prevent her from publishing letters he had written to her during their relationship; when the scandal forced Clarke to leave London, she took a tenancy of Loughton Lodge, Essex. This house still exists, a blue plaque to Mary Anne Clarke was unveiled on it in April 2009.
There are in fact two blue plaques, one on the front, a duplicate on the back elevation. Clarke was imprisoned for nine months. On her release from prison, Clarke went to live in France, she died in Boulogne-sur-Mer on 21 June 1852. Her daughter, born of her marriage to Clarke, married Louis-Mathurin Busson du Maurier and was the mother of the caricaturist George du Maurier and the great-grandmother of the novelist Daphne du Maurier, who wrote a book about her, Mary Anne. Writings by Mary Anne Clarke include the following: The Authentic and Impartial Life of Mrs. Mary Anne Clarke, Including Numerous Royal and Other Original Letters, Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, Which Have Escaped Suppression, with a Compendious View of the Whole Proceedings, Illustrative of the Late Important Investigation of the Conduct of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, &C. &C. and a Curious Poem. London: T. Kelly, 1809; the Rival Princes. A. Clarke's Political Acquaintance with Colonel Wardle, Major Dodd, &C. &C. &C.
Who Were Concerned in the Charges against the Duke of York. London: Printed for the author, published by C. Chapple, 1810, she co-authored with Elizabeth Taylor: Authentic Memoirs of Mrs. Clarke. London: T. Tegg, 1809. With Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle, Francis Wright, Daniel Wright: Wardle Versus Clarke, &c.: The Trial of F. Wright, D. Wright, Mary Ann Clarke for a Conspiracy against G. L. Wardle Before Lord Ellenborough in the Court of King's Bench, Westminster on December the 11th, 1809. London: J. Day, 1809. Clarke, Mary Anne; the Century Cyclopedia of Names: A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of Names in Geography, Mythology, Ethnology, Archæology, Etc. New York: Century Co, 1904. Parry, His Honour Judge Edward Abbott, Vagabond's All, p. 22-42, "Chapter II: Mary Anne Clarke, The Courtesan." For Mary Anne Clarke's works fr:Mary Anne Clarke
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A soldier by profession, from 1764 to 1803 he was Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück in the Holy Roman Empire. From the death of his father in 1820 until his own death in 1827 he was the heir presumptive to his elder brother, George IV, in both the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Hanover. Frederick was thrust into the British Army at a early age and was appointed to high command at the age of thirty, when he was given command of a notoriously ineffectual campaign during the War of the First Coalition, a continental war following the French Revolution; as Commander-in-Chief during the Napoleonic Wars, he oversaw the reorganisation of the British Army, establishing vital structural and recruiting reforms for which he is credited with having done "more for the army than any one man has done for it in the whole of its history."
Prince Frederick Augustus, or the Duke of York as he became in life, belonged to the House of Hanover. He was born on 16 August 1763, at London, his father was the reigning British monarch, King George III. His mother was Queen Charlotte, he was christened on 14 September 1763 at St James's, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Secker — his godparents were his great-uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, his uncle the Duke of York and his great-aunt the Princess Amelia. On 27 February 1764, when Prince Frederick was six months old, he became Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück upon the death of Clemens August of Bavaria; the Peace of Westphalia stipulated that the city of Osnabrück would alternate between Catholic and Protestant rulers, with the Protestant bishops to be elected from the cadets of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The bishopric of Osnabrück came with a substantial income, which he retained until the city was incorporated into Hanover in 1803 during the German mediatization, he was invested as Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath on 30 December 1767 and as a Knight of the Order of the Garter on 19 June 1771.
George III decided that his second son would pursue an army career and had him gazetted colonel on 4 November 1780. From 1781 to 1787, Prince Frederick lived in Hanover, where he studied at the University of Göttingen, he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards on 26 March 1782 before being promoted to major-general on 20 November 1782. Promoted to lieutenant general on 27 October 1784, he was appointed colonel of the Coldstream Guards on 28 October 1784, he was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 27 November 1784 and became a member of the Privy Council. On his return to Great Britain, the Duke took his seat in the House of Lords, where, on 15 December 1788 during the Regency crisis, he opposed William Pitt's Regency Bill in a speech, supposed to have been influenced by the Prince of Wales. On 26 May 1789 he took part in a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox. On 12 April 1793 Frederick was promoted to full general; that year, he was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of Coburg's army destined for the invasion of France.
Frederick and his command fought in the Flanders Campaign under trying conditions. He won several notable engagements, such as the Siege of Valenciennes in July 1793, but was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. In the 1794 campaign he gained a notable success at the Battle of Beaumont in April and another at the Battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing that month; the British army was evacuated through Bremen in April 1795. After his return to Britain, his father George III promoted him to the rank of field marshal on 18 February 1795. On 3 April 1795, George appointed him effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst although the title was not confirmed until three years later, he was colonel of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 19 August 1797. On appointment as Commander-in-Chief he declared, reflecting on the Flanders Campaign of 1793–94, "that no officer should be subject to the same disadvantages under which he had laboured", his second field command was with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799.
On 7 September 1799, he was given the honorary title of Captain-General. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, in charge of the vanguard, had succeeded in capturing some Dutch warships in Den Helder. However, following the Duke's arrival with the main body of the army, a number of disasters befell the allied forces, including shortage of supplies. On 17 October 1799, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners. 1799 saw Fort Frederick in South Africa named after him. Frederick's military setbacks of 1799 were inevitable given his lack of moral seniority as a field commander, the poor state of the British army at the time, conflicting military objectives of the protagonists. After this ineffectual campaign, Frederick was mocked unfairly, in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York": Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign made a strong impression on him; that campaign, the Flanders campaign, had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect.