Benjamin Franklin Flanders was a teacher and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1867, he was appointed by the military commander as the 21st Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction, a position which he held for some six months, he is the last Republican mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana. Flanders was born in New Hampshire. At the age of twenty-six, he graduated from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. In January 1843 he read law under Charles M. Emerson; the following year he left this study to become a principal. In 1845, Flanders became editor of a local newspaper. In 1847 he married Susan H. Sawyer in New Hampshire, she returned with him to New Orleans. Flanders became active in politics, elected as a Democratic alderman representing the 3rd Municipal District of New Orleans, serving from 1847 to 1852. In 1852, he was selected as the secretary and treasurer of the New Orleans and Great Western Railroad, a position he held until 1862. In 1861, he fled New Orleans, he had opposed secession, sentiment against Unionists was strong.
Flanders made his way to Illinois. He did not return to New Orleans until April 1862. On July 20, he was appointed by the military government as New Orleans City Treasurer, he served until his election to Congress on December 12, 1862. He was elected along with Michael Hahn as at-large Representatives of Louisiana, defeating independent incumbent J. E. Bouligny. Flanders and Hahn were not seated in Congress until the last fifteen days of their terms in February 1863. On July 13, 1863, Flanders was made the Captain of Company C, 5th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, a Union Army unit, he was honorably discharged in August 1863, when he was appointed a Special Agent of the United States Treasury Department of the Southern Region by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, he held this position until 1866. While in office, he generated commissions for the government by selling confiscated cotton from Confederate plantations; the Department of Treasury controlled licensing of cotton brokers, trying to regulate the market, but a black market flourished for the lucrative sale of cotton.
In 1864, Flanders campaigned for governor and finished in third place behind Michael Hahn and Fellows. He was appointed by Republicans as the first Supervising Special Agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau, Department of the Gulf. At the same time, he led the movement to create a local Republican Party in Louisiana, he formed the'Friends of Universal Suffrage' with other Louisiana Unionists, as well as free men of color and freedmen. These laws had been passed to control the movement of freedmen. Fearful of the black majority in many Louisiana districts, most white Democrats opposed giving freedmen suffrage after Confederate veterans were temporarily disenfranchised unless they took a loyalty oath; the tension over the rights of freed slaves escalated into New Orleans riot of 1866, in which whites attacked blacks. In 1867, General Philip Sheridan, Commander of the 5th Military District, which included Louisiana and Texas, removed elected Governor James Madison Wells for not responding to the riots appropriately and for not advancing the rights of freedmen.
Sheridan appointed Flanders as Governor of Louisiana. About six months on January 1, 1868, Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, as the new military commander of Louisiana, removed all radical Republicans from state offices. Governor Flanders resigned on January 8 and was replaced by General Hancock's appointee, Joshua Baker. In 1870, Governor Henry C. Warmoth, elected as part of the Reconstruction-era civil government, appointed Flanders as Mayor of New Orleans; as of 2018, Flanders remains the most recent Republican mayor of the city. He was elected to a full two-year mayoral term, serving until 1873; that year President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Flanders as Assistant Treasurer of the United States. Flanders ran unsuccessfully in 1888 as a Republican candidate for Louisiana State Treasurer. Flanders retired to his Ben Alva plantation in Lafayette Parish, he died there in 1896. His remains were interred at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans. Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress National Governor's Association biography State of Louisiana - Biography
Robert Sidney Maestri was mayor of New Orleans from 1936 to 1946 and a key ally of Huey P. Long, Jr. and Earl Kemp Long. Robert Maestri was born in New Orleans on December 11, 1899, the son of two Italians, Francesco Maestri and Angele Maestri, he inherited his father's furniture store at an early age, built it up into one of the city's largest. After investing in real estate, Maestri was able to amass a considerable fortune, he had political ambition, after allying himself with governor Huey Long, he was appointed to head the state's Conservation Commission, which allowed him to control production quotas in the state's oil industry. He served as conservation commissioner from 1929 to 1936, was a powerful member of Long's inner circle. In his autobiography, Huey Long recalls how Maestri volunteered to raise money to fight Long's impeachment by the Louisiana House of Representatives. Maestri's association with the Longite political faction brought him to greater prominence after Huey Long's death.
Long had been involved in a lengthy and destructive feud with New Orleans Mayor T. Semmes Walmsley, after his death, both sides were interested in ceasing hostilities. In 1936, an agreement was reached between Longite governor Richard Leche and Walmsley's Regular Democratic Organization, whereby Walmsley would resign as mayor before his term ended and Maestri would take his place as both mayor and as head of the powerful Old Regular political machine. In July 1936, Maestri was nominated as the Democratic candidate for mayor without opposition. After the Republican candidate withdrew in the face of certain defeat at the hands of a unified Longite-Old Regular machine, Maestri was acclaimed as mayor of New Orleans on August 17, 1936, without having to face election. A subsequent constitutional amendment was passed by the Longite state legislature cancelling the 1938 municipal election and extending Maestri's term to 1942. Maestri graduated from Soule Business College. Maestri was a shrewd politician.
He began the reintegration of New Orleans into the state's political structure by reorganizing the city's fiscal structure, ending the costly practice of borrowing money against anticipated tax revenue and streamlining purchasing and expenditures. He developed a popular personal governing style, going on daily tours of the city to pinpoint problems, holding daily open sessions in which citizens could come to his office to explain their problems or request help, he used his connections with the Long machine in Baton Rouge to bring state and federal funds to the city, resulting in the construction of a new Charity Hospital and public housing projects for low-income New Orleanians. Once in City Hall, Maestri solidified his control by using spoils politics and patronage appointments, using Old Regular ward bosses to enforce loyalty and dispense patronage, to guarantee votes for himself and for Longite candidates in local and state elections. With this powerful machine behind him, he was able to win reelection in 1942 against reform candidates Herve Racivitch and Shirley Wimberly, taking 75,713 votes out of a total of 137,000 votes cast.
After this easy victory, Maestri retreated from his accessible governing style in his second term in order to spend more time running his Old Regular machine, which allowed city services to erode. With the mayor's attention elsewhere, the corruption and favoritism that characterized his administration grew further. Maestri and the Longites had reached a deal with mobster Frank Costello whereby the city would ignore slot-machine laws in exchange for a cut of the proceeds, so prostitution and illegal gambling flourished in New Orleans under Maestri's tenure; the growing problems of New Orleans in Maestri's second term were too much for the Old Regular machine to handle, allowed young reformer deLesseps Story Morrison, Sr. to defeat Maestri in the mayoral election of January 1946. Morrison served until 1961. Maestri's most famous utterance came when dining with President Franklin Roosevelt on Oysters Rockefeller at New Orleans' famous Antoine's Restaurant, when Maestri blurted "How ya like dem erstuhs, Chief?" in his characteristic thick New Orleans accent.
Haas, Edward F. "New Orleans on the Half-Shell: The Maestri Era, 1936-1946" Louisiana History, 13 Kurtz and Peoples, Morgan. Earl K. Long: The Saga of Uncle Earl and Louisiana Politics. LSU Press, 1990. Brasseaux, Carl, ed. A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. Louisiana Historical Association, 1988
Samuel Miller Quincy
Samuel Miller Quincy was the 28th mayor of New Orleans and a Union Army officer during the American Civil War. He was the son of Josiah Quincy, Jr. former mayor of Boston, the younger brother of Josiah Phillips Quincy. He was a distant cousin of President John Quincy Adams and a descendant of Rev. George Phillips who settled in Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630, he was a Harvard graduate and legal historian, Union soldier in the American Civil War, during which he was wounded, captured and exchanged. Shortly after the attack on Fort Sumter, Quincy was commissioned a captain in the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry Regiment on May 25, 1861, he was promoted to major on October 22, 1862 and to colonel on January 18, 1863. He resigned his commission on June 5, 1863 but was re-commissioned as the lieutenant colonel of the 73rd United States Colored Infantry Regiment on November 29, 1863 and was promoted to colonel in command of the regiment on May 29, 1864, he served as Mayor of New Orleans from May 5 to June 8, 1865.
He transferred to the 96th US Colored Infantry Regiment on September 27, 1865 and was mustered out on January 21, 1866 and became the colonel of the 81st US Colored Infantry the next day. He was honorably mustered out of service on November 30, 1866. On February 21, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Quincy for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, United States Volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, The U. S. Senate confirmed the award on May 18, 1866, he was a member of the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. General Quincy died on March 24, 1887. Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue, p. 496. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc. 1990. ISBN 1-56013-002-4. Massachusetts Historical Society: Quincy, Wendell and Upham Family Papers, 1633-1910
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
George Foster Shepley (Maine and Louisiana)
George Foster Shepley was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was appointed military and 18th Governor of Louisiana by General Benjamin Butler in June 1862, he served as a United States federal judge. Born in Saco, Shepley studied law at Harvard University, received an A. B. from Dartmouth College in 1837. He read law and was admitted to the bar in 1839, he began the practice of law the same year, was in private practice in Bangor, Maine from 1839 to 1844 and in Portland, Maine from 1844 to 1861. He was a U. S. Attorney for the District of Maine from 1848 to 1849 and from 1853 to 1861. Shepley joined the army in November 1861 as a colonel of the 12th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, he served as the acting military mayor of New Orleans from May 20, 1862 – July 11, 1862. This appointment lasted less than two months before Shepley was appointed military governor of the occupied parishes of Louisiana from 1862–1864, with the rank of brigadier general. Shepley served as the first military governor of Richmond, the Confederate capital.
After the war, Shepley returned to his private practice in Portland in 1865. He was a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1866 to 1867, continued in private practice until 1869. On December 8, 1869, Shepley was nominated by President Ulysses S. Grant to a new seat on the United States circuit court for the First Circuit created by 16 Stat. 44. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 22, 1869, received his commission the same day, he continued in that office until his death. He died in Portland, Maine, on July 20, 1878, is interred at Evergreen Cemetery in that city, his tombstone has his birth date as January 1, 1819. List of American Civil War generals https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:16_Stat._44_.pdf State of Louisiana – Biography Cemetery Memorial by La-Cemeteries George Foster Shepley at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. "George Foster Shepley". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-10-13
Andrew J. McShane
Andrew James McShane was mayor of New Orleans from 1920 to 1925. McShane was born in New Orleans, the son of two Irish-American Catholics, Bernard McShane and Rose McShane. After his father died, he entered the hide business at the age of nine, working his way through the ranks as a travelling salesman before becoming sole owner of his firm at the age of twenty-one, his business was successful. He married Agnes Bruns of New Orleans in 1918. McShane was involved in New Orleans politics throughout his adult life, he was associated with the reform-oriented groups that were opposed to the machine politics of the Regular Democratic Organization, or Old Regulars. He held posts in the administrations of reform mayors Walter Paul Capdevielle. McShane lost. In the election of 1920, McShane was the mayoral nominee of the reform-oriented Orleans Democratic Organization; the endorsement of reform governor John M. Parker helped him narrowly defeat the incumbent Old Regular mayor, Martin Behrman. Despite the reform promises of the new administration, McShane was able to achieve little.
He and his administration were hampered by inexperience at city government and by dissension between various factions of his supporters. He was able to improve garbage collection, reform the Department of Public Works and the city's finances, create a system of one-way streets to improve traffic flow. McShane was soundly defeated by former mayor Martin Behrman. After his defeat, the Old Regulars would continue to control the city until 1946. McShane Place, a block-long street connecting Rampart Street and St. Claude Avenue, is named after him. Biographical Dictionary of American Mayors, 1820-1980. Greenwood Press, 1981. New Orleans Public Library, Louisiana Division. "Administration of Andrew J. McShane." Administrations of the Mayor's of New Orleans: McShane at nutrias.org
John T. Monroe
John T. Monroe was an American politician who served as the 19th and 32nd Mayor of New Orleans in 1860–1862 and 1866–1867, he was born in Missouri the son of Daniel Munro. Monroe went to New Orleans in 1837, working as a stevedore, soon becoming a prominent labor leader. In 1858 he was elected Board of Assistant Aldermen; the 1860 campaign for mayor attracted little notice in New Orleans, as all attention was on the Presidential contest. There were three candidates. Monroe, the nominee of the Native American Party, represented the current administration. Grailhe, an independent, was the anti-administration candidate, who he held responsible for the poor condition of the city; the newspapers of the time were filled with complaints about the stagnant gutters, the weeds that grew along the streets, the air of general neglect. However, Monroe was elected with 37,027 votes. Grailhe received a much smaller number, Place hardly any. There is a story about the Civil War that the white leadership of New Orleans was captured, but never surrendered.
This is a letter written by William Preston Johnston:"The capture of New Orleans in April 1862 by Captain David Farragut and General Benjamin Butler brought the name of mayor Monroe before the whole country and the people of the confederate States and the United States. It soon spread to British journalism and into British Parliament."At the approach of the federal fleet, on the morning of April 25, Mayor Monroe, determined to hoist the flag of the State of Louisiana over the City Hall. At his request, his private secretary, Mr. Marion A. Baker, descended to the roof of the building and prepared to execute the mayor’s orders, with the instructions to await the issue of the possible conflict at Chalmette. "When he heard that the defenses had failed Monroe ordered. "Forthwith, two officers of the United States Navy presented Farragut's formal demand for the city's surrender and to lower their flag. Monroe stated that be had no authority to surrender the city and that General Mansfield Lovell was the proper official to receive and to reply to that demand.
He refused to lower the flag. "Monroe sent for Lovell and while awaiting his arrival, conversation went on. Captain Bailey expressed regret at the wanton destruction of property, which he had witnessed and which he regarded as a most unfortunate mistake. To this, Monroe replied that the property was the Confederates' own and that they had a right to do as they pleased with it, that it was done as a patriotic duty. "Subsequently, Lovell refused to surrender the city or his forces and stated that he would retire with his troops and leave the decision to the civil authorities. The question of surrender being thus referred back to him, Monroe said he would submit the matter to the Council and that a formal reply would be sent as soon as their advice could be obtained; the Federal officers withdrew, with an escort furnished by Lovell. "Monroe sent a message to the Council. As civil magistrate, he held that he was incompetent to the performance of a military act.'We yield to physical force alone,' said the Mayor,'and maintain our allegiance to the Government of the Confederate States.
Beyond a due respect for our dignity, our rights and the flag of our country, does not, I think permit us to go.' "The Council, unwilling to act hastily listened to the reading of this message and adjourned until 10:00 A. M. the next day. That evening, Monroe asked Baker and Police Chief McClelland, to go to the USS Hartford as early as possible the next morning and explain to Farragut that the Council would meet that morning and a written answer to his demand would be sent as soon as possible after the meeting. "The Council listened to a second reading of the Mayor's message. Both the Council and the population of the city concurred in the sentiments expressed by Monroe and urged that he be act in the spirit manifested in his message. Anticipating such a result, a letter had been prepared, reiterating the determination neither to lower the State flag nor to raise the United States flag; the Mayor’s secretary read this letter to the assembled Council and from expressions by some of the members, it seemed to be satisfactory, but shortly after Mr. Baker left, a message was brought to Mayor Monroe, asking his presence in the Council Chamber.
"The object of this summons was to obtain his consent to the substitution of a letter written by Soulé and read by one of the members of the Council. Relations between the Mayor and the Council had not been of a most harmonious character and wishing to conciliate them at this unfortunate time, Monroe acceded to their wishes. "Before a copy of this letter could be made and sent to Farragut, two officers, Lieutenant Albert Kautz and Midshipman John H. Read were at the City Hall with a written demand for the'unqualified surrender of the city, the raising of the United States flag over the Mint, Custom-house and City Hall, by noon that day, April 26 and the removal of all other emblems but that of the United States, from all public buildings.' Monroe acknowledged receipt of this last communication and promised a reply before two o'clock, if possible. In the meantime a large and excited crowd had gathered outside the City Hall. Monroe, fearing for the safety of the two Federal officers, had had the heavy doors of the City Hall closed and ordered a carriage to be stationed at the corner of Carondelet and Lafayette streets.
Escorted by two special officers and Baker, the federal officers were conducted to a rear entrance and to the waiting carriage, while Monroe occupied the crowd in the front. As the carriage drove away, so