New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Morris County, New Jersey
Morris County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey, about 25 mi west of New York City. According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 492,276, up from the 470,212 at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 499,693, making it the state's 10th-most populous county, marking a 1.5% increase from 2010. The county is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Morristown; the most populous place was Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, with 53,238 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Rockaway Township covered 45.55 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,582, the highest in New Jersey and ranked 24th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Morris County, as of the 2000 Census, was the sixth-wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $77,340, sixth in median family income at $89,773 and ranked tenth by per capita income at $36,964.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 16th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county ranked third in the New York Metropolitan area in terms of median income. Morris County was named after Colonel Lewis Morris, governor of New Jersey in 1738/9, the year the county was named; the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern section of Morris County from about 23,000 B. C. to 13,000 B. C. After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B. C. Paleo Indians moved into the area from the south in search of small game as well as plants; the area was first tundra with grasses growing. Rabbits and fox moved into the area from the south; the area of Morris County was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans prior to the arrival of European settlers around the year 1000. They came from the Mississippi River area, they lived along the rivers and hunted game, collected plants and nuts. Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River area in 1609, which the Dutch did surveys of the area.
From 1611 to 1614, the Dutch established the colony of New Netherland, which claimed territory between the 40th and 45th parallel north, a zone which included northern New Jersey. Dutch forts were established along the Hudson River beginning in 1613; as the years went by, more forts were established to trade with Native Americans. The Native Americans traded furs and food with the Dutch for various goods. In return the Dutch gave the Native Americans metal pots, guns and blankets. Trading with the Native Americans occurred until 1643 when a series of wars broke out between the Dutch and Native Americans. There were hostile relations between the Dutch and Native Americans between 1643 and 1660; this prevented colonization by the Dutch of the Morris County region, technically included in their claimed "New Netherland." On August 27, 1664, three English ships approached Fort Amsterdam and the fort was surrendered to the English. The English now controlled New Netherland and Morris County was now under control of the colony of New York.
Relations with the Native Americans improved for a while. There was a war with the Dutch ten years later; the Dutch re-took control of New Amsterdam but after a year returned it to the English. Relations with the Native Americans and English improved for a while. European settlements began in the early 18th century. Native Americans were still in the area at that time. Land was purchased from the Native Americans for various things such as blankets, rum, knives and gunpowder; the Native Americans' concept of selling land was different than that of the Europeans. Colonization moved inland; the first settlement in the area today known as Morris County occurred in Pompton Plains by the Dutch in 1695. From 1710 to 1730, various iron mines and forges were established; the first was in Whippany in 1710 and in Succasunna in 1713. By 1750, nearly all Native Americans had left New Jersey; this was due to land purchases from the Native Americans, diseases that the Native Americans contracted from Europeans, due to starvation from the Little Ice Age, during which Native American corn crops failed and rivers froze, preventing fishing.
Snow storms made them difficult to find. Nut crops such as oak, beech, walnut and butternut failed some years due to late frosts in spring. Due to all the events that happened, Native Americans went to eastern Canada and others went to the Ohio Valley; the Walking Purchase in September 1737, prevented Native Americans from going to eastern Pennsylvania. At that time, European settlement grew swiftly as there was now land to be settled. Morris County was part of Burlington County, established in 1694, it became part of Hunterdon County, which separated from Burlington County in 1714. Morris County was created on March 1739, from portions of Hunterdon County; the county was named for the Governor of the Province of Colonel Lewis Morris. In years Sussex County and, after the revolution, Warren County were carved out of what had been the original area of Morris County under English rule; the county was the site of the winter camp of the Continental Army after the Battles of Trenton and Princeton during the winter of 1777, as well as another winter camp at Jockey Hollow during an cold winter of 17
Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order. Sedition includes subversion of a constitution and incitement of discontent towards, or resistance against established authority. Sedition may include any commotion, though not aimed at open violence against the laws. Seditious words in writing are seditious libel. A seditionist is one who promotes the interest of sedition. Sedition is considered a subversive act, the overt acts that may be prosecutable under sedition laws vary from one legal code to another. Where the history of these legal codes has been traced, there is a record of the change in the definition of the elements constituting sedition at certain points in history; this overview has served to develop a sociological definition of sedition as well, within the study of state persecution. The term sedition in its modern meaning first appeared in the Elizabethan Era as the "notion of inciting by words or writings disaffection towards the state or constituted authority".
"Sedition complements treason and martial law: while treason controls the privileged, ecclesiastical opponents and Jesuits, as well as certain commoners. Australia's sedition laws were amended in anti-terrorism legislation passed on 6 December 2005, updating definitions and increasing penalties. In late 2006, the Commonwealth Government, under the Prime-Ministership of John Howard proposed plans to amend Australia's Crimes Act 1914, introducing laws that mean artists and writers may be jailed for up to seven years if their work was considered seditious or inspired sedition either deliberately or accidentally. Opponents of these laws have suggested. In 2006, the Australian attorney-general Philip Ruddock had rejected calls by two reports — from a Senate committee and the Australian Law Reform Commission — to limit the sedition provisions in the Anti-Terrorism Act 2005 by requiring proof of intention to cause disaffection or violence, he had brushed aside recommendations to curtail new clauses outlawing “urging conduct” that “assists” an “organisation or country engaged in armed hostilities” against the Australian military.
The new laws, inserted into the legislation December 2005, allow for the criminalization of basic expressions of political opposition, including supporting resistance to Australian military interventions, such as those in Afghanistan and the Asia-Pacific region. These laws were amended in Australia on 19 September 2011; the ‘sedition’ clauses were repealed and replaced with ‘urging violence’. In Canada, which includes speaking seditious words, publishing a seditious libel, being party to a seditious conspiracy, is an indictable offense, for which the maximum punishment is of fourteen years' imprisonment. During World War II former Mayor of Montreal Camillien Houde campaigned against conscription in Canada. On 2 August 1940, Houde publicly urged the men of Quebec to ignore the National Registration Act. Three days he was placed under arrest by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on charges of sedition. After being found guilty, he was confined in internment camps in Petawawa and Gagetown, New Brunswick, until 1944.
Upon his release on 18 August 1944, he was greeted by a cheering crowd of 50,000 Montrealers and won back his position as the Mayor of Montreal in the election in 1944. A Sedition Ordinance had existed in the territory since 1970, subsequently consolidated into the Crime Ordinance in 1972. According to the Crime Ordinance, a seditious intention is an intention to bring into hatred or contempt or to excite disaffection against the person of government, to excite inhabitants of Hong Kong to attempt to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of any other matter in Hong Kong as by law established, to bring into hatred or contempt or to excite disaffection against the administration of justice in Hong Kong, to raise discontent or disaffection amongst inhabitants of Hong Kong, to promote feelings of ill-will and enmity between different classes of the population of Hong Kong, to incite persons to violence, or to counsel disobedience to law or to any lawful order. Article 23 of the Basic Law requires the special administrative region to enact laws prohibiting any act of treason, sedition, subversion against the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.
The National Security Bill was tabled in early 2003 to replace the existing laws regarding treason and sedition, to introduce new laws to prohibit secessionist and subversive acts and theft of state secrets, to prohibit political organisations from establishing overseas ties. The bill was shelved following massive opposition from the public. In 2010, writer Arundhati Roy was sought to be charged with sedition for her comments on Kashmir and Maoists. Two individuals have been charged with sedition since 2007. Binayak Sen, an Indian paediatrician, public health specialist, activist was found guilty of sedition, he is national Vice-President of the People's Union for Civil Liberties. On 24 December 2010, the Additional Sessions and District Court Judge B. P Varma Raipur found Binayak Sen, Naxal ideologue Narayan Sanyal and Kolkata businessman Piyush Guha, guilty of sedition for helping the Maoists in their fight against the state, they were sentenced to life imprisonment, but he got bail in Supreme Court on 16 April 2011.
On 10 September 2012, Aseem Trivedi, a political cartoonist, was sent to judicial custody till 24 September 2012 on charges of sedition over a series of cartoons against corruption. Trivedi was accuse
A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Nurseries may supply plants for agriculture, for forestry and for conservation biology; some of them specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry; some produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in the season. Nurseries can grow plants on container fields, in tunnels or greenhouses. In open fields, nurseries grow ornamental trees and herbaceous perennials the plants meant for the wholesale trade or for amenity plantings.
On a containerfield nurseries grow small trees and herbaceous plants destined for sales in garden centers. Nurseries grow plants in greenhouses, a building of glass or in plastic tunnels, designed to protect young plants from harsh weather (especially frost. While allowing access to light and ventilation, modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature and light and semi-automated watering and feeding; some have fold-back roofs to allow "hardening-off" of plants without the need for manual transfer to outdoor beds. Most nurseries remain high standard. Although some processes have been mechanised and automated, others have not, it remains unlikely that all plants treated in the same way at the same time will arrive at the same condition together, so plant care requires observation and manual dexterity. A UK nurseryman has estimated; the largest UK nurseries have moved to minimize labour costs by the use of computer controlled warehousing methods: plants are pallet allocated to a location and grown on there with little human intervention.
Picking requires selection of a batch and manual quality control before dispatch. In other cases, a high loss rate during maturation is accepted for the reduction in detailed plant maintenance costs. Business is seasonal, concentrated in spring and fall. There is no guarantee that there will be demand for the product - this will be affected by temperature, cheaper foreign competition, among other things. Annuals are sold in trays, peat pots, or plastic pots. Perennials and woody plants are sold either in pots, bare root or balled and burlapped, in a variety of sizes, from liners to mature trees. Balled and Burlap trees are dug either by hand or by a loader that has a tree spade attachment on the front of the machine. Although container grown woody plants are becoming more and more popular due to the versatility, B & B is still used throughout the industry. Plants may be propagated by seeds, but desirable cultivars are propagated asexually; the most common method is by cuttings. These can be taken from shoot tips or parts of stems from older stems.
Herbaceous perennials are often propagated by root cuttings or division. For plants on a rootstock grafting or budding is used. Older techniques like layering are sometimes used for crops. With the objective of fitting planting stock more ably to withstand stresses after outplanting, various nursery treatments have been attempted or developed and applied to nursery stock. Buse and Day, for instance, studied the effect of conditioning of white spruce and black spruce transplants on their morphology and subsequent performance after outplanting. Root pruning and fertilization with potassium at 375 kg/ha were the treatments applied. Root pruning and wrenching modified stock in the nursery by decreasing height, root collar diameter, shoot:root ratio, bud size, but did not improve survival or growth after planting. Fertilization reduced root growth in black spruce but not of white spruce. Seedlings vary in their susceptibility to injury from frost. Damage can be catastrophic. Frost hardiness may be defined as the minimum temperature at which a certain percentage of a random seedling population will survive or will sustain a given level of damage.
The term LT50 is used. Determination of frost hardiness in Ontario is based on electrolyte leakage from mainstem terminal tips 2 cm to 3 cm long in weekly samplings; the tips are frozen thawed, immersed in distilled water, the electrical conductivity of which depends on the degree to which cell membranes have been ruptured by freezing releasing electrolyte. A −15 °C frost hardiness level has been used to determine the readiness of container stock to be moved outside from the greenhouse, −40 °C has been the level determining readiness for frozen storage. In an earlier technique, potted seedlings were placed in a freezer chest and cooled to some level for some specific duration.
Niagara-on-the-Lake is a town in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the Niagara Peninsula at the point where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario, across the river from New York, United States. Niagara-on-the-Lake is in the Niagara Region of Ontario, is the only town in Canada that has a Lord Mayor, it has a population of 17,511 Niagara-on-the-Lake is important in the history of Canada: it served as the first capital of the Province of Upper Canada, the predecessor of Ontario, called Newark from 1792 to 1797. During the War of 1812, the town, the two former villages of St. David's and Queenston, Fort George were the site of numerous battles following the American invasion of Upper Canada, the town was razed. Niagara-on-the-Lake is home to the oldest Anglican and Catholic churches in Ontario, the oldest surviving golf course in North America. Today, Niagara-on-the-Lake draws tourists with its quaint colonial-style buildings, the Shaw Festival, Fort George, wineries, an outlet mall on the highway, its proximity to Niagara Falls.
The Niagara Region has the second-highest percentage of seniors in Ontario. Niagara-on-the-Lake has been rated among the best places to retire in Ontario according to Comfort Life, a publication for seniors. Before the British settlers came, the point where Fort Mississauga is situated was used by at least three Native American tribes: the Neutral; the settlement was founded in 1781 as Butlersburg, in honour of Colonel John Butler, the commander of Butler's Rangers. It was renamed West Niagara to distinguish it from Fort Niagara, it was a British military base and haven for pro-British loyalists fleeing the United States during the volatile aftermath of the American Revolution. Renamed Newark by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, it was the first capital of Upper Canada; the Upper Canada legislature first met at Navy Hall on September 17, 1792 and met here another four times until June 1796. In 1797, Simcoe moved the capital to York because Newark was close to the border with the U.
S. Newark was renamed Niagara in 1798. Fort George, just south of the settlement, was built in 1796-1799. During the War of 1812, Niagara was taken in the Battle of Fort George by American forces in May 1813 after a two-day bombardment by cannon from Fort Niagara and the American fleet, followed by a fierce battle. After capturing Fort George, the Americans built their own fortifications here; the fort was retaken by the British in December 1813 but left to fall into ruins and abandoned in 1815. Only a small portion of the fort remains. Fort Mississauga was built, starting in 1813, but was not completed until after the war in 1816. During the war, the settlement of Niagara was razed and burnt to the ground by American soldiers as they withdrew to Fort Niagara; the citizens rebuilt Niagara after the war, with the residential quarter around Queen Street and toward King Street, where the new Court House was rebuilt out of range of Fort Niagara's cannons. The Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes "Niagara" as follows: "It has been a place of considerable trade.
On the east side of the town is a large military reserve. About half a mile up the river are the ruins of Fort George, where the remains of General Brock were interred. A new town-hall and court-house are intended to be erected by the town. There is a fire brigade with a hook and ladder company. Churches and chapels total five. Two newspapers are published weekly.... Steamboats run daily, as long as the weather will allow of it, from Toronto.... The Niagara Harbour and Dock Company were incorporated in the year 1830.... The vessels turned out by the Company the steamboat "London," which commenced running in the spring of 1845, the fastest boat on the upper lakes... The Company employ about 150 hands. There is on the premises a marine railway, large enough for hauling up vessels of the first class. Post Office, post every day. Professions and Trades.—Three physicians and surgeons, nine lawyers, twelve stores, two chemists and druggists, three booksellers and stationers, two saddlers, four wagon makers, two watchmakers, two tallow-chandlers, marble works, two printers, two cabinet makers, one hatter, four bakers, two livery stables, two tinsmiths, three blacksmiths, six tailors, seven shoemakers, one tobacconist, one bank agency....
Large quantities of apples and cider are shipped annually." In 1859 the town built Niagara Public School. The town's present name was adopted around 1880 as a Postal Address to distinguish the town from Niagara Falls; the name was not adopted until 1970, when the Town of Niagara and the Township of Niagara merged. Most of the former military sites, such as Fort George, Navy Hall, Butler's Barracks, have been restored. Fort George's restoration was done as a "Make Work Project," guided by plans from the Royal Engineers during the Great Depression of the 1930s, an early example of historic preservation. Fort George National Historic Site is a focal point in a collection of War of 1812 sites which, are managed by Parks Canada under the name Niagara National Historic Sites; that administrative name includes several national historic sites: Fort Mississauga, Mississauga Point Lighthouse, Navy Hall, Butler's Barracks, Queenston Heights. Niagara-on-the-Lake features historical plaques. Critical battles in the defence of Upper Canada took place here, at nearby at Queenston and St. David's, b
The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Golden Horseshoe, Southern Ontario, lying between the southwestern shore of Lake Ontario and the northeastern shore of Lake Erie. Technically an isthmus rather than a peninsula, it stretches from the Niagara River in the east to Hamilton, Ontario, in the west; the population of the peninsula is 1,000,000 people. The region directly across the Niagara River and Lake Erie in New York State is known as the Niagara Frontier; the broader Buffalo Niagara Region includes the Niagara Peninsula, the Niagara Frontier, the city of Buffalo, New York. The greater part of the peninsula is incorporated as the Regional Municipality of Niagara. Cities in the region include St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, Port Colborne and Welland. Towns include Niagara-on-the-Lake, Pelham and Fort Erie, as well as the townships Wainfleet and West Lincoln; the remainder of the peninsula encompasses parts of the City of Haldimand County. The area was inhabited by a First Nations people called the "Neutrals", so named for their practice of trading goods such as flint arrowhead blanks with both of the feuding regional powers, the Wyandot and Iroquois.
The Neutrals were wiped out by the Iroquois c. 1650 as the latter sought to expand their fur-trapping territory as part of the Beaver Wars. From this point until the arrival of United Empire Loyalists following the American War of Independence, the region was only sporadically inhabited, as the Iroquois did not establish permanent settlements in the area; the Niagara Peninsula became one of the first areas settled in Upper Canada by British Loyalists in the late 18th century. The capital of the new colony was established with the founding of Niagara-on-the-Lake called Newark. Many English and Irish immigrants settled in the peninsula, but by the 1800s, Italian and German immigrants populated the peninsula and were the chief sources of immigrants followed by French and other Central Europeans. Following the agricultural period of European settlement, the Niagara area became an important industrial centre, with water-powered mills joined by hydro-electric power generation in Niagara Falls and electricity-intensive industry in both Niagara Falls and St. Catharines.
While agriculture – fruit farming along the shore of Lake Ontario – remains important to this day, it was joined in the 19th century by industrial developments. A succession of canals were built to connect the markets and mineral resources of the upper Great Lakes with the St. Lawrence Seaway. General Motors built a considerable presence in St. Catharines with auto plants and a foundry, a number of auto-parts manufacturers followed. Dry docks were built at Port Weller on Lake Ontario. Heavy industry has been diminishing for the past decade or more due to the slow-down of the North American automotive manufacturers. Thousands of jobs have been lost at long-time area employers such as General Motors, Thompson Products, Deere & Company, Dana Canada Corp, Port Weller Drydocks, Domtar Papers and Gallagher Thorold Paper; because of this, local municipalities have been forced to look at new and diversified opportunities to prevent an exodus of well trained staff. Hospitality and tourism has attracted numerous visitors to the area for more than 150 years thanks to Niagara Falls.
New development beginning during the mid-1990s has spun off an upscale hospitality boom throughout the whole Niagara Peninsula. Today, more than 10 million guests visit the peninsula annually to see the beauty of the Falls and the Niagara Parks. Ecotourism has become more popular with more people finding and exploring out of the way places such as the Niagara Escarpment, named a world Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1990. Another area of major tourism growth in the past thirty years has been the expansion of the grape and wine industry; the Niagara Peninsula is one of four recognized viticultural areas by the VQA in the Ontario wine industry. The many European-style wineries and vineyards have played a major role in attracting visitors seeking a unique cultural experience. Most of the local wineries offer full tours of their facilities with a few offering onsite dining featuring unique Canadian cuisine paired with their own VQA vintages, it is common for many of these wineries' world-class chefs to use fresh ingredients that are grown or acquired from local farms in season.
Some wineries feature live music and theatrical performances in the vineyard during the summer months. Visitors come during the coldest months of the year to watch some varieties of grapes being harvested and pressed outdoors in the vineyard as part of the process of creating the sweetest, among the most expensive, wine on earth – ice wine. A few Niagara Peninsula wineries have won the most prestigious international awards for their ice wine products, many of which are only available from the vintner. There is an official Wine Routes Guide for those that wish to self-drive while transportation companies offering wine tours operate out of major hotel and bed and breakfast establishments in Niagara Falls, Niagara-on-the-Lake and Toronto. Another major attraction for the well travelled looking for cultural activities is the famous Shaw Festival Theater located in the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. A resident repertory company of actors uses three theatres during a six-month season. Niagara-on-the-Lake is the location of Fort George, a British-built and -occupied fort during the War of 1812.
It is open during the summer months. Other key historical locations
East Hawkesbury is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Prescott and Russell. It is on the Ottawa River, its eastern boundary is the border with the province of Quebec. The township comprises the villages of Sainte-Anne-de-Prescott and Saint-Eugène; the township administrative offices are located in St. Eugene. During World War II the Royal Canadian Air Force built and operated No. 13 Elementary Flying Training School as part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan on a site 2 km south of St. Eugene; the school opened on 28 October 1940 and closed on 19 June 1945. The airfield was located at 45°29′17″N 074°28′17″W. List of townships in Ontario List of francophone communities in Ontario Official website