Alfonso II of Aragon
Alfonso II, called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death. The eldest son of Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona and Queen Petronilla of Aragon and he was Count of Provence, which he conquered from Douce II, from 1166 until 1173, when he ceded it to his brother, Ramon Berenguer III. Born at Huesca, called indistinctly from birth Alfonso and Ramon, ascended the throne of Aragon and Barcelona as Alfonso, in deference to the Aragonese. For most of his reign he was allied with Alfonso VIII of Castile, in his Reconquista effort Alfonso pushed as far as Teruel, conquering this important stronghold on the road to Valencia in 1171. The same year saw him capturing Caspe, apart from common interests, kings of Aragon and Castile were united by a formal bond of vassalage the former owed to the latter. Besides, on January 18,1174, in Zaragoza Alfonso married Sancha, another milestone in this alliance was the Treaty of Cazorla between the two kings in 1179, delineating zones of conquest in the south along the watershed of the rivers Júcar and Segura.
Southern areas of Valencia including Denia were thus secured to Aragon, Alfonso reached an agreement, the Treaty of Sangüesa, with Sancho VI of Navarre dividing the territory of the Taifa of Murcia between them. During his reign Aragonese influence north of the Pyrenees reached its zenith and his realms incorporated not only Provence, but the counties of Cerdanya and Roussillon. Béarn and Bigorre paid homage to him in 1187, Alfonso II provided the first land grant to the Cistercian monks on the banks of the Ebro River in the Aragon region, which would become the site of the first Cistercian monastery in this region. He died at Perpignan in 1196 and he was a noted poet of his time and a close friend of King Richard the Lionheart. The debate had begun by Guilhem de Saint-Leidier and was taken up by Azalais de Porcairagues and Raimbaut of Orange. Wife, Sancha of Castile, daughter of king Alfonso VII of Castile, b.1155 or 1157, d.1208 Peter II, King of Aragon, married firstly King Imre of Hungary and secondly Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Alfonso II, Count of Provence and Razès, married Count Raymond VI of Toulouse. Sancha, married Count Raymond VII of Toulouse, in March 1211 Ferdinand, cistercian monk, Abbot of Montearagón
Andrew II of Hungary
Andrew II, known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235. He ruled the Principality of Halych from 1188 until 1189/1190, and he was the younger son of Béla III of Hungary, who entrusted him with the administration of the newly conquered Principality of Halych in 1188. Andrews rule was unpopular, and the boyars expelled him, Béla III willed property and money to Andrew, obliging him to lead a crusade to the Holy Land. Instead, Andrew forced his brother, King Emeric of Hungary. The following year, Andrew occupied Hum, despite the fact that Andrew did not stop conspiring against Emeric, the dying king made Andrew guardian of his son, Ladislaus III, in 1204. After the premature death of Ladislaus, Andrew ascended the throne in 1205, Andrew introduced a new grants policy, the so-called new institutions, giving away money and royal estates to his partisans despite the loss of royal revenues. He was the first Hungarian monarch to adopt the title of King of Halych and he waged at least a dozen wars to seize the two Rus principalities, but the local boyars and neighboring princes prevented him from conquering the principalities.
He participated in the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217–1218, when the servientes regis, or royal servants, rose up, Andrew was forced to issue the Golden Bull of 1222, confirming their privileges. This led to the rise of the nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary and his Diploma Andreanum of 1224 listed the liberties of the Transylvanian Saxon community. The employment of Jews and Muslims to administer the royal revenues led him into conflict with the Holy See, Andrew pledged to respect the privileges of the clergymen and to dismiss his non-Christian officials in 1233, but he never fulfilled the latter promise. Andrews first wife, Gertrude of Merania, was murdered in 1213, because her blatant favoritism towards her German kinsmen, the veneration of their daughter, Elizabeth of Hungary, was confirmed by the Holy See during Andrews lifetime. After Andrews death, his sons, Béla and Coloman, accused his wife, Beatrice dEste, of adultery and never considered her son, Stephen. Andrew was the son of King Béla III and Bélas first wife.
The year of Andrews birth is not known, but modern historians agree that he was born around 1177, Andrew was first mentioned in connection to his fathers invasion of the Principality of Halych in 1188. That year, Béla III invaded Halych upon the request of its prince, Vladimir II Yaroslavich. Béla forced the new prince, Roman Mstislavich, to flee, after conquering Halych, he granted it to Andrew. Béla captured Vladimir Yaroslavich and imprisoned him in Hungary, after Bélas withdrawal from Halych, Roman Mstislavich returned with the assistance of Rurik Rostislavich, Prince of Belgorod Kievsky. They tried to expel Andrew and his Hungarian retinue, but the Hungarians routed the forces of Mstislavich and Rostislavich
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Rozala of Italy
Rozala of Italy was a Countess of Flanders and Queen consort of the Franks. She was regent of Flanders in 987-988 during the minority of her son, born sometime between 950–960, was the daughter of King Berengar of Ivrea, King of Italy. Her mother was Willa of Tuscany, the daughter of Boso, Margrave of Tuscany, in 968 she married Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. On her husbands death, she acted as regent for her young son, on c. 1 April 988 she married secondly the much younger Robert the Pious, the Rex Filius of France, the marriage had been arranged by his father Hugh Capet. According to disputed account she brought her husband Montreuil and Ponthieu as a dowry, upon her marriage, she took the name of Susannah, and was the queen consort of the co-ruling king Robert, under senior King Hugh. From 991/992 the couple lived basically separated as Rozala had become too old to have more children, when her father-in-law died in 996, Robert repudiated her completely, desiring to marry Bertha of Burgundy in her place.
That marriage was not lawful because of too close kinship so Robert married a third time 1003 with Constance of Arles who bore him seven children, Rozala retired back to Flanders, where she died and was buried. Robert retained control of her dowry, or the rights to the mentioned territory, Rozala was firstly married to Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. They had the children, Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders Mathilda. The second marriage with Robert II of France did not produce any children
Philip IV of France
Philip IV, called the Fair or the Iron King, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was Philip I, Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his barons. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and his ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones, princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. He tried and failed to make relative the Holy Roman Emperor. He began the advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs. To further strengthen the monarchy, he tried to control the French clergy and this conflict led to the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309. In 1306, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France and, in 1307, Friday 13th, Philip was in debt to both groups and saw them as a state within the state.
His final year saw a scandal amongst the family, known as the Tour de Nesle Affair. His three sons were kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV. A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the fortress of Fontainebleau to the future Philip III. He was the second of four born to the couple. His father was the heir apparent of France at that time, in August 1270, when Philip was two years old, his grandfather died while on Crusade, his father became king, and his elder brother Louis became heir apparent. Only five months later, in January 1271, Philips mother died after falling from a horse, a few months later, one of Philips younger brothers, died. Philips father was crowned king at Rhiems on 15 August 1271. Six days later, he married again, Philips step-mother was Marie, in May 1276, Philips elder brother Louis died, and the eight year old Philip became crown prince. It was suspected that Louis had been poisoned, and that his stepmother, one reason for these rumours was the fact that the queen gave birth to her own eldest son in the same month as the death of the crown prince
Marie of Brabant, Queen of France
Marie of Brabant was Queen consort of France by marriage to Philip III of France. Born in Leuven, she was a daughter of Henry III, Duke of Brabant, Marie married the widowed Philip III of France on 21 August 1274. His first wife, Isabella of Aragon, had given birth to three surviving sons, Louis and Charles. Philip was under the influence of his mother, Margaret of Provence and his minion, surgeon. Not being French, Marie stood out at the French court, in 1276, Maries stepson Louis died under suspicious circumstances. Marie was suspected of ordering him to be poisoned, La Brosse, who was suspected, was imprisoned and executed for the murder. Margaret suspected Marie of ordering the death of Louis, and Philip did seem to agree more with his mother than his wife. After the death of Philip III in 1285, Marie lost some of her political influence and her stepson, Philip IV was crowned king of France on 6 January 1286 in Reims. Together with Joan I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, she negotiated peace in 1294 between England and France with Edmund Crouchback, the brother of Edward I of England.
Marie lived through Philip IVs reign and she outlived her children and she died in 1321, aged 66, in the monastery at Les Mureaux, near Meulan, where she had withdrawn to in 1316. Marie was not buried in the necropolis of Basilica of Saint-Denis. Destroyed in a fire in 1580, the church was rebuilt in the following years, Edward I and the Forging of Britain. Jules Marie Édouard Viard, trans. and ed. Paris, Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion,1930
Margaret of Provence
Margaret of Provence was Queen of France as the wife of King Louis IX. Margaret was born in the spring of 1221 in Forcalquier and she was the eldest of four daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. Her younger sisters were Queen Eleanor of England, Queen Sanchia of Germany and she was especially close to Eleanor, to whom she was close in age, and with whom she sustained friendly relationships until they grew old. Margaret and her father entertained the knight well, and soon Blanche was negotiating with the count of Provence, Margaret was chosen as a good match for the king more for her religious devotion and courtly manner than her beauty. She was escorted to Lyon by her parents for the treaty to be signed. From there, she was escorted to her wedding in Sens by her uncles from Savoy, William, on 27 May 1234 at the age of thirteen, Margaret became wife of Louis IX of France and queen consort of France. She was crowned the following day, the wedding and her coronation as queen were celebrated at the cathedral of Sens.
The marriage was a one in numerous aspects. Blanche still wielded strong influence over her son, and would throughout her life, as a sign of her authority, shortly after the wedding Blanche dismissed Margarets uncles and all of the servants she had brought with her from her childhood. Margaret resented Blanche and vice versa from the beginning, like her sisters, was noted for her beauty, she was said to be pretty with dark hair and fine eyes, and in the early years of their marriage she and Louis enjoyed a warm relationship. Her Franciscan confessor, William de St. Pathus, related that on cold nights Margaret would place a robe around Louis shoulders and they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. The attentions of the king and court being drawn to the new queen only made Blanche more jealous, Margaret accompanied Louis on Seventh Crusade. Though initially the crusade met with success, like the capture of Damietta in 1249, it became a disaster after the kings brother was killed. Queen Margaret was responsible for negotiations and gathering enough silver for his ransom and she was thus for a brief time the only woman ever to lead a crusade.
In 1250, while in Damietta, where she earlier in the year successfully maintained order. She convinced some of those who had been about to leave to remain in Damietta, when she realized her mistake, she burst into laughter and ordered the messenger, Tell your master evil days await him, for he has made me kneel to his camelines. However, Joinville remarked with noticeable disapproval that Louis rarely asked after his wife, Margaret could only reply that she dared not make such a vow without the kings permission, because when he discovered that she had done so, he would never let her make the pilgrimage. In the end, Joinville promised her that if she made the vow he would make the pilgrimage for her, and her leadership during the crusade had brought her international prestige and after she returned to France, Margaret was often asked to mediate disputes
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
Charles, Count of Valois
Charles of Valois was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois, in 1284, he was created Count of Valois by his father and, in 1290, received the title of Count of Anjou from his marriage to Margaret of Anjou. Moderately intelligent, disproportionately ambitious and quite greedy, Charles of Valois collected principalities and he had as appanage the counties of Valois, Alençon and Perche. But he was son, brother-in-law, son-in-law, and uncle of kings or of queens, moreover, after his death, Charles thus dreamed of more and sought all his life for a crown he never obtained. In 1285, the pope recognized him as King of Aragon, as son of his mother, in opposition to King Peter III, Charles married Marguerite of Sicily, daughter of the Neapolitan king, in order to re-enforce his position in Sicily, supported by the Pope. He would never dare to use the seal which was made on this occasion. His principal quality was to be a military leader.
He commanded effectively in Flanders in 1297, the king quickly deduced that his brother could conduct an expedition in Italy against Frederick II of Sicily. The affair was ended by the peace of Caltabellotta, Charles dreamed at the same time of the imperial crown and married in 1301 Catherine de Courtenay, who was a titular empress. But it needed the connivance of the Pope, which he obtained by his expedition to Italy, Charles was back in shape to seek a new crown when the German king Albert of Habsburg was murdered in 1308. Charless brother, who did not wish to take the risk himself of a check and probably thought that a French puppet on the throne would be a good thing for France. The candidacy was defeated with the election of Henry VII as German king, Charles continued to dream of the eastern crown of the Courtenays. Thus it was he who directed in 1311 the royal embassy to the conferences of Tournai with the Flemish, he quarreled there with his brothers chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny, Charles did not pardon the affront and would continue the vendetta against Marigny after the kings death.
He was doggedly opposed to the torture of Jacques de Molay, grand master of the Templars, when that son died after a few days, Philip took the throne as Philip V. In 1324, he commanded with success the army of his nephew Charles IV to take Guyenne and he contributed, by the capture of several cities, to accelerate the peace, which was concluded between the king of France and his niece, queen-consort of England. Charles was buried in the church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris - his effigy is now in the Basilica of St Denis. His first marriage, in 1290, was to Margaret, Countess of Anjou and they had the following children, Isabelle of Valois. Philip VI, first King of the Valois Dynasty, married William I, Count of Hainaut, and had issue
Peter II of Courtenay
Peter, Peter II of Courtenay, was emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople from 1216 to 1217. Peter II was a son of Peter I of Courtenay, the youngest son of Louis VI of France and his mother was Elisabeth de Courtenay, daughter of Renaud de Courtenay and Hawise du Donjon. Peter first married Agnes I, via whom he obtained the three counties of Nevers and Tonnerre. He took for his wife, Yolanda of Flanders, a sister of Baldwin and Henry of Flanders. Peter accompanied his cousin, King Philip Augustus, on the crusade of 1190 and fought in the Albigensian Crusade in 1209 and 1211 and he was present at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. On the journey he was seized by the despot of Epirus, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, Peter thus never governed his empire, however, was ruled for a time by his wife, who had succeeded in reaching Constantinople. Two of his sons and Baldwin, in turn emperors of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, by his first wife Agnes I, Countess of Nevers he had one child, Matilda I, Countess of Nevers.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Peter II of Aragon
Peter II the Catholic was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1196 to 1213. He was born in Huesca, the son of Alfonso II of Aragon, in 1205 he acknowledged the feudal supremacy of the papacy and was crowned in Rome by Pope Innocent III, swearing to defend the Catholic faith. He was the first king of Aragon to be crowned by the pope, in the first decade of the thirteenth century he commissioned the Liber feudorum Ceritaniae, an illustrated codex cartulary for the counties of Cerdagne and Roussillon. On June 15,1204 he married Marie of Montpellier and she gave him a son, but Peter soon repudiated her. Marie was popularly venerated as a saint for her piety and marital suffering, Marie perhaps bore Peter II a daughter, Sancha, at Collioure in October,1205 according to Christian Nique. Sancha was betrothed to Raymond VII the son Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, not long after her birth, according to Nique, however the childs younger brother James makes no mention of her and Sancha was apparently dead before the New Year, according to Niques information.
He participated in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 which marked the point of Muslim domination in the Iberian peninsula. The Crown of Aragon was widespread in the area that is now southernwestern France, the Cathars or Albigenses rejected the authority and the teachings of the Catholic Church. Innocent called upon Philip Augustus of France to suppress the Albigenses, under the leadership of Simon of Montfort a campaign was launched. The Albigensian Crusade, begun in 1209, led to the slaughter of approximately 20,000 men and children, Cathar and he was accompanied by Raymond of Toulouse, who tried to persuade Peter to avoid battle and instead starve out Montforts forces. The Battle of Muret began on September 12,1213, the Aragonese forces were disorganized and disintegrated under the assault of Montforts squadrons. Peter himself was caught in the thick of fighting, and died as a result of an act of bravado. He was thrown to the ground and killed, the Aragonese forces broke in panic when their king was slain and Montforts crusaders won a crushing victory.
The nobility of Toulouse, vassals of the Crown of Aragon, were defeated, the conflict culminated in the Treaty of Meaux-Paris in 1229, in which the integration of the Occitan territory into the French crown was agreed upon. Upon Peters death, the passed to his only son by Marie of Montpellier. Martín Alvira-Cabrer,12 de Septiembre de 1213, El Jueves de Muret, la batalla decisiva de la Cruzada contra los Cátaros, Barcelona,2008 and 2013. Martín Alvira-Cabrer, Pedro el Católico, Rey de Aragón y Conde de Barcelona, Testimonios y Memoria Histórica,6 vols. Zaragoza, Institución Fernando el Católico,2010, Christian, Les deux visages de Marie de Montpellier, Académie des Sciences et Lettres de Montpellier