William Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, was an English nobleman, early Quaker, founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. In 1681, King Charles II handed over a large piece of his American land holdings to Penn to pay the debts the king owed to Penn's father; this land included present-day Delaware. Penn set sail and took his first step on American soil in New Castle in 1682 after his trans-Atlantic journey. On this occasion, the colonists pledged allegiance to Penn as their new proprietor, the first general assembly was held in the colony. Afterward, Penn founded Philadelphia. However, Penn's Quaker government was not viewed favorably by the Dutch and English settlers in what is now Delaware, they had no "historical" allegiance to Pennsylvania, so they immediately began petitioning for their own assembly.
In 1704 they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of Pennsylvania were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of Lower Delaware. As the most prominent and influential "city" in the new colony, New Castle became the capital; as one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government served as an inspiration for the United States Constitution; as a pacifist Quaker, Penn considered the problems of peace deeply. He developed a forward-looking project for a United States of Europe through the creation of a European Assembly made of deputies who could discuss and adjudicate controversies peacefully, he is therefore considered the first thinker to suggest the creation of a European Parliament. A man of deep religious convictions, Penn wrote numerous works in which he exhorted believers to adhere to the spirit of Primitive Christianity.
He was imprisoned several times in the Tower of London due to his faith, his book No Cross, No Crown, which he wrote while in prison, has become a Christian classic. William Penn was born in 1644 at Tower Hill, the son of English Admiral Sir William Penn, Margaret Jasper, from a Dutch family the widow of a Dutch captain, the daughter of a rich merchant from Rotterdam. William Penn, Sr. served in the Commonwealth Navy during the English Civil War and was rewarded by Oliver Cromwell with estates in Ireland. The lands were seized from Irish Catholics in retaliation for the failed Irish Rebellion of 1641. Admiral Penn took part in the restoration of Charles II and was knighted and served in the Royal Navy. At the time of his son's birth, Captain Penn was twenty-three and an ambitious naval officer in charge of quelling Irish Catholic unrest and blockading Irish ports. William Penn grew up during the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who succeeded in leading a Puritan rebellion against King Charles I. Penn's father was at sea.
Little William caught smallpox at a young age, losing all his hair, prompting his parents to move from the suburbs to an estate in Essex. The country life made a lasting impression on young Penn, kindled in him a love of horticulture, their neighbor was famed diarist Samuel Pepys, friendly at first but secretly hostile to the Admiral embittered in part by his failed seductions of both Penn's mother and his sister Peggy. Penn was educated first at Chigwell School, by private tutors whilst in Ireland, at Christ Church, Oxford. At that time, there were no state schools and nearly all educational institutions were affiliated with the Anglican Church. Children from poor families had to have a wealthy sponsor to get an education. Penn's education leaned on the classical authors and "no novelties or conceited modern writers" were allowed including William Shakespeare. Foot racing was Penn's favorite sport, he would run the more than three-mile distance from his home to the school; the school itself was cast in an Anglican mode – strict and somber – and teachers had to be pillars of virtue and provide sterling examples to their charges.
Though opposing Anglicanism on religious grounds, Penn absorbed many Puritan behaviors, was known for his serious demeanor, strict behavior and lack of humor. After a failed mission to the Caribbean, Admiral Penn and his family were exiled to his lands in Ireland, it was during this period, when Penn was about fifteen, that he met Thomas Loe, a Quaker missionary, maligned by both Catholics and Protestants. Loe was admitted to the Penn household and during his discourses on the "Inner Light", young Penn recalled that "the Lord visited me and gave me divine Impressions of Himself."A year Cromwell was dead, the royalists resurging, the Penn family returned to England. The middle class aligned itself with the royalists and Admiral Penn was sent on a secret mission to bring back exiled Prince Charles. For his role in restoring the monarchy, Admiral Penn was knighted and gained a powerful position as Commissioner of the Navy. In 1660, Penn enrolled as a gentleman scholar with an assigned servant; the student body was a volatile mix of swashbuckling Cavaliers, sober Puritans, nonconforming Quakers.
The new government's discouragement of religious dissent gave the Cavalier
The Albany Congress was a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of seven of the thirteen British colonies in British America: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York and Rhode Island. Northernmost Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were not in attendance. Representatives met daily at the Stadt Huys in Albany, New York, from June 18 to July 11, 1754, to discuss better relations with the American Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French threat from Canada in the opening stage of the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France. Delegates did not have the goal of creating an American nation; this was the first time that American colonists had met together, it provided a model that came into use in setting up the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, as well as the First Continental Congress in 1774, which were preludes to the American Revolution. The Albany Congress was the first time in the 18th century that American colonial representatives met to discuss some manner of formal union.
In the 17th century, some New England colonies had formed a loose association called the New England Confederation, principally for purposes of defense, as raiding was frequent by French and allied Indian tribes. In the 1680s, the British Government created the Dominion of New England as a unifying government on the colonies between the Delaware River and Penobscot Bay. Jacob Leisler summoned an intercolonial congress which met in New York on 1 May 1690 to plan concerted action against the French and Indians; because of differences in threat, he attracted only the colonies as far south as Maryland. The Albany delegates spent most of their time debating Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of union to create a unified level of colonial government; the delegates voted approval of a plan that called for a union of 11 colonies, with a president appointed by the British Crown. Each colonial assembly would send 2 to 7 delegates to a "grand council" which would have legislative powers; the Union would have jurisdiction over Indian affairs.
The plan was rejected by the colonies' legislatures, which were protective of their independent charters, by the Colonial Office, which wanted a military command. Many elements of the plan were the basis for the American government established by the Articles of Confederation of 1777 and the Constitution of 1787. Franklin speculated that the colonies might not have separated from England so soon had the 1754 plan been adopted. Benjamin Franklin said in 1789: On Reflection it now seems probable, that if the foregoing Plan or some thing like it, had been adopted and carried into Execution, the subsequent Separation of the Colonies from the Mother Country might not so soon have happened, nor the Mischiefs suffered on both sides have occurred during another Century. For the Colonies, if so united, would have been, as they thought themselves, sufficient to their own Defence, being trusted with it, as by the Plan, an Army from Britain, for that purpose would have been unnecessary: The Pretences for framing the Stamp-Act would not have existed, nor the other Projects for drawing a Revenue from America to Britain by Acts of Parliament, which were the Cause of the Breach, attended with such terrible Expence of Blood and Treasure: so that the different Parts of the Empire might still have remained in Peace and Union.
The Congress and its Albany Plan have achieved iconic status as presaging the formation of the United States of America in 1776. It is illustrated with Franklin's famous snake cartoon Join, or Die. Benjamin Franklin's plan to unite the colonies exceeded the scope of the congress, called to plan a defense against the French and Indian threat; the original plan was debated by all who attended the conference, including the young Philadelphia lawyer Benjamin Chew. Numerous modifications were proposed by Thomas Hutchinson, who became Governor of Massachusetts; the delegates passed the plan unanimously. They submitted it with their recommendations, but the legislatures of the seven colonies rejected it, as it would have removed some of their existing powers; the plan was never sent to the Crown for approval, although it was submitted to the British Board of Trade, which rejected it. The Plan of Union proposed to include all the British North American colonies, although none of the colonies south of Maryland sent representatives to the Albany Congress.
The plan called for a single executive to be appointed by the King, who would be responsible for relations with the Indians, military preparedness, execution of laws regulating various trade and financial activities. It called for a Grand Council to be selected by the colonial legislatures, with the number of delegates to be apportioned according to the taxes paid by each colony; the colonial assemblies rejected the plan, although delegates forming the government after the Revolution incorporated some features in the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Twenty-one representatives attended the Congress from New York, Maryland, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. New York Governor James DeLancey was Chairman. Peter Wraxall served as Secretary to the Congress. Delegates included: Connecticut: William Pitkin‡, Oliver Wolcott, Elisha Williams Maryland: Abraham Barnes, Benjamin Tasker, Jr.‡ Massachusetts: Thomas Hutchinson‡, Oliver
David Lloyd (judge)
David Lloyd was an American lawyer and politician from Chester, Pennsylvania. He was the first Attorney General of a member of the Popular party, he served in the Pennsylvania General Assembly, including six terms as its Speaker, as Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Lloyd was born in 1656 in the parish of Manafon, Wales, he was educated at a grammar school. Lloyd converted to Quakerism in 1691. Lloyd was twice married, he married his second wife, Grace Growden in 1703. Together they had a son. David Lloyd may have been the cousin of Thomas Lloyd, lieutenant governor of the Province of Pennsylvania. Lloyd studied law under George Jeffreys. In 1686 he was sent by William Penn to the Province of Pennsylvania and served as Attorney General of the province from 1686 until 1710. Lloyd designed Pennsylvania's first judicial system, he became successively clerk of the county court of Philadelphia, deputy to the master of the rolls, clerk of the provincial court. In 1689, Lloyd was clerk of the County Courts and found himself in difficulties with the council when he refused to produce the records of the court to the council.
In 1698 as a punishment for the conflict with the council, he was removed as Attorney General and replaced by John Moore. Penn's Frame of 1701 caused disagreement between Penn.. There was disagreement over interpretation if the Charter gave control of the province to the assembly or the proprietor. James Logan, Penn's loyal secretary, believed the Proprietor to be the center of power and mobilized those who agreed with him into the Proprietary party. Lloyd believed the assembly to be the center of provincial power, became the leader of the Popular party and fought for thirty years to make his viewpoint a reality, he was a member of the Pennsylvania General Assembly for 23 years between 1693 and 1728, representing at various times Chester County, Philadelphia County, the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. For thirteen of those years, he served as Speaker, he served for five years as a member of the provincial council. In 1702, he was appointed advocate to the Court of Admiralty. In 1718, Lloyd was appointed Chief Justice of the province by Governor William Keith.
During the final years of his life, his mental capacity diminished and a few months before his death the council declared that he was mentally unfit to serve. His death came. In 1689, Lloyd purchased a large tract of land in Chester part of, used as a commons. In 1690, Lloyd secured permission to lay out a street along the line of the current Second Street from Chester Creek to his property; this transaction made him many enemies. He began living in Chester in 1700 on the land he named "Green Bank". In 1721, Lloyd built a grand house which in subsequent years became the property of Commodore David Porter and became known as the Porter House; the house became the location of Jackson's Pyrotechnic Manufactory and on the evening of February 17,1882 caught fire and a large stock of fireworks exploded, destroying the home, killing eighteen people and wounding fifty-seven other. Lloyd died April 6, 1731 in Chester, Pennsylvania and is interred at old St. Paul's Church burial ground. Lloyd and his wife Grace were interred at the Quaker burial ground in Chester, but were moved to St. Paul's after the Quaker burial ground was removed to make way for new development on October, 1959.
Lloyd street in Chester, Pennsylvania is named after Lloyd. Abel Morgan's Welsh concordance was dedicated to Lloyd. Pennsylvania Office of Attorney General David Lloyd at Find a Grave
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
James Logan (statesman)
James Logan was an Irish-born colonial American statesman and scholar who served as the fourteenth mayor of Philadelphia and held a number of other public offices. Logan was born in Lurgan, County Armagh, Ireland, to an Irish father and Scottish mother of Quaker persuasion, he served as colonial secretary to William Penn. He was a founding trustee of the College of Philadelphia, the predecessor of the University of Pennsylvania. James Logan was born at Lurgan on October 20, 1674, his parents were Patrick Logan and Isabella, Lady Hume, who married in early 1671, in Midlothian, Scotland. His father had a Master of Arts degree from the University of Edinburgh, was an Anglican clergyman before converting to Quakerism, or the Society of Friends. Although apprenticed to a Dublin linen-draper, he appears to have received a good classical and mathematical education, to have acquired a knowledge of modern languages not common at the period; the War of 1689–91 obliged him to follow his parents, first to Edinburgh, to London and Bristol, England where, in 1693, James replaced his father as schoolmaster.
In 1699, he came to the colony of Pennsylvania aboard the Canterbury as William Penn's secretary. Logan is described with a graceful yet grave demeanour, he had a good complexion, was quite florid in old age. After advancing through several political offices, including commissioner of property, receiver general and member of the provincial council, he was elected mayor of Philadelphia in 1722. During his tenure as mayor, Logan allowed Irish Catholic immigrants to participate in the city's first public Mass, he served as the colony's chief justice from 1731 to 1739, in the absence of a governor of Pennsylvania, became acting governor from 1736 to 1738. He opposed Quaker pacifism and war tax resistance, encouraged pacifist Quakers to give up their seats in the Pennsylvania Assembly so that it could make war requisitions. On October 9, 1736 he responded to requests from Native American leaders to control the sale of alcohol, creating serious social problems, by prohibiting the sale of rum in indigenous communities, but as the penalty was only a fine of ten pounds and the law was poorly enforced, it did not have a significant effect.
Meanwhile, he engaged in various mercantile pursuits fur trading, with such success that he became one of the wealthiest men in the colonies. He wrote numerous scholarly papers published by the American Philosophical Society and European journals. Logan was a natural scientist whose primary contribution to the emerging field of botany was a treatise that described experiments on the impregnation of plant seeds corn, he introduced him to Linnaeus. James Logan's mother came to live with him in Philadelphia in 1717, she died on January 1722, at Stenton. His daughter, married Isaac Norris. Logan died in 1751 at Stenton, near Germantown, at the age of 77, was buried at the site of Arch Street Friends Meeting House. While Logan would become mayor of Philadelphia, chief justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, lieutenant governor, acting governor he is best known for being a bibliophile, confessing once that "Books are my disease", he collected a personal library of over 3,000 volumes. Some commentators consider Logan's library to have been the largest and best collection of classical writings in America at that time.
Logan would in time become known to Benjamin Franklin and his "Junto". He became a mentor to Franklin, who published Logan's translation of Cicero's essay "Cato Maior de Senectute"; the Junto decided to establish a subscription library, a cooperative endeavour where members would pay a fee for use of the library. Franklin and the other members of the Junto considered Logan the "best Judge of Books in these parts" and chose him to select the first 43 titles for the Library Company of Philadelphia. At the same time Logan was helping to build the collection for the Library Company of Philadelphia, he was adding to his own personal library, considered substantial in number and breadth, he planned on donating his library for public use after his death and to this end he had a building constructed on Sixth Street in Philadelphia. Upon Logan's death, after a lengthy delay due to some confusion in his will, through an act of the Pennsylvania Assembly and the governor on March 31, 1792, the 3,953 volumes and other property of the Loganian Library were "vested in the Library Company of Philadelphia, their successors and assigns, for in trust for the support and increase of the said Loganian Library."
The Loganian Library, as he wished it to be called, was diverse. The catalogue of its final holdings is now lost but a partial inventory done in 1760 reveals a wide selection of books; the book distribution by date reveals nothing out of the ordinary. Most were from the seventeenth century with 57 percent. Next came those from the eighteenth century at 27 percent. There was a good number from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries at 16 percent; the collection was British and northern European with 33 percent from Britain.