Philip IV of France
Philip IV, called the Fair or the Iron King, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was Philip I, Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his barons. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and his ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones, princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. He tried and failed to make relative the Holy Roman Emperor. He began the advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs. To further strengthen the monarchy, he tried to control the French clergy and this conflict led to the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309. In 1306, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France and, in 1307, Friday 13th, Philip was in debt to both groups and saw them as a state within the state.
His final year saw a scandal amongst the family, known as the Tour de Nesle Affair. His three sons were kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV. A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the fortress of Fontainebleau to the future Philip III. He was the second of four born to the couple. His father was the heir apparent of France at that time, in August 1270, when Philip was two years old, his grandfather died while on Crusade, his father became king, and his elder brother Louis became heir apparent. Only five months later, in January 1271, Philips mother died after falling from a horse, a few months later, one of Philips younger brothers, died. Philips father was crowned king at Rhiems on 15 August 1271. Six days later, he married again, Philips step-mother was Marie, in May 1276, Philips elder brother Louis died, and the eight year old Philip became crown prince. It was suspected that Louis had been poisoned, and that his stepmother, one reason for these rumours was the fact that the queen gave birth to her own eldest son in the same month as the death of the crown prince
Otto I, Duke of Merania
Otto I, a member of the House of Andechs, was Duke of Merania from 1204 until his death. He was Count of Burgundy from 1208 to 1231, by his marriage to Countess Beatrice II and he was born about 1180 the eldest son of Duke Berthold of Merania and his wife Agnes of Rochlitz. On the death of his father in 1204, he succeeded him as Duke of Merania, while the titles in Istria. On 21 June 1208, Otto married Beatrice II, Countess of Burgundy of House Hohenstaufen, at the wedding ceremony in Bamberg, the Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia was murdered, whereafter Otto approached his Welf rival Otto IV. However, the position of the Andechs dynasty was significantly weakened, ottos brother Henry II was accused of having been involved in Philips assassination and his estates were seized by Duke Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1213 Otto had joined the Babenberg duke Leopold VI of Austria, in 1222, he became embroiled in a dispute with Gerard I de Rougemont, the Archbishop of Besançon over the building of a castle where Otto I of Burgundy had vowed would never be built.
When Otto II of Burgundy refused to destroy the castle or explain his actions at the court, he was excommunicated. He immediately turned to his brother Ekbert, Bishop of Bamberg for help in Bamberg, there on 20 October 1223, he issued five charters in which he made lavish donations for the sake of his soul. In 1228 he inherited the Marches of Istria and Carniola, which his brother Henry II had regained shortly before, on Beatrices death in 1231, he ceased to be Count and was succeeded by his son as Otto III. On his own death in 1234, he was succeeded by his son as Otto II. With his death, the House of Andechs became extinct in the male line
Philip III of France
It can refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans. Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him, people called him the Bold on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated and he followed the suggestions of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and of his uncle King Charles I of Naples and Albania. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271. Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271. Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philips uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285.
He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair, Philip was born in Poissy to King Saint Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule a kingdom, at the death of his elder brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir to the throne. He was 15 years old and has less skill than his brother, being of a character, submissive and versatile. Pope Urban IV released Philip from his oath on June 6,1263, from 1268 Pierre de La Brosse became mentor. Saint Louis provided him his own advice, writing in particular Enseignements and he received a very faith-oriented education. Guillaume dErcuis was his chaplain before being the tutor of his son, as Count of Orléans, he accompanied his father to the Eighth Crusade in Tunis,1270. After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery and his brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on August 3, and on August 25 the king died. To prevent putrefaction of the remains of the sovereign, they recoursed to Mos Teutonicus, Philip, 25 years old, was proclaimed king in Tunis.
With neither great personality or will, very pious, but a good rider and he was unable to command the troops at the death of his father. He left his uncle Charles I of Naples to negotiate with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Sultan of Tunis and he got the payment of tribute from the caliph of Tunis in exchange for the departure of the crusaders. A treaty was concluded October 28,1270 between the kings of France and Navarre and the barons on one hand and the caliph of Tunis on the other
House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians, historians in the 19th century came to apply the name Capetian to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice and they were sometimes called the third race of kings, the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, the direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history. The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, with the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. He proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II, the throne thus passed securely to Robert on his fathers death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors.
Louis VIII – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married Blanche of Castile, a granddaughter of Aliénor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of England, invading at the invitation of the English Barons and these lands were added to the French crown, further empowering the Capetian family. Louis IX – Saint Louis – succeeded Louis VIII as a child, unable to rule for several years, the government of the realm was undertaken by his mother, at the death of Louis IX, France under the Capetians stood as the pre-eminent power in Western Europe. Unfortunately for the Capetians, the proved a failure. Philip IV had married Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, by this marriage, he added these domains to the French crown. More importantly to French history, he summoned the first Estates General – in 1302 – and in 1295 established the so-called Auld Alliance with the Scots and it was Philip IV who presided over the beginning of his Houses end. The first quarter of the century saw each of Philips sons reign in rapid succession, Louis X, Philip V, Louis – unwilling to release his wife and return to their marriage – needed to remarry.
He arranged a marriage with his cousin, Clementia of Hungary and this proved the case, but the boy – King John I, known as the Posthumous – died after only 5 days, leaving a succession crisis. Eventually, it was decided based on several reasons that Joan was ineligible to inherit the throne, which passed to the Count of Poitiers. Marie died in 1324, giving birth to a stillborn son, the last of the direct Capetians were the daughters of Philip IVs three sons, and Philip IVs daughter, Isabella. Since they were female, they could not transmit their Capetian status to their descendants, the wife of Edward II of England, Isabella overthrew her husband in favour of her son and her co-hort, only for Edward III to execute Mortimer and have Isabella removed from power. Joan, the daughter of Louis X, succeeded on the death of Charles IV to the throne of Navarre, she now being – questions of paternity aside – the unquestioned heiress
Blanche of Burgundy
Blanche of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre for a few months in 1322 through her marriage to King Charles IV the Fair. The daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy and Countess Mahaut of Artois, eight years before her husbands accession to the thrones, Blanche was arrested and found guilty of adultery with a Norman knight. Her sister-in-law, Margaret of Burgundy, suffered the same fate, Blanche was imprisoned until she became queen, when she was moved to the coast of Normandy. The date and place of her death are unknown, the fact that she died was simply mentioned on the occasion of her husbands third marriage in April 1326. Blanche was the daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy. Her father died in 1302, leaving the county to Blanches younger brother, the same year, Louis married Margaret of Burgundy. The negotiations were successful and on 23 September 1307, the eleven-year-old Blanche, the marriage ceremony was hastily performed at Countess Mahauts castle in Hesdin in January 1308. In 1313, the Countess of la Marches sister-in-law and brother-in-law, Queen Isabella and King Edward II of England, Isabella presented her brothers and sisters-in-law with embroidered coin purses.
From that she concluded that the brothers were having relationships with her sisters-in-law, when she visited Paris again in 1314, she informed King Philip about her suspicions. Blanches sister Joan was accused of hiding the affair and of participating in it, after a certain period of time, King Philip ordered the arrest of all his daughters-in-law and the knights. Following torture, the knights confessed to adultery and admitted that it had lasted three years, the Countess of la Marche and the Queen of Navarre were tried before the Paris Parlement and were found guilty of adultery. Their heads were shaven and both were sentenced to life imprisonment underground in Château Gaillard, while their lovers were condemned to death, despite her disgrace, Blanche remained in contact with her ambitious mother and often received gifts from her. King Philip, severely shocked by the scandal, died within a year, now queen of France, died imprisoned soon thereafter, probably murdered. Louiss reign was cut short by his sudden death, Philip the Tall and Blanches sister Joan became king and queen of France and Navarre.
It was suggested that Blanche was treated better once her sister became queen, Queen Joan did, arrange for her youngest daughter Blanche to become a nun, hoping that the seven-year-olds cloistered life would atone for her sisters transgression. On Philip the Talls death on 3 January 1322, Blanches husband inherited the crowns, Blanche thus became queen of France and Navarre, but her husband still refused to release her. Both of her died in infancy, Philip before 24 March 1322. Charles requested annulment of their marriage, to which Blanche reluctantly agreed, the annulment was justified by the claim that Blanches mother was Charless godmother, although probably the real reason was Blanches pregnancy during her imprisonment
Joan II, Countess of Burgundy
Joan II, Countess of Burgundy, was the eldest daughter and heiress of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, and Mahaut, Countess of Artois, and was Queen of France as the wife of Philip V of France. Joan was thought to have known of the affairs, and was placed under house arrest at Dourdan as punishment, with the death of King John I of France, her husband became King Philip V of France, Joan became queen consort. She was crowned with her husband at Reims on 9 January 1317 and her father, the Count of Burgundy, died in 1302, and his titles were inherited by his only legitimate son, Robert. Upon Roberts death in 1315, the County of Burgundy was inherited by Joan, in 1329, she inherited her mothers County of Artois. After her husbands death, Joan lived in her own domains and it dealt her a devastating blow from which she never recovered, sinking into a deep depression for the rest of her life. After her beloved sister died in 1324, she was said to be so sorrowful as never before she had been and she died at Roye-en-Artois, on 21 January 1330, and was buried in Saint-Denis beside her husband.
Her titles were inherited by her eldest daughter, Joan III, with Joan IIs death, the County and Duchy of Burgundy became united through this marriage. The Counties of Burgundy and Artois were eventually inherited by her younger daughter Margaret in 1361, Joan left provision in her will for the founding of a college in Paris, it was named Collège de Bourgogne, Burgundy College. With Philip V of France, Countess of Burgundy and Artois in her own right and wife of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy Margaret, Countess of Burgundy and Artois in her own right. Isabelle, wife of Guigues VIII de La Tour du Pin, Dauphin de Viennois, Joan is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. She was portrayed by Catherine Rich in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Julie Depardieu in the 2005 adaptation
Joan I of Navarre
Joan I, the daughter of King Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and served as queen consort to Philip IV of France. Joan was born in Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne on 14 January 1273 as a princess of the House of Blois, the following year, upon the death of her father, she became Countess of Champagne and queen regnant of Navarre. Her mother, was her guardian and regent in Navarre and her mother arrived in France in 1274, and by the Treaty of Orléans in 1275, Joan was betrothed to one of Philips sons. Blanche therefore placed her daughter and the government of Navarre under the protection of the King of France, after this, Joan was brought up with Philip. It is, in fact, uncertain whether she ever resided in Navarre during her childhood, at the age of 11, Joan married the future Philip IV of France on 16 August 1284, becoming queen consort of France in 1285 a year later. Their three surviving sons would all rule as kings of France, in turn, and their surviving daughter.
Joan was described as having been plump and plain, whereas her beautiful daughter Isabella resembled her father more in physical appearance, as regards her character, Joan was bold and enterprising. Having grown up together, the couple was close to each other. His emotional dependence on her is suggested as a reason to why she never visited Navarre, in 1294, Philip appointed her regent of France should his son succeed him being still a minor. However, he is not believed to have entrusted her with influence over the affairs of France, unless they concerned her own domains Navarre, queen Joan founded the famous College of Navarre in Paris in 1305. Queen Joan I of Navarre and countess of Champagne and Brie was declared to be of legal majority upon her marriage in 1284, and did homage for Champagne and Brie to her father-in-law in Paris. Joan never visited the Kingdom of Navarre, which was ruled in her name by French governors appointed first by her father-in-law, from afar, edicts were issued in her name, coins struck in her image, and she gave her protection to chapels and convents.
She never came closer to Navarre than to Carcasonne in 1300, Joan was much more directly active as countess of Champagne. While being a county rather than a kingdom, Champagne was much richer, in 1297, she raised and led an army against the Count of Bar when he rebelled against her by invading Champagne. This was explicitly in the absence of her spouse, and she brought the count to prison before she joined her spouse. She personally acted in her process against Bishop Guichard of Troyes, Joan died in 1305, allegedly in childbirth, though one chronicler accused her husband of having killed her. Her personal physician was the inventor Guido da Vigevano, the Queens Regnant of Navarre, Succession and Partnership, 1274-1512
Henry I of Navarre
Henry the Fat was King of Navarre and Count of Champagne and Brie from 1270 until his death. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Bourbon, during the reign of his childless older brother Theobald II he held the regency during many of Theobalds numerous absences. In 1269, Henry married Blanche of Artois, daughter of the then-reigning King Louis IX of Frances brother Count Robert I of Artois and he was thus in the Angevin circle in international politics. Recognized as heir presumptive during his brothers reign, Henry succeeded to the thrones of the Kingdom of Navarre, Henry Is proclamation at Pamplona, did not take place till the following year,1 March 1271, and his coronation was delayed until May 1273. His first act was the swear to uphold the Fueros of Navarre, Henry came to the throne at the height of an economic boom in Navarre that was not happening elsewhere in Iberia at as great a rate. But by the Treaty of Paris, the English had been ceded rights in Gascony that effectively cut off Navarrese access to the ocean, Henry allowed the Pamplonese burg of Navarrería to disentangle itself from the union of San Cernin and San Nicolás, effected in 1266.
He granted privileges to the towns of Estella, Los Arcos and his relations with the nobility were, on the whole, though he was prepared to maintain the peace of his realm at nearly any cost. Henry initially sought to recover territory lost to Castile by assisting the revolt of King Alfonso X of Castiles brother Philip in 1270 and he eventually declined, preferring to establish an alliance with Castile through the marriage of his son Theobald to Alfonso Xs daughter Violant in September 1272. This failed with the death of the young Theobald after he fell from a battlement at the castle of Estella in 1273, Henry did not long outlive his son. He was suffocated, according to the generally received accounts, by his own fat and his only legitimate child, a one-year-old daughter named Joan, succeeded him under the regency of her mother Blanche. Joans 1284 marriage to Philip the Fair, the future King of France, in the same year united the crown of Navarre to that of France and saw Champagne devolve to the French royal domain.
In the Divine Comedy, Dante Alighieri, a contemporary, sees Henrys spirit outside the gates of Purgatory. Henry is not named directly, but is referred to as the kindly-faced, medieval Lands Project, Henry I, King of Navarre