Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind, her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects, for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World and to the establishment of Spain as the first global power which dominated Europe and much of the world for more than a century. Isabella, granted together with her husband the title "the Catholic" by Pope Alexander VI, was recognized as a Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974.
Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, to John II of Castile and his second wife, Isabella of Portugal on 22 April 1451. At the time of her birth, she was second in line to the throne after her older half-brother Henry IV of Castile. Henry childless, her younger brother Alfonso of Castile was born two years on 17 November 1453, lowering her position to third in line. When her father died in 1454, her half-brother ascended to the throne as King Henry IV of Castile. Isabella and her brother Alfonso were left in King Henry's care. She, her mother, Alfonso moved to Arévalo; these were times of turmoil for Isabella. The living conditions at their castle in Arévalo were poor, they suffered from a shortage of money. Although her father arranged in his will for his children to be financially well taken care of, King Henry did not comply with their father's wishes, either from a desire to keep his half-siblings restricted, or from ineptitude. Though living conditions were difficult, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion.
When the King's wife, Joan of Portugal, was about to give birth to their daughter Joanna and her brother Alfonso were summoned to court in Segovia to come under the direct supervision of the King and to finish their education. Alfonso was placed in the care of a tutor; some of Isabella's living conditions improved in Segovia. She always had food and clothing and lived in a castle, adorned with gold and silver. Isabella's basic education consisted of reading, writing, mathematics, chess, embroidery and religious instruction, she and her ladies-in-waiting entertained themselves with art and music. She lived a relaxed lifestyle, but she left Segovia since King Henry forbade this, her half-brother was keeping her from the political turmoils going on in the kingdom, though Isabella had full knowledge of what was going on and of her role in the feuds. The noblemen, anxious for power, confronted King Henry, demanding that his younger half-brother Infante Alfonso be named his successor, they went so far as to ask Alfonso to seize the throne.
The nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with King Henry's forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. The battle was a draw. King Henry agreed to recognize Alfonso as his heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, Princess Joanna la Beltraneja. Soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Isabella's younger brother Alfonso died in July 1468 of the plague; the nobles who had supported him suspected poisoning. As she had been named in her brother's will as his successor, the nobles asked Isabella to take his place as champion of the rebellion. However, support for the rebels had begun to wane, Isabella preferred a negotiated settlement to continuing the war, she met with her elder brother Henry at Toros de Guisando and they reached a compromise: the war would stop, King Henry would name Isabella his heir-presumptive instead of his daughter Joanna, Isabella would not marry without her brother's consent, but he would not be able to force her to marry against her will.
Isabella's side came out with most of what the nobles desired, though they did not go so far as to depose King Henry. The question of Isabella's marriage was not a new one, she had made her debut in the matrimonial market at the age of six with a betrothal to Ferdinand, the younger son of John II of Navarre. At that time, the two kings and John, were eager to show their mutual love and confidence and they believed that this double alliance would make their eternal friendship obvious to the world; this arrangement, did not last long. Ferdinand's uncle Alfonso V of Aragon died in 1458. All of Alfonso's Spanish territories, as well as the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, were left to his brother John II. John now had a stronger position than before and no longer needed the security of Henry's friendship. Henry was now in need of a new alliance, he saw the chance for this much needed new friendship in Charles of John's elder son. Charles was at odds with his father, because of this, he secretly entered into an alliance with Henry IV of Castile.
A major part of the alliance was
Michigan's 4th congressional district
Michigan's 4th congressional district is a United States Congressional district that from 2003 to 2013 included portions of Northern and Central Michigan, consisting of all of Clare, Grand Traverse, Isabella, Leelanau, Midland, Montcalm and Roscommon counties and the northern portion of Shiawassee and most of the western portion of Saginaw counties. The district was altered in the 2012 redistricting; the 4th is represented by John Moolenaar. This district has had Republican representation since the 1970s. Midland Saginaw Township Mount Pleasant Owosso Thomas Township Bridgeport Township Big Rapids Alma Ithaca United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan, 2010 | United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan, 2012 | United States House of Representatives elections in Michigan, 2014 Michigan's 4th Congressional District was first formed in 1852. At this time It covered everywhere from Macomb County to the western end of the Upper Peninsula. Ingham County was not in the district, the boundary turned northward after Eaton County only going west again Midland County was reached.
It went west again along Midland and subsequent counties southern lines and headed north again on the east side of Muskegon County, with Manistee being its southern county that bordered Lake Michigan. In 1863 it gained the areas around Grand Rapids and Muskegon but lost everything east of Ionia County and most of the Upper Peninsula. In 1872 it was redrawn to cover Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren and St. Joseph Counties. In 1892 these boundaries were altered by the addition of Allegan and Barry Counties but the subtraction of Kalamazoo County; this remained the district boundaries for the next 72 years. In 1964 the 4th district was redrawn. Barry County was subtracted from the district while Hillsdale Counties were added. In 1972 the district boundaries were altered by adding small sections of Calhoun County and subtracting small portions of Hillsdale and St. Joseph Counties; the 1982 redistricting removed from the district all of Hillsdale County and the portion of Calhoun County, in the district.
Quincy and Butler Townships in Branch County were removed. In Kalamazoo County Schoolcraft Township and most of Portage were added to the district; the southern and western portions of Allegan County and most of western Ottawa County including Holland, Michigan were in the district. In the renumbering of 1992 this district became the 6th, while the old 10th became the new 6th; the old 10th included most of Grand Traverse and all of Kalkaska County which were lost to the new 1st in the 1992 redistricting. It included Wexford County, moved to the new 2nd in the 1992 redistricting; the only other areas lost were small parts of Antrim and Iosco Counties and a portion of Shiawasee County consisting of Durand and Vernon Township. The new 4th gained Montcalm county from the old 9th district, it gained the Clinton and most of the Shiawasee portions of the old 6th district and the northern half of Oscoda County. It gained a portion of south-west Saginaw County and the portion of Midland County that had not been in the old 10th.
In 2002 Leelaunau County and a small section of north-west Grand Traverse County were the only areas gerrymandered from the 1st and other districts into the 4th that had not been in the old 10th. Michigan's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Govtrack.us for the 4th District - Lists current Senators and representative, map showing district outline The Political graveyard: U. S. Representatives from Michigan, 1807-2003 U. S. Representatives 1837-2003, Michigan Manual 2003-2004 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Mid Michigan called Central Michigan, is a region in the Lower Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As its name implies, it is the middle area of the Lower Peninsula. Lower Michigan is said to resemble a mitten, Mid Michigan corresponds to the Thumb and palm, stretching from Michigan's eastern shoreline along Lake Huron into the fertile rolling plains of the Michigan Basin; the region contains cities of moderate size including Flint and the state capital of Lansing. For the most part, Central Michigan and Mid Michigan are synonymous with each other, representing the same geographic area of Michigan. However, some definitions of Central Michigan and Mid Michigan can vary depending on one's point of reference; the Greater Lansing area, sometimes called the Capitol Region, includes the area surrounding the state capitol of Lansing and nearby East Lansing. The Greater Tri-Cities area called the Great Lakes Bay Region, is the area surrounding the Saginaw Bay including the cities of Saginaw, Bay City and can be expanded to include Mt. Pleasant as well.
The Flint area is included in Mid Michigan, can be considered a part of Metro Detroit. The Thumb is a peninsula; this area is sometimes dubbed the Blue Water Area. Central or Mid Michigan can include areas that are referred to as Southern Michigan; this is loosely defined and can refer to a region in the south-central portion of the state characterized by the Irish Hills. The region includes the Adrian and Hillsdale areas which are considered a part of Southeast Michigan. Portions of Central or Mid Michigan can overlap with portions of Western Michigan. For example, areas of Montcalm County could fall into both regions, with the west side of the county such as Greenville aligning with West Michigan, eastern portions identifying more with Central Michigan; some areas may overlap with what is known as Northern Michigan. These areas, such as Clare and Arenac County are along the border of the two regions and can be considered parts of both, depending on your frame of reference. Portions of Metro Detroit can overlap with Central Michigan the counties of Genesee, Livingston and St. Clair are statistically included in Metro Detroit however geographically lie in Mid Michigan.
See also: Protected areas of Michigan and Geography of Michigan. The region includes many rivers including the Grand River, Red Cedar River, Saginaw River, Tittabawassee River, Shiawassee River and Flint River. A drainage divide occurs in Central Michigan, causing the Grand River to flow west into Lake Michigan and the Saginaw River to empty into the Saginaw Bay; the terrain has rolling plains with fertile soil. Agriculture dominates in the rural areas, where corn, sugar beets, hay are grown; the region has small towns with a few cities of notable size. Most of the area is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lansing or Roman Catholic Diocese of Saginaw. See also: Michigan Municipalities by Population Central Michigan has several cities of regional and geographic importance: Lansing, is the capital of Michigan and centrally located in the Lower Peninsula, it is the fifth largest city in the state. The Lansing-East Lansing metropolitan area is the third largest metro area in Michigan. Flint is the sixth largest city in the state and an important center for Michigan's automotive industry.
The Tri-Cities area includes Midland, Bay City, Saginaw. The Saginaw and Bay City metropolitan area is the fifth largest metro area in Michigan. Central Michigan has a rich and varied culture, including European farmers who settled in rural areas to work the land and ethnic minorities populating the area's urban centers to make a living in the automobile industry; the Mid-Michigan area was predominately Ojibwe territory prior to colonization. One of the first European settlements in the region was the French Fort St. Joseph in present-day Port Huron in 1686; the area that became Michigan opened up to European settlement following the Indian war. In the 1800s Lewis Cass would negotiate the Treaty of Saginaw, in which Ojibwe land was handed over to form much of present-day Mid-Michigan; the opening of the Erie Canal brought vast numbers of settlers to the region, as population started growing northward from Ohio. The first settlers to the area cleared the land for the lumber industry. Forests of the Thumb and Saginaw Valley provided much of the lumber to feed the growing United States.
The convenient access to transportation provided by the Saginaw River and its numerous tributaries fueled a massive expansion in population and economic activity. As the trees were being cut down in the region, logs were floated down the rivers to sawmills located in Saginaw, destined to be loaded onto ships and railroad cars. Flint was a lumber boom town, with the city turning lumber into carriages and wagons, which would give way to the automobile industry. Michigan became a state in 1837, with the State Capitol in Detroit until the winter of 1847 when the state constitution required that the capital be moved from Detroit to a more central and safer location in the interior of the state. Many were concerned about Detroit's proximity to British-controlled Canada, which had captured Detroit in the War of 1812; the United States had recaptured the city in 1813, but these events led to the dire need to have the center of government relocated away from hostile British territory. There was concern with Detroit's strong influence over Michigan politics, being the largest city in the state as well as the capital city.
Unable to publicly reach a consensus because of constant political wrangling, the Michigan House of Representat
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
St. John's Episcopal Church (Mount Pleasant, Michigan)
St. John's Episcopal Church is a historic church at 206 W. Maple Street in Mount Pleasant, Michigan, it was built in 1882 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. St. John’s Episcopal Church is a member of the Episcopal Diocese of Western Michigan and the Episcopal Church. Begun as a mission in 1876, the church was built in 1882, it is the oldest existing Mount Pleasant church building, still used for worship today. Known locally as “the church with the red doors,” St. John’s was established as a mission church in 1876 by circuit riders; the church’s cornerstone was laid in 1882. All the building materials for the church were donated by local businessman William N. Brown, with the bricks made at his own yard, lumber from his sawmill, the excavation and finishing work completed by his employees. St. John's is the oldest surviving active place of worship in Michigan; the Rt. Rev. George De Normandie Gillespie, first Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Western Michigan, consecrated the church on January 10, 1884.
In 1996, the church building underwent extensive restoration and renovations, much of, completed by parishioners. St. John's Episcopal Church is a single story, white-painted brick building with a steep gable roof, measuring 92 feet by 32 feet; the shed-roofed front entryway projects from the facade of the church, is reached via a staircase. The interior is reached through a pair of entry doors with sharp upper points; the two sides of the church contain English Gothic recessed stained glass windows spaced at regular intervals. The church interior was modeled on the Riding House at Bolsover Castle in England; the floor is tongue-in-groove wainscoting lines the walls. The vaulted ceiling has heavy wood beams. All liturgical appointments, including the pulpit, lectern and altar rail, are made of maple. St. John’s was registered with the State of Michigan's Historical Marker Program and received a historical marker in 1972, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The Women’s Guild at St. John’s called the Ladies’ Guild, existed from 1886 to 1974.
The Women’s Guild was responsible for keeping the church going during rough times and paying the bills. The Rev. John H. Rippey, M. D. served as acting rector of several churches on a circuit, including St. John’s, from 1887 through 1910, his work at the church, the lives of parishioners are documented in a journal and parish registry book, 1887-1911, three scrapbooks, 1874-1935, undated, as well as in two handwritten services from July 1908. Rev. John H. Goodrow served as rector at St. John’s from 1962 until his sudden death in 1985. Rev. Goodrow was aware of those in need in the community and assisted many through the help of wealthier friends in the local oil community. During his tenure, he supported "Food with Friends," a Commission on Aging program that provided nightly meals in the parish hall for community members, he was responsible for many other community outreach initiatives, including the St. John’s Emergency Food Program; the Goodrow Fund at St. John's was named in his honor; the Fund’s intent is “to provide emergency assistance, including food, clothing, gasoline, or other support.
This fund maintains a particular interest in serving the special needs of community members... not met or fulfilled by other community resources.” Because of its community outreach via the Goodrow Fund, St. John’s was recognized by the Episcopal Church as a Jubilee Ministry, or a ministry which “engages congregations in the important work of empowering people to change their lives.” St. John’s has for many years had a music program; the choir and organist perform a range of music from early plainsong to modern pieces, some of which have been commissioned for the church. The church funds four choral students from Central Michigan University’s School of Music who sing with the choir. Over time, choirs have included a men and boys’ choir, various children’s choirs, a mixed adult choir. Since 1972 the church has had a Gabriel Kney tracker pipe organ; the Center for Christian Spirituality was established at St. John’s in 2008 for the purpose of helping people develop a deeper relationship with God.
Various workshops and presentations have included quiet days for laity and clergy, Celtic Christianity and Spirituality, Native American spirituality and Work, a study of Handel’s Messiah, among others
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol