Stirners main work is The Ego and Its Own, known as The Ego and His Own. This work was first published in 1844 in Leipzig, and has appeared in numerous editions and translations. Stirners philosophy is usually called egoism, Stirner held that the only limitation on the rights of the individual is his power to obtain what he desires. He proposes that most commonly accepted social institutions—including the notion of State, property as a right, natural rights in general, Stirner wanted to abolish not only the state but society as an institution responsible for its members. Max Stirners idea of the union of Egoists, was first expounded in The Ego, the Union is understood as a non-systematic association, which Stirner proposed in contradistinction to the state. The Union is understood as a relation between egoists which is renewed by all parties support through an act of will. The Union requires that all parties participate out of a conscious egoism, If one party silently finds themselves to be suffering, but puts up and keeps the appearance, the union has degenerated into something else.
This union is not seen as an authority above a persons own will and this idea has received interpretations for politics, economics and sex. Stirner claimed that property comes about through might, Whoever knows how to take, to defend, what I have in my power, that is my own. So long as I assert myself as holder, I am the proprietor of the thing, I do not step shyly back from your property, but look upon it always as my property, in which I respect nothing. Pray do the like with what you call my property and his concept of egoistic property not only rejects moral restraint on how one obtains and uses things, but includes other people as well. Though Stirners philosophy is individualist, it has influenced some libertarian communists and anarcho-communists, forms of libertarian communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are influenced by Stirner. Anarcho-communist Emma Goldman was influenced by both Stirner and Peter Kropotkin and blended their philosophies together in her own, the Scottish born German writer John Henry Mackay found out about Stirner while reading a copy of Friedrich Albert Lange´s History of Materialism and Critique of its Present Importance.
Later he looked for a copy of The Ego and Its Own and after being fascinated with it he wrote a biography of Stirner, published in German in 1898. Mackay´s propaganda of stirnerist egoism and of male homosexual and bisexual rights influenced Adolf Brand who published the worlds first ongoing homosexual publication, Der Eigene in 1896. The name of that publication was taken from Stirner, who had influenced the young Brand. Der Eigene concentrated on cultural and scholarly material, and may have averaged around 1500 subscribers per issue during its lifetime, Benjamin Tucker followed this journal from the United States. Another German anarchist publication influenced deeply by Stirner was Der Einzige and it appeared in 1919, as a weekly, sporadically until 1925 and was edited by cousins Anselm Ruest and Mynona
Anarchism without adjectives
Was simply understood as an attitude that tolerated the coexistence of different anarchist schools. In the 1920s synthesis anarchism emerged as a form of anarchist organizations based on anarchism-without-adjectives principles, the theoretical perspective known as anarquismo sin adjetivos was one of the by-products of an intense debate within the movement of anarchism itself. The roots of the argument can be found in the development of anarcho-communism after Bakunins death in 1876, while not entirely dissimilar to collectivist anarchism, Communist Anarchists developed and enriched Bakunins work just as Bakunin had developed and enriched Proudhons. Communist Anarchism was associated with anarchists as Élisée Reclus, Carlo Cafiero, Errico Malatesta. Anarcho-communist ideas replaced Collectivist Anarchism as the main anarchist tendency in Europe, here the major issue was not the question of communism but a question of the modification of strategy and tactics implied by Communist Anarchism. At this time, the anarcho-communists stressed local cells of anarchist militants, such a change in strategy and tactics came in for a lot of discussion from the Spanish Collectivists who strongly supported working class organisation and struggle.
This debate soon spread outside of Spain and the discussion found its way into the pages of La Revolte in Paris and this provoked many anarchists to agree with Malatestas argument that t is not right for us, to say the least, to fall into strife over mere hypotheses. Similarly, in the United States, there was a debate at the same time between individualist and communist anarchists. Historically, anarchists who embraced anarchist without adjectives objected to capitalism, fernando Tarrida del Mármols original use of the term was a call for tolerance amongst collectivist and communist anarchists, all of whom rejected capitalism. Voltairine de Cleyre, when commenting on the McKinley assassination wrote, the hells of capitalism create the desperate, synthesis anarchism is a form of anarchist organization which tries to join anarchists of different tendencies under the principles of anarchism without adjectives. Voline along with Molly Steimer and others wrote a reply stating that to To maintain that anarchism is only a theory of classes is to limit it to a single viewpoint, Anarchism is more complex and pluralistic, like life itself.
Its class element is above all its means of fighting for liberation, its character is its ethical aspect. Two texts made as responses to the Platform, each proposing a different organizational model, became the basis for what is known as the organisation of synthesis, or simply synthesism. Voline published in 1924 a paper calling for the anarchist synthesis and was the author of the article in Sébastien Faures Encyclopedie Anarchiste on the same topic and these organizations were inspired on synthesist principles. Anarchism without adjectives tends to imply as far as economics a coexistence of economic models from mutualism/individualist anarchism, french anarchist without adjectives Max Nettlau addressed the issue of the coexistence of different economic systems as follows, Let me imagine myself for a moment living in a free society. I should certainly have different occupations and mental, requiring strength or skill, but might I not become tired of this, and wish for a spell of relative isolation, of Individualism.
So I might turn to one of the possible forms of equal exchange Individualism. Perhaps people will do one thing when they are young and another thing when they grow older, I think that at the beginning I should adopt Communism with friends and Individualism with strangers, and shape my future life according to experience. Anarchism, Communist or Individualist
Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain. It holds the autonomous communitys House of Parliament, the headquarters of the Government, the dwellers of Vitoria-Gasteiz are called vitorianos or gasteiztarrak, while traditionally they are dubbed babazorros. Vitoria-Gasteiz is a city with strengths in the arts, education, architectural conservation, vehicle industry, oenology. It is the first Spanish municipality to be awarded the title of European Green Capital, the old town holds some of the best preserved medieval streets and plazas in the region and it is one of very few cities to hold two Cathedrals. The city holds well known such as the Azkena rock festival, FesTVal, Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival. It was a point in the Peninsular War eventually leading to the defeat of Bonaparte. A memorial statue can be today in Virgen Blanca Square. This however is not sufficiently proven, and some historians and experts believe that Victoriacum was located not on the site of present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz, several possible locations have been proposed, the foremost of which is the late Roman military camp of Iruña-Veleia.
Veleia is located some 11 km north of modern Vitoria, on the banks of the same river. However, modern studies of the site suggest that Veleia was last inhabited c. 5th century AD. Another theory has suggested that Victoriacum was located at the foot of Mount Gorbea where there is a village called Vitoriano, the town of Armentia, nowadays in the outskirts of Vitoria, has been proposed as a possible location of Victoriacum. In either case, Victoriacum vanishes from history shortly after its foundation, in 1181, Sancho the Wise, King of Navarre founded the town of Nova Victoria as a defensive outpost on top of a hill at the site of the previous settlement of Gasteiz. It is assumed that Sancho the Wise gave the new city its name in memory of the old settlement of Victoriacum, in 1199, the town was besieged and captured by the troops of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who annexed the town to the Kingdom of Castile. The town was enlarged and in 1431 it was granted a city charter by King Juan II of Castile.
In 1463, it was one of the five founding villas of the Brotherhood of Álava alongside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro, the Battle of Vitoria of the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz along the river Zadorra on 21 June 1813. An allied British and Spanish army under General the Marquess of Wellington broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte, the victory assured the eventual end of French control in Spain. There is a monument commemorating this battle in the square of the city known as the Monument to Independence. Work began on the Institute for Middle Education in 1843, with classes beginning during the 1853–54 academic year and it is now current headquarters of the Basque Parliament and formerly the convent of Santa Clara
Anarchy is the condition of a society, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy. The term originally meant leaderlessness, but in 1840, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property, to refer to a new political philosophy, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations. In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and it could mean a nation or anywhere on earth that is inhabited, that has no system of government or central rule. The word anarchy comes from the ancient Greek ἀναρχία, which combines ἀ, without and ἀρχή, leader, the term refers to a person or society without rulers or without leaders. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant treated anarchy in his Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View as consisting of Law and Freedom without Force. Thus, for Kant, anarchy falls short of being a civil state because the law is only an empty recommendation if force is not included to make this law efficacious.
For there to be such a state, force must be included while law and freedom are maintained, Kant identified four kinds of government and freedom without force. Anarchism is a philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations, Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all relations, but not limited to. There are many types and traditions of anarchism, not all of which are mutually exclusive, Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have been divided into the categories of social, some individualist anarchists are socialists or communists while some anarcho-communists are individualists or egoists.
Anarchism as a movement has regularly endured fluctuations in popularity. Since the 1890s, the term libertarianism has been used as a synonym for anarchism and was used almost exclusively in this sense until the 1950s in the United States, right-libertarians are divided into minarchists and anarcho-capitalists or voluntarists. Outside the English-speaking world, libertarianism generally retains its association with left-wing anarchism, many of these societies can be considered to be anarchic in the sense that they explicitly reject the idea of centralized political authority. The egalitarianism typical of human hunter-gatherers is interesting when viewed in an evolutionary context, one of humanitys two closest primate relatives, the chimpanzee, is anything but egalitarian, forming hierarchies that are dominated by alpha males. In Society Against the State Pierre Clastres examines stateless societies where cultural practices and attitudes avert the development of hierarchy. He dismisses the notion that the state is the outcome of the evolution of human societies
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet. The UNESCO definitions are, only meant to be used for the purpose of drawing up their book production statistics. Pamphiluss name is derived from the Greek name Πάμφιλος, meaning beloved of all, the poem was popular and widely copied and circulated on its own, forming a slim codex. Its modern connotations of a tract concerning an issue was a product of the heated arguments leading to the English Civil War. In some European languages other than English, this connotation, of a disputatious tract, has come to the fore, compare libelle, from the Latin libellus. Pamphlets can contain anything from information on kitchen appliances to medical information, Pamphlets are very important in marketing because they are cheap to produce and can be distributed easily to customers. Pamphlets have long been an important tool of political protest, a pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who produces or distributes pamphlets, especially for a political cause. Ephemeral and to wide array of political or religious perspectives given voice by the ease of production.
Substantial accumulations have been amassed and transferred to ownership of academic research libraries around the world, the pamphlet has been widely adopted in commerce, particularly as a format for marketing communications. Long-form journalism Flyer Randy Silverman,1987, Not Insignificant, a Specification for a Conservation Pamphlet Binding Structure, The Book and Paper Group Annual 6. Historical overview focusing on pamphlet binding, information about a project that digitised 26,000 19th century pamphlets from UK research libraries. Collection of 19th century pamphlets, predominantly of Irish interest and covering a spectrum of subjects. 19th Century Social History Pamphlets Collection, Collection of pamphlets relating to 19th century Irish social history, particularly the themes of education, famine, poverty and communications
It is the main principle behind the anarchist federations grouped around the contemporary global International of Anarchist Federations. Regardless, to these anarchists the economic preferences are considered to be of importance to abolishing all coercive authority. This conflict soon spread outside of Spain and the discussion found its way into the pages of La Revolte in Paris. This provoked many anarchists to agree with Errico Malatestas argument that t is not right for us, to say the least, Volin was a prolific writer and anarchist intellectual who played an important part in the organization and leadership of Nabat. The Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organizations, better known simply as Nabat, was an anarchist organization that came to prominence in Ukraine during the years 1918 to 1920. The area where it held the most influence is sometimes referred to as the Free Territory, the uniform platform for Nabat was never truly decided upon, but Volin used what he had written and the inspiration from Nabat to create his Anarchist Synthesis.
Voline along with Molly Steimer and others wrote a reply stating that to To maintain that anarchism is only a theory of classes is to limit it to a single viewpoint, Anarchism is more complex and pluralistic, like life itself. Its class element is above all its means of fighting for liberation, its character is its ethical aspect. Two texts made as responses to the Platform, each proposing a different organizational model, became the basis for what is known as the organisation of synthesis, or simply synthesism. Voline published in 1924 a paper calling for the anarchist synthesis and was the author of the article in Sébastian Faures Encyclopedie Anarchiste on the same topic, the platformists wanted to push their ideas forward through organizing an international anarchist congress on February 12,1927. In Italy, the synthesis anarchism federation Unione Anarchica Italiana emerged from the Unione Comunista Anarchica Italiana in 1920, the Unione Anarchica Italiana emerged just after the biennio rosso events and lasted until 1929 when it was banned by the Fascist regime.
The Programma Anarchico of the Unione Anarchica Italiana was written by Errico Malatesta, the Dielo Truda platform in Spain met with strong criticism. The main goal there was conciling anarcho-communism with anarcho-syndicalism, J. Elizalde was a founding member and first secretary of the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as a prominent local individualist anarchist. In 1945, the synthesist Italian Anarchist Federation was founded in Carrara, in it the individualist anarchist Cesare Zaccaria played an important role in conciling conflicting factions. The Italian FAI adopted an Associative Pact and the Anarchist Program of Errico Malatesta, the Fédération Anarchiste was founded in Paris, France on December 2,1945. These organizations were inspired on synthesist principles. Anarchist Synthesis by Volin Sébastien Faure, the Anarchist Synthesis Synthesis Anarchism / Anarchism Without Adjectives (an archive with texts related to synthesis anarchism as well as anarchism without adjectives
Collectivist anarchism is a revolutionary anarchist doctrine that advocates the abolition of both the state and private ownership of the means of production. It instead envisions the means of production being owned collectively and controlled and managed by the producers themselves, for the collectivization of the means of production, it was originally envisaged that workers will revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production. These salaries would be used to purchase goods in a communal market and this contrasts with anarcho-communism where wages would be abolished, and where individuals would take freely from a storehouse of goods to each according to his need. Thus, Bakunins Collectivist Anarchism, not with standing the title, is seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism, Collectivist anarchism is most commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian sections of the First International, and the early Spanish anarchist movement. Giuseppe Fanelli met Bakunin at Ischia in 1866, in October 1868 Bakunin sponsored Fanelli to travel to Barcelona to share his libertarian visions and recruit revolutionists to the International Workingmens Association.
Fanellis tour took him first to Barcelona, where he met and Fanelli were at odds over Recluses friendships with Spanish republicans, and Fanelli soon left Barcelona for Madrid. Fanelli stayed in Madrid until the end of January 1869, conducting meetings to introduce Spanish workers, including Anselmo Lorenzo, in February 1869 Fanelli left Madrid, journeying home via Barcelona. Bakunin was a supporter of the Commune, which was brutally suppressed by the French government. He saw the Commune as above all a rebellion against the State, the collectivist anarchists at first used the term collectivism to distinguish themselves from the mutualism of the followers of Proudhon and the state socialists associated with Karl Marx. Bakunin wrote, we shall always protest against anything that may in any way resemble communism or state socialism, Bakunin was Marx’s flamboyant chief opponent, and presciently warned against the emergence of a communist authoritarianism that would take power over working people.
The anti-authoritarian majority, which included most sections of the International, more importantly, Bakunin criticized authoritarian socialism and the concept of dictatorship of the proletariat which he adamantly refused. If you took the most ardent revolutionary, vested him in absolute power, the anti-authoritarian sections of the First International proclaimed at the St. This revolutionary transformation could only be the outcome of the action of the proletariat itself, its trades bodies. By the early 1880s, most of the European anarchist movement had adopted an anarchist communist position, advocating the abolition of wage labour and distribution according to need. Ironically, the collectivist label became commonly associated with Marxist state socialists who advocated the retention of some sort of wage system during the transition to full communism. The anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin attacked this position in his essay The Collectivist Wages System, Bakunins socialism was known as collectivist anarchism, where socially, it seeks the confirmation of political equality by economic equality.
Collectivist anarchism advocates the abolition of both the state and private ownership of the means of production and it instead envisions the means of production being owned collectively and controlled and managed by the producers themselves. For the collectivization of the means of production, it was envisaged that workers will revolt
Anarchism in Spain
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. However, these were complementary trajectories, and shared a great deal of ideological similarities, early on, the success of the anarchist movement was sporadic. Anarchists would organize a strike and ranks would swell, repression by police reduced the numbers again, but at the same time further radicalized many strikers. General strikes became common, and large portions of the Spanish working class adopted anarchist ideas, There emerged a small individualist anarchist movement based on publications such as Iniciales and La Revista Blanca. The Federación Anarquista Ibérica was created as a purely anarchist association, Anarchists played a central role in the fight against Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. At the same time, a social revolution spread throughout Spain. All remaining social reforms ended in 1939 with the victory of Franco, Resistance to his rule never entirely died, with resilient militants participating in acts of sabotage and other direct action after the war, and making several attempts on the rulers life.
Their legacy remains important to this day, particularly to anarchists who look at their achievements as a precedent of anarchisms validity. In the mid-19th century, revolutionary ideas were generally unknown in Spain, the closest thing to a radical movement was found amongst the followers of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, known as federalists, the most famous of whom was Francesc Pi i Margall. Ramón de la Sagra was a disciple of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and founded the worlds first anarchist journal El Porvenir, feelings associated with anarchism, like anti-clericalism and distrust of government, were widespread but part of no focused worldview. There was a history of peasant unrest in parts of the country. This was not related to any movement, but rather borne out of circumstances. The same was true in the cities, long before workers were familiar with anarcho-syndicalism, there were general strikes, the earliest successful attempt to introduce anarchism to the Spanish masses came in 1868. Fanelli spoke in French and Italian, so those present could only understand bits of what he was saying, except for one man, Tomás González Morago, the effect, was the same. we could understand his expressive mimicry and follow his speech.
These workers, longing for something more than the mild radicalism of the day, became the core of the Spanish Anarchist movement, a chapter of the First International was soon set up in Madrid. A few dedicated anarchists, first introduced to the Idea by Fanelli, began holding meetings, giving speeches, by 1870, the Madrid chapter of the International had gained roughly 2,000 members. Anarchism gained a larger following in Barcelona, already a bastion of proletarian rebellion, Luddism. The already militant working class was, as in Madrid, introduced to the philosophy of anarchism in the late 1860s, in 1869, a section of the International was formed in Barcelona
Anarchist schools of thought
Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often divided into the categories of social. William Godwin, in founding philosophical anarchism, developed what many consider the first expression of modern anarchist thought. Godwin was, according to Peter Kropotkin, the first to formulate the political and economical conceptions of anarchism, according to The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought, philosophical anarchism is a component especially of individualist anarchism. Godwin opposed revolutionary action and saw a state as a present necessary evil that would become increasingly irrelevant. Godwin advocated extreme individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labor be eliminated, Godwin felt discrimination on any grounds besides ability was intolerable. They may oppose the elimination of the state by violent means out of concern that it would be left unsecured against the establishment of a more harmful.
Mutualism began in 18th-century English and French labor movements, took an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and this influenced individualist anarchists in the United States such as Benjamin Tucker and William B. Josiah Warren proposed similar ideas in 1833 after participating in a failed Owenite experiment, in the 1840s and 1850s, Charles A. Dana, and William B. Greene introduced Proudhons works to the US. Greene adapted Proudhons mutualism to American conditions and introduced it to Benjamin R. Tucker, mutualist anarchism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract and credit and currency reform. Many mutualists believe a market without government intervention drives prices down to labor-costs, eliminating profit, firms would be forced to compete over workers just as workers compete over firms, raising wages. Some see mutualism as between individualist and collectivist anarchism, in What Is Property, Proudhon develops a concept of liberty, equivalent to anarchy, which is the dialectical synthesis of communism and property.
Greene, influenced by Pierre Leroux, sought mutualism in the synthesis of three philosophies – communism and socialism, Social anarchism is an umbrella term used to identify a broad category of anarchism independent of individualist anarchism. Social anarchism is used to specifically describe anarchist tendencies within anarchism that have an emphasis on the communitarian and cooperative aspects of anarchist theory, Social anarchism includes collectivist anarchism, anarcho-communism, libertarian socialism, anarcho-syndicalism and social ecology. Collectivist anarchism is a form of anarchism most commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin, Johann Most. Unlike mutualists, collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production, Workers would be compensated for their work on the basis of the amount of time they contributed to production, rather than goods being distributed according to need as in anarcho-communism. Although the collectivist anarchists advocated compensation for labor, some held out the possibility of a transition to a communist system of distribution according to need.
Collective anarchism arose contemporaneously with Marxism but opposed the Marxist dictatorship of the proletariat, some collectivist anarchists do not oppose the use of currency
Social anarchism is a non-state form of socialism and is considered to be the branch of anarchism which sees individual freedom as being dependent upon mutual aid. Social anarchist thought emphasizes community and social equality as complementary to autonomy, social anarchists advocate the conversion of present-day private property into social property or the commons, while retaining respect for personal property. The term social anarchism is used interchangeably with libertarian socialism, left-libertarianism. It emerged in the late 19th century as a distinction from individualist anarchism, mutualists typically accept property rights, but with brief abandonment time periods. A mutualist property regime is described as one rooted in possession, occupancy-and-use. Collectivist anarchism is a form of anarchism, commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin. It is a tendency, not to be confused with the broad category sometimes called collectivist or communitarian anarchism. Unlike mutualists, collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production and this position was criticised by anarcho-communists as effectively uphold the wages system.
Collectivist anarchism arose contemporaneously with Marxism but opposed the Marxist dictatorship of the proletariat, anarchist communism is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, money and private property. Economically, anarchist communists believe in converting private property into the commons or public goods, Most anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society. Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French revolution, the theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections. To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society, are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution, in the early 20th century, anarcho-syndicalism arose as a distinct strategic school of thought within anarchism. Like anarchist-communists, anarcho-syndicalists seek to abolish the system and private ownership of the means of production.
Important principles include workers solidarity, direct action, and workers self-management of enterprises, in terms of post-capitalist vision, anarcho-syndicalists most often subscribe to communist or collectivist anarchist economic systems on the issue of distributing goods. However, anarcho-syndicalists differ from anarcho-communists on wanting federations of workers syndicates as the locus of organising the economy and its advocates propose labour organization as a means to create the foundations of a trade union centered anarchist society within the current system and bring about social revolution. An early leading anarcho-syndicalist thinker was Rudolf Rocker, whose 1938 pamphlet Anarchosyndicalism outlined a view of the origin, aims. Platformism is a tendency within the anarchist movement and it stresses the need for tightly organized anarchist organizations, that are able to influence working class and peasant movements. It is in many ways identical to especifismo, and has an antecedent in the work of Mikhail Bakunin, Platformist groups reject the model of Leninist vanguardism