Anne de Mortimer
Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge, was the mother of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandmother of King Edward IV and King Richard III. Anne Mortimer was born at New Forest, one of her familys Irish estates, on 27 December 1390, the eldest of the four children of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Lady Eleanor Holland. She had two brothers, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and Roger, and a sister Eleanor, who married Sir Edward de Courtenay, thomas Holland was the grandson and senior heir to Joan of Kent. On 30 September 1399, the fortunes of Anne Mortimer and her brothers and sister changed entirely. Richard II was deposed by the House of Lancaster led by Henry Bolingbroke, who became King Henry IV and had his own son, the marriage took place without parental consent and was validated on 23 May 1408 by papal dispensation. Anne Mortimer died soon after the birth of her son Richard on 22 September 1411, the Complete Peerage, edited by H. A. The Complete Peerage, edited by H.
A, Edmund, fifth earl of March and seventh earl of Ulster. Harriss, G. L. Richard, earl of Cambridge, pugh, T. B. Henry V and the Southampton Plot of 1415. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. The Cambridge conspiracy in The History of Sir John Oldcastle
Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Edmund de Mortimer, 5th Earl of March and 7th Earl of Ulster was an English nobleman. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his first cousin twice removed, Edmund Mortimer was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family. Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, was born at New Forest, one of his familys Irish estates, on 6 November 1391, the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Eleanor Holland. He had a brother and two sisters, who married Richard, Earl of Cambridge, younger son of the Duke of York, and Eleanor, who married Sir Edward de Courtenay. Edmund Mortimers mother was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, thus in terms of male primogeniture Edmund was heir to the crown over and above the house of Lancaster, the children of Edward IIIs third son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. However, on 30 September 1399, when Edmund Mortimer was not yet eight years of age, his fortunes changed entirely. Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, the new Duke of Lancaster, who became King Henry IV and had his own son, the future King Henry V, recognized as heir apparent at his first Parliament.
On 22 June 1402, Edmunds uncle, Sir Edmund Mortimer, son of the 3rd Earl, was captured by the Welsh rebel leader, Owain Glyndŵr, Henry IV accused Sir Edmund of deserting to Glyndŵr, refused to ransom him, and confiscated his property. Sir Edmund married Glyndŵrs daughter, and on 13 December 1402 proclaimed in writing that his nephew Edmund was the heir to King Richard II. Sir Edmunds sister, Edmunds aunt, was married to Henry Hotspur Percy, in 1403, the Percys rose in rebellion in collusion with Glyndŵr and Sir Edmund. Hotspur was defeated and slain at Shrewsbury, the alliance of Glyndŵr, Sir Edmund, and the Percys survived this setback. In February 1405, they agreed to a division of the kingdom. This agreement was apparently connected to a plot to free Edmund and his brother Roger from King Henrys custody, on 13 February 1405 the boys were abducted from Windsor Castle, but they were quickly recaptured near Cheltenham. Constance of York was held responsible and arrested, She implicated her brother, the Duke of York, who was imprisoned at Pevensey Castle for seventeen weeks.
As a result of the abduction, on 1 February 1406 Edmund and Roger were put under stricter supervision at Pevensey Castle under Sir John Pelham. On 1 February 1409 Edmund and Roger were given in charge to the Kings son, the Prince of Wales and they remained in custody for the remainder of Henry IVs reign. Edmund Mortimers sisters and Eleanor, who were in the care of their mother until her death in 1405, were not well treated by Henry IV, and were described as destitute after her death. On his accession in 1413 Henry V set Edmund Mortimer at liberty, and on 8 April 1413, nothing further is heard of Roger Mortimer, and it seems likely he died in or shortly after 1413
Richard II of England
Richard II, known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. Richard was the brother of Edward of Angoulême, upon whose death, Richard. Upon the death of Richards father prior to the death of Edward III, Richard, by primogeniture, with Edward IIIs death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten. During Richards first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils, most of the aristocracy preferred this to a regency led by the kings uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants Revolt in 1381, the young king played a major part in the successful suppression of this crisis. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. In 1397, Richard took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled, the next two years have been described by historians as Richards tyranny.
In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunts son, Henry of Bolingbroke, Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Claiming initially that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity in February 1400, he is thought to have starved to death. Richard was said to have tall, good-looking and intelligent. Less warlike than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years War that Edward III had started, modern historians do not accept this interpretation, while not exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. While probably not insane, as historians of the 19th and 20th centuries believed, Richard of Bordeaux was the younger son of Edward, the Black Prince, and Joan of Kent. Edward, heir to the throne of England, had distinguished himself as a commander in the early phases of the Hundred Years War.
After further military adventures, however, he contracted dysentery in Spain in 1370 and he never fully recovered and had to return to England the next year. Joan of Kent had been at the centre of a dispute between Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, and William Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, from which Holland emerged victorious. Less than a year after Hollands death in 1360, Joan married Prince Edward, since she was a granddaughter of King Edward I and a first cousin of King Edward III, the marriage required papal approval
Kings Langley is a historic village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, England,21 miles northwest of central London to the south of the Chiltern Hills and now part of the London commuter belt. It was once the location of Kings Langley Palace, a palace of the Plantagenet kings of England. The 12th century parish church of All Saints houses the tomb of Edmund of Langley and it is 2 miles south of Hemel Hempstead and 2 miles north of Watford. The place-name Langley is first attested here in a Saxon charter of circa 1050 and it is spelt Langelai in the Domesday Book of 1086, and is recorded as Langel Regis in 1254. The name means wood or clearing. A Roman villa has been excavated just south of the village, the town was probably part of the lands of the Abbey of St. Albans, although actual records have been lost. At the Norman conquest the manor was given to Williams half brother Robert and it is around the manor that the present village developed as a linear village lying on the old road from London to Berkhamsted and the Midlands of England.
In the Domesday Book of 1086, Langley was in the hundred of Danish, around 1276 the manor was purchased by Queen Eleanor and a palace was built on the hill above the village to its west with a deer park extending to its south. This gave the village its link to royalty, first being renamed Langley Regina after its sponsoring queen, and later changed to Langley Regis or still by the added epithet Kings. The village remained the location of Kings Langley Palace, a palace of the Plantagenet kings of England. The palace and the church that accompanied the priory fell into disrepair at the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Church of All Saints was built during the 14th century on the site of an earlier church, the body of King Richard II was buried here for a time after his probable murder at Pontefract Castle in 1400. It was removed to Westminster Abbey, the body of Edmund of Langley, died 1402, the fifth son of Edward III and the first Duke of York, still rests in the memorial chapel. The 18th century Sparrows Herne turnpike road traversed the Chilterns via the valley of the River Gade, the 16th century Saracens Head public house is a coaching inn which flourished in this period.
The Grand Union Canal dating from 1797 and the 1838 London and Birmingham Railway which became the West Coast Main Line, there are many businesses located near the station in Home Park Industrial Estate which is the site of the Construction and Engineering Centre of West Herts College. 20th century housing developments have led to the spreading out on either side of the main road. The A41 has now been diverted west of the leaving the high street to local traffic for the first time in centuries. During the Second World War, the village was home to the headquarters in Britain of the Polish Underground army based at Barnes Lodge just off the Hempstead Road near Rucklers Lane
Battle of Agincourt
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years War. The battle took place on Friday,25 October 1415 in the County of Saint-Pol, Henry V led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation, the French were commanded by Constable Charles dAlbret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, the battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare. The Battle of Agincourt is well documented by at least seven contemporary accounts, the approximate location of the battle has never been in dispute and the place remains relatively unaltered even after 600 years. Two of the most frequently cited accounts come from Burgundian sources, one from Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, who was present at the battle, Henry V invaded France following the failure of negotiations with the French.
He initially called a Great Council in the spring of 1414 to discuss going to war with France, Henry would marry Princess Catherine, the young daughter of Charles VI, and receive a dowry of 2 million crowns. The French responded with what they considered the terms of marriage with Princess Catherine, a dowry of 600,000 crowns. By 1415, negotiations had ground to a halt, with the English claiming that the French had mocked their claims and ridiculed Henry himself. In December 1414, the English parliament was persuaded to grant Henry a double subsidy, on 19 April 1415, Henry again asked the Great Council to sanction war with France, and this time they agreed. The siege took longer than expected, the town surrendered on 22 September, and the English army did not leave until 8 October. The campaign season was coming to an end, and the English army had suffered many casualties through disease and he intended the manoeuvre as a deliberate provocation to battle aimed at the dauphin, who had failed to respond to Henrys personal challenge to combat at Harfleur.
The French had raised an army during the siege which assembled around Rouen and this was not strictly a feudal army, but an army paid through a system similar to the English. The French hoped to raise 9,000 troops, but the army was not ready in time to relieve Harfleur, after Henry V marched to the north, the French moved to block them along the River Somme. They were successful for a time, forcing Henry to move south, away from Calais, the English finally crossed the Somme south of Péronne, at Béthencourt and Voyennes and resumed marching north. Without a river obstacle to defend, the French were hesitant to force a battle and they shadowed Henrys army while calling a semonce des nobles, calling on local nobles to join the army. By 24 October, both faced each other for battle, but the French declined, hoping for the arrival of more troops. The two armies spent the night of 24 October on open ground, the English had very little food, had marched 260 miles in two and a half weeks, were suffering from sickness such as dysentery, and faced much larger numbers of well equipped French men at arms
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called John of Gaunt because he was born in Ghent, when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury, due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. John of Gaunts legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V and his other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter, and Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed Beaufort, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396.
Through his daughter Philippa, he was grandfather of King Edward of Portugal, through John II of Castiles great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor, Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England, John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin and they married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. He became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland, John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanches sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title Duke of Lancaster from his father on 13 November 1362, by well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year, Johns ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, when Edward III died in 1377 and Johns ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, Johns influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself, John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richards kingship. As de facto ruler during Richards minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace.
Unlike some of Richards unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his wife, Constance of Castile. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richards misrule brought England to the brink of civil war
Philippa de Mohun
Philippa de Mohun was Duchess of York, due to her third marriage to Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, Lord of the Isle of Wight, a grandson of King Edward III. She succeeded her husband as Lady of the Isle of Wight. The Luttrell family and its descendants via a line from 1737 owned Dunster Castle until 1976. Philippa married thrice, Firstly to Walter Fitzwalter, 4th Baron Fitzwalter and he was a favoured knight of the chamber of King Richard II and was Constable of Wallingford Castle. He died on 18 November 1396 and at the order was buried in the royal chapel in Westminster Abbey. Thirdly, before 7 October 1398, to Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, eldest son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, by his first wife Isabella of Castile, by her third marriage Philippa became Duchess of York. She died 17 July 1431 at her seat of Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where survives her chest tomb and effigy in the Chapel of St Nicholas. Also buried in Westminster Abbey were her mother Lady Mohun, whose effigy survives in the crypt and her effigy, atop a freestone chest tomb, wears a long cloak with widows hood, the head resting on two cushions.
The original paintwork which once covered effigy and base has almost completely worn away, an earlier work stated the inscription to have included the words, wife of Edward Duke of York. A translation of her last will was published in J. P. Neale & E. Brayleys History and Antiquities of Westminster Abbey, in it she mentioned her son Walter, Lord Fitzwalter and bequeathed money to several charities and to Thomas Chaucer. A thousand Dirges to be sung on the first day, and the thousand Masses the next, 4d. to two men for their trouble in distributing money at the Dirges and Masses, to the Abbot and Prior of Westminster, each 13s. On the day of the Dirge, and on the next day 6s, 4d. and to each Priest coming to the funeral for Dirge and to sing Mass, 1s. 9d, £20 or more, at the discretion of her executors, for the expense of her funeral, among legacies of plate, she remembers her son Walter, Lord Fitz-Walter, and leaves one hundred marks to Thomas Chaucer. The residue of her goods to be divided into four portions for Masses, relief of Prisoners, and Poor, the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H.
White. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. ISBN1449966381 Philippa de Mohun at Find a Grave
Wallingford is an ancient market town and civil parish in the upper Thames Valley in England. Historically in Berkshire, it was transferred to Oxfordshire in 1974, Wallingford is situated 12 miles north of Reading,13 miles south of Oxford and 11 miles north west of Henley-on-Thames. The towns royal but mostly ruined Wallingford Castle held high status in the medieval period as a regular royal residence until the Black Death hit the town badly in 1349. Empress Matilda retreated here for the time from Oxford Castle in 1141. The castle declined subsequently, much stone being removed to renovate Windsor Castle, nonetheless the towns Priory produced two of the greatest minds of the age, the mathematician Richard of Wallingford and the chronicler John of Wallingford. Wallingford is on the west bank of the River Thames downstream of Oxford, at southern end of the town is the settlement of Winterbrook. The town bypass crosses the river to the southwest over Winterbrook Bridge, the centre of Wallingford has the feel of a typical old market town, with a large open town square around the war memorial, the 17th century arcaded town hall, and numerous shops.
There are some alleyways and a number of historic inns, amenities include Wallingford Museum, the Corn Exchange theatre and Wallingford steam railway, public parks - one with the castle ruins. A blues festival, the annual BunkFest folk festival and a carnival are popular annual events, in recent years, the town has been used as a location for filming, notably Midsomer Murders which has featured the Parish Church Choir. Wallingford is run by a council consisting of 16 councillors. It is part of the South Oxfordshire district and the county of Oxfordshire having formerly been represented by the Municipal Borough of Wallingford, the Member of Parliament is Ed Vaizey and the County Councillor is Lynda Atkins, one of four Independent members of Oxfordshire County Council. As with the rest of the British Isles and Oxfordshire, Wallingford experiences a climate with cool summers. There has been a station at the nearby Centre for Ecology & Hydrology collecting data on the local climate since 1961. Temperature extremes at Wallingford vary from −21.0 °C in January 1982, recent low temperatures include −17.6 °C during January 2010 and −17.5 °C during December 2010.
Wallingford grew up around an important crossing point of the River Thames, the place has been fortified since at least Anglo-Saxon times, when it was an important fortified borough of Wessex with the right to mint Royal coinage. It was enclosed with substantial earthworks by King Alfred the Great in the 9th century as part of a network of fortified towns known as burhs or burghs to protect Wessex against the Vikings. These defences can still be discerned as a group of four roughly square areas around the centre of the town and are probably the best preserved such fortifications in England. Wallingford became the town of Berkshire and the seat of the countys Ealdorman
Philippa of Hainault
Philippa of Hainault was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III. Edward, Duke of Guyenne, her husband, promised in 1326 to marry her within the following two years. She was married to Edward, first by proxy, when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry to marry her in his name in Valenciennes in October 1327. The marriage was celebrated formally in York Minster on 24 January 1328, in August 1328, he fixed his wifes dower. Philippa acted as regent in 1346, when her husband was away from his kingdom, and she accompanied him on his expeditions to Scotland, France. This popularity helped maintain peace in England throughout Edwards long reign, the eldest of her fourteen children was Edward, the Black Prince, who became a renowned military leader. Philippa died at the age of fifty-five from a closely related to edema. The Queens College, Oxford was founded in her honour and she was one of eight children and the second of five daughters. Her eldest sister Margaret married the German king Louis IV in 1324, williams counties of Zealand and Holland as well as of the seigniory of Frieze were devolved to Margaret after agreement between Philippa and her sister.
Edward III of England, however, in 1364–65, in the name of his wife Philippa, demanded the return of Hainaut and he was not successful, as it was the custom in these regions to favour male heirs. King Edward II had decided that an alliance with Flanders would benefit England, the bishops report to the king describes one of the counts daughters in detail. A annotation says it describes Philippa as a child, the description runs, The lady whom we saw has not uncomely hair, betwixt blue-black and brown. Her head is clean-shaped, her high and broad. Her face narrows between the eyes, and the part of her face is still more narrow and slender than her forehead. Her eyes are blackish-brown and deep and her nose is fairly smooth and even, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and flattened, and yet it is no snub-nose. Her nostrils are broad, her mouth fairly wide. Her lips somewhat full, and especially the lower lip and her teeth which have fallen and grown again are white enough, but the rest are not so white.
The lower teeth project a little beyond the upper, yet this is and her ears and chin are comely enough
Elizabeth of Aragon
Elizabeth of Aragon, known as Elizabeth of Portugal, T. O. S. F. was queen consort of Portugal, a tertiary of the Franciscan Order and is venerated as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. Elizabeth showed an enthusiasm for her faith. She said the full Divine Office daily and did other penance, religious fervor was common in her family, as she could count several members of her family who were already venerated as saints. The most notable example is her great-aunt, St. Elizabeth of Hungary and her marriage to King Denis of Portugal was arranged in 1281 when she was 10 years old, receiving the towns of Óbidos and Porto de Mós as part of her dowry. It was only in 1288 that the wedding was celebrated, when Denis was 26 years old, Denis, a poet and statesman, was known as the Rei Lavrador, because he planted a large pine forest near Leiria to prevent the soil degradation that threatened the region. Elizabeth quietly pursued the regular practices of her youth and was devoted to the poor. Naturally, such a life was a reproach to many around her, her prayer and patience succeeded in converting her husband, who had been leading a sinful life.
Elizabeth took an active interest in Portuguese politics and was a decisive conciliator during the negotiations concerning the Treaty of Alcañices, signed by Denis and Sancho IV of Castile in 1297. In 1304, the Queen and Denis returned to Spain to arbitrate between Fernando IV of Castile and James II of Aragon, brother of Elizabeth and she had two children, a daughter named Constance, who married King Ferdinand IV of Castile, a son Afonso. Elizabeth would serve as intermediary between her husband and Afonso, during the Civil War between 1322 and 1324, the Infante greatly resented the king, whom he accused of favoring the kings illegitimate son, Afonso Sanches. Repulsed to Alenquer, which supported the Infante, Denis was prevented from killing his son through the intervention of the Queen. As legend holds, in 1323, mounted on a mule, peace returned in 1324, once the illegitimate son was sent into exile, and the Infante swore loyalty to the king. After Denis death in 1325, Elizabeth retired to the monastery of the Poor Clare nuns and she joined the Third Order of St.
Francis, devoting the rest of her life to the poor and sick in obscurity. In spite of age and weakness, the Queen-dowager insisted on hurrying to Estremoz and she again stopped the fighting and caused terms of peace to be arranged. But the exertion brought on her final illness, as soon as her mission was completed, she took to her bed with a fever from which she died on 4 July, in the castle of Estremoz. She earned the title of Peacemaker on account of her efficacy in solving disputes, although Denis tomb was located in Odivelas, Elizabeth was buried in the Convent of Santa Clara in Coimbra, in a magnificent Gothic sarcophagus. After frequent flooding by the Mondego River in the 17th century and her body was transferred to the main chapel, where it was buried in a sarcophagus of silver and crystal. She was beatified in 1526 and canonized by Pope Urban VIII on 25 May 1625 and her feast was inserted in the General Roman Calendar for celebration on 4 July
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George and it is awarded at the Sovereigns pleasure as a personal gift on recipients from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St Georges Day, the orders emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne, the list includes Sir Sanchet DAbrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed, the Kings wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Also, its original statutes required that member of the Order already be a knight.
The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch and it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter, at the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St.1431. Various legends account for the origin of the Order, the most popular legend involves the Countess of Salisbury, whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, Honi soit qui mal y pense, King Edward supposedly recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order. This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774, The motto in fact refers to Edwards claim to the French throne, the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used to fasten armour. Medieval scholars have pointed to a connection between the Order of the Garter and the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in Gawain, a girdle, very similar in its erotic undertones to the garter, plays a prominent role.
A rough version of the Orders motto appears in the text and it translates from Old French as Accursed be a cowardly and covetous heart. While the author of that poem remains disputed, there seems to be a connection between two of the top candidates and the Order of the Garter. Scholar J. P. Oakden has suggested that it is related to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, more importantly. Another competing theory is that the work was written for Enguerrand de Coucy, the Sire de Coucy was married to King Edward IIIs daughter and was given admittance to the Order of the Garter on their wedding day
Denis of Portugal
Denis, called the Farmer King and the Poet King, was King of Portugal and the Algarve. The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his wife, Beatrice of Castile. His marriage to Elizabeth of Aragon, who was canonised as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, was arranged in 1281 when she was 10 years old. He worked to reorganise his countrys economy and gave an impetus to Portuguese agriculture and he ordered the planting of a large pine forest near Leiria to prevent the soil degradation that threatened the region and as a source of raw materials for the construction of the royal ships. He was known for his poetry, which constitutes a major contribution to the development of Portuguese as a literary language and his policies encouraged economic development with the creation of numerous towns and trade fairs. In 1289 Denis had signed an agreement with Pope Nicholas IV, the new order was designed to be a continuation of the Order of the Temple. Denis negotiated with Clements successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets, during Denis reign, Lisbon became one of Europes centres of culture and learning.
The first university in Portugal, called the Estudo Geral, was founded with his signing of the document Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis in Leiria on 3 March 1290. Lectures in the arts, civil law, canon law, and medicine were given, and on 15 February 1309, the granted the university a charter. The university was moved between Lisbon and Coimbra several times, and finally installed permanently in Coimbra in 1537 by order of King John III and he patronised troubadours, and wrote lyric poetry in the troubadour tradition himself. His best-known work is the Cantigas de Amigo, a collection of songs as well as satirical songs. These poems are found in the order in the two previously known codices. As heir-apparent to the throne, Infante Denis was summoned by his father Afonso III to share governmental responsibilities. The country was again in conflict with the Catholic Church at the time, Afonso having been excommunicated in 1277, the church was favorably inclined to reach an agreement with the new monarch upon his accession to the throne.
The next year he took steps against ecclesiastical power when he promulgated amortisation laws. These prohibited the church and religious orders from buying lands, several years he issued another decree forbidding them to inherit the estates of recruits to the orders. In 1288, Denis managed to persuade Pope Nicholas IV to issue a papal Bull that separated the Order of Santiago in Portugal from that in Castile, to which it had been subordinate. With the extinction of the Knights Templar, he was able to transfer their assets in the country to the Order of Christ, Denis was essentially an administrator and not a warrior king