IMac is a family of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its debut in August 1998, has evolved through seven distinct forms. In its original form, iMac G3 had a gumdrop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive; the second major revision, iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a moving arm attached to it. The third and fourth major revisions, iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base; the fifth major revision shared the same form as the previous model, but was thinner and used anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. The sixth major revision uses a different display unit, omits the SuperDrive, uses different production techniques from the older unibody versions.
This allows it to be thinner with an edge thickness of 5.9 mm. It includes a dual microphone setup, includes solid-state drive or hard disk storage, or an Apple Fusion Drive, a hybrid of solid state and hard disk drives; this version of iMac was announced in October 2012, with the 21.5-inch version released in November and the 27-inch version in December. In October 2014, the seventh major revision of the 27-inch iMac was announced, whose main feature is a "Retina 5K" display at a resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels; the new model includes a new processor, graphics chip, IO, along with several new storage options. The seventh major revision of the 21.5-inch iMac was announced in October 2015. Its main feature is a "Retina 4K" display at a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels, it has the same new processor, graphics chip, I/O as the 27-inch iMac, along with several new storage options. On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a workstation-class version of the iMac, called the "iMac Pro"; the iMac Pro shares the design and screen of the 5K iMac, but is colored in Space Gray rather than silver.
It comes with standard SSD storage. Apple began shipping the iMac Pro in December 2017; the announcement of iMac in 1998 was a source of controversy and anticipation among commentators, Mac fans, detractors. Opinions were divided over Apple's drastic changes to the Macintosh hardware. At the time, Apple had suffered a series of setbacks as consumers opted for Wintel machines instead of Apple's Performa models. Many in the industry thought that "beleaguered" Apple would soon be forced to start selling computers with a custom interface built on top of one or more potential operating system bases, such as Taligent, Solaris, or Windows 98. Part of Apple's effort to maintain the Mac platform was trying to improve its retail strategy; as these stores developed, they became a detriment to Apple sales, as CompUSA employees were unfamiliar with the Macintosh and directed customers to Wintel boxes instead. The designer behind iMac's case was Jonathan Ive. Ken Segall was an employee at an L. A. ad agency handling Apple's account who came up with the name "iMac" and pitched it to Steve Jobs.
Jobs wanted the product to be called "MacMan", but warmed to Segall's suggestion. Segall says that the "i" stands for "Internet", but represents the product as a personal and revolutionary device. Apple adopted the'i' prefix across its consumer hardware and software lines, such as iPod, iBook, iPhone, iPad and various pieces of software such as the iLife suite and iWork and the company's media player/store, iTunes. Attention was given to the out-of-box experience: the user needed to go through only two steps to set up and connect to the Internet. "There's no step 3!" was the catch-phrase in a popular iMac commercial narrated by actor Jeff Goldblum. Another commercial, dubbed "Simplicity Shootout", pitted seven-year-old Johann Thomas and his border collie Brodie, with an iMac, against Adam Taggart, a Stanford University MBA student, with an HP Pavilion 8250, in a race to set up their computers. Johann and Brodie finished in 8 minutes and 15 seconds, whereas Adam was still working on it by the end of the commercial.
By 2005, it had become more and more apparent that IBM's development for the desktop implementation of PowerPC was grinding to a halt. Apple announced at the Worldwide Developers Conference that it would be switching the Macintosh to the x86 architecture and Intel's line of Core processors; the first Intel-equipped Macs were unveiled on January 10, 2006: the Intel iMac and the introductory MacBook Pro. Within nine months, Apple had smoothly transitioned the entire Macintosh line to Intel. One of the touted side benefits of this switch was the ability to run Windows on Mac hardware. On July 27, 2010, Apple updated its line of iMacs to feature the new Intel Core "i-series" processors across the line; the 21.5" models now feature the Core i3 processor, but these are upgradable to the Core i5. The high end 27" features a Quad-Core i5 processor, upgradable to a Quad-Core i7. On this date Apple announced its new "Apple Magic Trackpad" peripheral, a trackpad similar to that of MacBook Pro for use with iMac or any other Apple computer.
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. One of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, along with the iMac, Mac Pro, iMac Pro, it uses many components featured in laptops to achieve its small size; the current Mac mini, introduced in October 2018, is the fourth generation of the product. First released in 2005, the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional Windows PC. In 2010, a third-generation Mac mini became Apple's first computer with an HDMI video port to connect to a television or other display, more positioning the unit as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer.
On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever". Its case measured 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The Mac mini is an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers; until the 2011 release, the Mac mini had much less processing power than the other computers of the Macintosh lineup. Unlike regular desktop computers, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and full-size DIMM's, Apple uses lower-power laptop components in the Mac mini to fit all the necessary components into the small case and to prevent overheating. With the choice of components on the older models, the machine was considered somewhat slower than standard desktop computers, it had less storage and memory than comparable desktops. However, the 2011 upgrade addressed many of these previous complaints. In general, the Mac mini has been praised as a affordable computer with a solid range of features.
However, many agree that it is costly for a computer aimed at the lower segment of the market. It is possible to buy small computers at the same price with faster processors, better graphics card, more memory, more storage; the small size has made the Mac mini popular as a home theater solution. In addition, its size and reliability has helped keep resale values high. On October 22, 2009, Apple introduced a new server version of the Mac mini along with revisions of the computer; this model had a second hard drive instead of an optical drive, was marketed as an affordable server for small businesses and schools. On June 15, 2010, Apple introduced the third-generation Mac mini; the new model was thinner, with a unibody aluminum case designed to be opened for RAM access, incorporated upgraded hardware, such as an HDMI port and Nvidia GeForce 320M graphics. It included an internal power supply. An update announced July 20, 2011, dropped the internal CD/DVD optical drive from all versions and introduced a Thunderbolt port, Intel Core i5 processor, either Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics or AMD Radeon HD 6630M dedicated graphics.
The Server model was upgraded to a quad-core Intel Core i7 processor. Quad-core i7 CPUs were used in the late-2012 desktop Mac mini computers. In October 2014, Apple refreshed the line, adding Haswell CPUs, improving the graphics, lowering the base-model price by $100; the only change to the body was the removal of the two holes used to open the case, as the RAM was no longer upgradable because it was soldered to the logic board. On October 30, 2018, after four years, the Mac mini got a refresh. With this came major specification upgrades, new colors, a switch to all-flash storage; the RAM was increased to a baseline of 8 GB, a maximum of 64 GB of SO-DIMM DDR4. This shows Apple's trend back toward user-upgrade-ability in their desktop models; the storage was changed to a baseline 128 GB of flash storage, with a max of 2 TB. It has optional 10 Gb Ethernet, HDMI 2.0, a headphone jack, 2 USB 3.1, 4 USB-C Thunderbolt 3 ports. The Bluetooth was upgraded to the 5.0 standard, the Mac itself was made available in space gray.
The baseline retail price is $799 USD. Missing for the 2018 model is the SD card reader, SATA drive bay, IR receiver, optical S/PDIF audio out, audio in; the most notable feature of the Mac mini is its size. The original design measured only 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The exterior of the original Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom; the original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user. The back of the machine contains the I/O vents for the cooling system, it had an external power supply rated at 85W or 110W. The Mac mini, updated on June 15, 2010, was redesigned, being slimmer than the prior models at only 1.4 inches tall, but wider at 7.7 inches a side. The weight rose from 2.9 to 3.0 pounds. The power supply is now internal as opposed to external; the chassis no longer has the polycarbonate plastic on the bottom. The newer model, introduced July 20, 2011 has the same physical dimensions
Apple Watch is a line of smartwatches designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It incorporates fitness tracking and health-oriented capabilities with integration with iOS and other Apple products and services. Apple Watch relies on a wireless connection to an iPhone to perform many of its default functions such as calling and texting. However, Wi-Fi chips in all Apple Watch models allow the smartwatch to have limited connectivity features away from the phone anywhere a Wi-Fi network is available. Series 3 LTE Apple Watches are able to be used without needing to be connected to an iPhone, though an iPhone is still required to set up the device. Most Apple Watches that are produced require an iPhone 5s or with iOS 11; the Apple Watch was released on April 24, 2015 and became the best-selling wearable device with 4.2 million sold in the second quarter of the 2015 fiscal year. The second generation of Apple Watches were released in two tiers in September 2016: the Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2, while the first generation was discontinued.
The Apple Watch Series 3 was released on September 22, 2017 alongside the discontinuation of the Apple Watch Series 2. The Apple Watch Series 4 was announced on September 12, 2018, with the Apple Watch Series 1 no longer being produced; the goal of the Apple Watch was to enhance the uses of an iPhone while providing the user with some additional new features. Kevin Lynch was hired by Apple to make wearable technology for the wrist, he said: "People are looking at the screen so much. People want that level of engagement, but how do we provide it in a way that's a little more human, a little more in the moment when you’re with somebody?" Apple's development process was held much under wraps until a Wired article revealed how some internal design decisions were made. Rumors surrounded an Apple-developed wearable device back as far as 2011, which conceptualized the device as a variation of the iPod that would curve around the user's wrist, feature Siri integration. On February 10, 2013, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was beginning to develop an iOS-based smartwatch with a curved display.
On February 12, 2013, Bloomberg reported that Apple's smartwatch project was "beyond the experimentation phase in its development", had a team of at least 100 designers working on the project. Further reports in March 2013 indicated that Apple planned to release the device by the end of the year. In July 2013, Financial Times reported that Apple had begun hiring more employees to work on the smartwatch, that it was targeting a possible retail release in late 2014. In April 2014, Apple CEO Tim Cook told The Wall Street Journal that the company was planning to launch new product categories that year, but did not reveal any specifics. In June 2014, Reuters reported that production was expected to begin in July for a release in October. On September 9, 2014, during a press event where the iPhone 6 was presented, the new product was introduced by Tim Cook as "the next chapter in Apple's story" with a video that focused on its design and the various combinations of bands and case styles that would be available to the consumers.
After the reveal video, the auditorium was filled with prolonged applause and a standing ovation as Tim Cook reappeared onstage wearing an Apple Watch. Cook explained that Apple Watch was "a precise timepiece, a new intimate way to communicate from your wrist, a comprehensive health and fitness device."In comparison to other Apple products and competing smartwatches, marketing of Apple Watch focused more on advertising the device as a fashion accessory. Apple focused upon its health and fitness-oriented features, competing against dedicated activity trackers, with watchOS 3, expanded on them with fitness tracking for wheelchair users, social sharing in the Activity app, a Breathe app to encourage mindfulness. Pre-orders for the Apple Watch began on April 10, 2015, with the official release on April 24; the device was not branded as "iWatch" due to trademark conflicts in certain territories. In July 2015, Probendi sued Apple Inc. for trademark infringement, arguing that through keyword advertising on the Google search engine, it caused advertising for the Apple Watch to appear on search results pages when users searched for the trademarked term "iWatch".
The Apple Watch was not available at the Apple Store. Beginning on April 10, 2015, customers could make appointments for demonstrations and fitting, but the device was not in-stock for walk-in purchases and had to be reserved and ordered online. CNET felt that this distribution model was designed to prevent Apple Store locations from having long line-ups due to the high demand. Selected Apple Watch models were available in limited quantities at luxury boutiques and authorized Apple resellers. On June 4, 2015, Apple announced that it did plan to stock Apple Watch models at its retail locations. On August 24, 2015, Best Buy announced that it would begin stocking Apple Watch at its retail stores by the end of September. Both T-Mobile US and Sprint announced plans to offer Apple Watch through its retail stores. On September 9, 2015, Apple launched a new subset of Apple Watch
Apple Inc. has developed a range of "System on Chip" as well as "System in Package" processors for powering their mobile consumer devices and other tasks. To meet the stringent power and space constraints common to mobile devices, these chips combine a central processing unit with other components into a single compact physical package. Johny Srouji is the executive in charge of Apple's silicon design. Prior to the introduction of the Apple "A" series of SoCs, Apple used several SoCs in early revisions of the iPhone and iPod touch, they were manufactured by Samsung. They integrate a single ARM-based processing core, a graphics processing unit, other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package; the APL0098 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on June 29, 2007 at the launch of the original iPhone. It includes a 412 MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU, it was manufactured by Samsung on a 90 nm process. The first generation iPod touch used it.
The APL0278 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on September 9, 2008 at the launch of the second generation iPod touch. It includes a 533 MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU, it was manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process. The APL0298 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on June 8, 2009 at the launch of the iPhone 3GS, it includes a 600 MHz single-core Cortex-A8 CPU and a PowerVR SGX535 GPU. It was manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process; the APL2298 is a 45 nm die shrunk version of the iPhone 3GS SoC and was introduced on September 9, 2009 at the launch of the third generation iPod touch. The Apple "A" series is a family of "Systems on Chip" used in multiple devices, including some of Apple's portable devices such as certain models of the iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, the Apple TV digital media player, they integrate one or more ARM-based processing cores, a graphics processing unit, cache memory and other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package.
They are designed by Apple, manufactured by Samsung and TSMC. The Apple A4 is a package on package system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung. It combines an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU with a PowerVR GPU, emphasizes power efficiency; the chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple's iPad tablet. It was superseded in the iPad 2, released the following year, by the Apple A5 processor. Apple A4 is based on the ARM processor architecture; the first version released ran at 1 GHz for the iPad and contains an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU core paired with a PowerVR SGX 535 graphics processor built on Samsung's 45-nanometer silicon chip fabrication process. The clock speed for the units used in the iPhone 4 and the iPod touch is 800 MHz; the clock speed for the unit used in the Apple TV has not been revealed. The Cortex-A8 core used in the A4 is thought to use performance enhancements developed by chip designer Intrinsity, subsequently acquired by Apple, in collaboration with Samsung; the resulting core, dubbed "Hummingbird", is able to run at far higher clock rates than other implementations while remaining compatible with the Cortex-A8 design provided by ARM.
Other performance improvements include additional L2 cache. The same Cortex-A8 CPU core used in the A4 is used in Samsung's S5PC110A01 SoC; the SGX535 in the A4 could theoretically push 35 million polygons per second and 500 million pixels per second, although real world performance may be less. The A4 processor package supports PoP installation. Hence, there is a package with two low-power 128 MB DDR SDRAM chips mounted on top of the A4 used in the first-generation iPad, the fourth-generation iPod touch, the second-generation Apple TV; the iPhone 4 has two 256 MB packages for a total of 512 MB. The RAM is connected to the processor using ARM's 64-bit-wide AMBA 3 AXI bus. To support the iPad's demand for high graphics bandwidth, the width of the RAM data bus is double that used in previous ARM11 and ARM9 based Apple devices; the Apple A5 is a system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung that replaced the A4. The chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple's iPad 2 tablet in March 2011, followed by its release in the iPhone 4S smartphone that year.
Apple claims that compared with its predecessor, the A4, the A5 CPU "can do twice the work" and the GPU has "up to nine times the graphics performance". The A5 contains a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 CPU with ARM's advanced SIMD extension, marketed as NEON, a dual core PowerVR SGX543MP2 GPU; this GPU can push between 70 and 80 million polygons/second and has a pixel fill rate of 2 billion pixels/second. Apple lists the A5 to be clocked at 1 GHz on the iPad 2's technical specifications page, though it can dynamically adjust its frequency to save battery life; the clock speed of the unit used in the iPhone 4S is 800 MHz. Like the A4, the A5 process size is 45 nm. An updated 32 nm version of the A5 processor was used in the third generation Apple TV, the iPod touch, the iPad Mini, the new version of iPad 2; the chip in the Apple TV has one core locked. The markings of the square package indicates that it is named APL2498, in software, the chip is called S5L8942; the 32 nm variant of the A5 provides around 15% better battery life during web browsing, 30% better when playing 3D games and 20%
The MacBook is a brand of Macintosh laptop computers by Apple Inc. that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during Apple's transition to Intel processors. The current lineup consists of the MacBook, the MacBook Air, the MacBook Pro. A different MacBook line existed from 2006 to 2012; the MacBook family were housed in designs similar to the iBook and PowerBook lines which preceded them, now making use of a unibody aluminum construction first introduced with the MacBook Air. This new construction has a black plastic keyboard, first used on the MacBook Air, which itself was inspired by the sunken keyboard of the original polycarbonate MacBooks; the now standardized keyboard brings congruity to the MacBook line, with black keys on a metallic aluminum body. The lids of the MacBook family are held closed by a magnet with no mechanical latch, a design element first introduced with the polycarbonate MacBook. Memory and batteries were accessible in the old MacBook lineup, though the newest compact lineup solders or glues all such components in place.
All of the current MacBooks feature backlit keyboards. The MacBook was discontinued until March 2015, when a new model featuring an ultraportable design and an all-metal enclosure was introduced; the MacBook features many firsts from Apple, using a butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Force Touch trackpad, a USB Type-C port. This lack of Type-A USB ports ubiquitous among modern PCs means it requires a physical adapter to attach any 3rd-party peripheral on release; the ports consist of one USB Type-C, able to charge the MacBook, a headphone/microphone jack compatible with inline remote control. Adapters are available for USB, mDP, HDMI, VGA; this Apple laptop is the first in 17 years since the "Wallstreet" PowerBook G3 to lack a translucent illuminated Apple logo on the back of its lid, instead having a polished metal logo. The MacBook Air is Apple's least expensive notebook computer; the 2017 base model comes with a 13-inch screen, was Apple's thinnest notebook computer until the introduction of the MacBook in March 1984.
This MacBook Air model features a Thunderbolt 2 port. This model of MacBook Air does not have a Retina Display. A MacBook Air model with an 11-inch screen was available from October 1992 to October 2002. In 2007, the MacBook Air received a small refresh, with the processor speed increased to 1.8 GHz. On October 30, 2009, the MacBook Air underwent a major design change, dropping the USB Type-A ports, MagSafe, the SD card slot in favor of two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports and a headphone jack, it was updated with a Retina display and Intel Y-series Amber Lake i5 CPUs, as well as a Force Touch trackpad, a third generation butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Touch ID sensor found in the fourth generation MacBook Pro, but without the Touch Bar. The base price was raised, although the base configuration of the 2011 model was retained; the MacBook Pro is Apple's higher end laptop available in both 15-inch configurations. A redesigned MacBook Pro was introduced on October 27, 2016, thinner and lighter than the previous generation MacBook Pro.
Both size models feature a touch-sensitive OLED display strip located in place of the function keys, a Touch ID sensor integrated with the power button, a butterfly mechanism keyboard similar to the MacBook, four USB-C ports that serve as Thunderbolt 3 ports. The 13-inch model is available in a less expensive configuration with conventional function keys and only two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports. Comparison of Macintosh models
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In