Alfonso II, Count of Provence
Alfonso II was the second son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. His father transferred the County of Provence from his uncle Sancho to him in 1185, Alfonso II was born in Barcelona. In 1193, Alfonso married Gersenda II of Sabran, daughter of Rainou, Count of Forcalquier and they had a child who became Ramon Berenguer IV as count of Provence. According to explanations in the manuscripts of Gaucelm Faidits poems, Alfonso was a rival of the troubadour for the love of Jourdaine dEmbrun, Alfonso II died in Palermo, Italy
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Provins is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. Provins, a town of medieval fairs, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001, Provins is not the largest city in the arrondissement, but it is the seat. The arrondissement has 7 cantons,125 communes and 112,020 residents, the canton of Provins has 15 communes and 21,000 residents. Provins was home to one of the Champagne fairs that were crucial to the medieval European economy, Provins is known for its medieval fortifications, such as the Tour César and well-preserved city walls. The Saint Quiriace Collegiate Church is located here, the Empress Galla Placidia is said to have presented Ancona with the relics of Judas Cyriacus. However, the head was situated at Provins, brought from Jerusalem by Henry I of Champagne. It is still at the Saint Quiriace Collegiate Church, although construction work during the 12th century was never completed due to difficulties during the reign of Philippe le Bel.
A dome was added in the 17th century, and the old families of Provins who lived in the town were called Children of the Dome. The police station, a piece of architecture designed by Parisian architects Philippe Ameller. Two sets of caves underlie parts of the town, the first type were likely used to store food in the Middle Ages. The second, type contains Bronze and Iron Age graffiti
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, the island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially regard to the arts, literature, cuisine. It is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria.
To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, and about 16 km wide in the southern part. The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, the terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the ranges of Madonie,2,000 m, Nebrodi,1,800 m. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast, in the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains,1,000 m. The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century and its surrounding small islands have some highly active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions and it currently stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions, the mountain is 21 m lower now than it was in 1981.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps, Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it by far the largest of the three volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, Mount Etna is widely regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily. The Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, the three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is usually dormant
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade, the Ninth Crusade is sometimes counted as part of the Eighth. The crusade is considered a failure after Louis died shortly after arriving on the shores of Tunisia, despite the failure of the Seventh Crusade, which ended in the capture of King Louis by the Mamluks, the King did not lose interest in crusading. He continued to send aid and military support to the settlements in Outremer from 1254 to 1266. The War of Saint Sabas between Genoa and Venice had drawn in the Crusader States and depleted their resources and manpower, the exhausted settlements were systematically overrun by the methodical campaigns of Baibars. By 1265, he had raided Galilee and destroyed the cathedral of Nazareth, captured Caesarea and Arsuf, in late 1266, Louis informed Pope Clement IV that he intended to go on crusade again.
Louis formally took the cross on 24 March 1267 at an assembly of his nobles, the crusade was set to sail from Aigues-Mortes in early summer 1270 in Genoese and Marseillois shipping. Too weak to engage Baibars, they returned to Aragon as well. Louis initial plan was to descend on the coast of Outremer by way of Cyprus, however, a new plan was developed in 1269, wherein the fleet would first descend on Tunis. This change has often attributed to the Kings brother Charles of Anjou. However, the details of Charles preparations suggest that he was not initially aware of the change of plans, the large and well-organized crusading fleet sailed about a month late, on 2 July 1270, and landed on the Tunisian coast on 18 July. The crusaders built a camp on the ruins of Carthage. The North African summer bred pestilence, and an epidemic of dysentery swept through the crusading ranks, Louis Damietta-born son John Tristan died of the disease on 3 August. Soon Louis, fell sick, and died, in penitence and his brother Charles arrived just after his death.
Because of further diseases the siege of Tunis was abandoned on 30 October by an agreement with the sultan, in this agreement the Christians gained free trade with Tunis, and residence for monks and priests in the city was guaranteed. After hearing of the death of Louis and the evacuation of the crusaders from Tunis, the treaty was quite beneficial to Charles of Anjou, who received one-third of a war indemnity from the Tunisians, and was promised that Hohenstaufen refugees in the sultanate would be expelled. Prince Edward of England arrived with an English fleet the day before the crusaders left Tunis, the English returned to Sicily with the rest of the crusaders, the combined fleet was badly damaged in a storm off Trapani. At the end of April 1271, the English continued to Acre to carry on the Ninth Crusade, bertran dAlamanon, a diplomat in the service of Charles of Anjou, and Ricaut Bonomel, a Templar in the Holy Land, both composed songs around 1265
Theobald II of Navarre
Theobald II, called the Young, was Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre from 1253 until his death. Theobald was the eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre and his third wife and he succeeded to his fathers titles on his death at only fourteen years of age. His mother acted as regent with James I of Aragon until 1256, on 27 November, he affirmed the Fueros of Navarre, which limited his power by putting him under the counsel of a tutor from among the aristocracy. He could not make judgements without a council of twelve of noblemen, Theobald was not content, however, to be so restricted in royal prerogative before his twenty-first birthday. In order to counter the tendency to decentralisation, diminish the power of the nobility and he exacted extraordinary taxes and imposts from them, but they supported him nevertheless because he granted them rights and political clout. He extended the fueros of Pamplona to Lantz and Estella to Tiebas—nowadays in ruins, Theobald continued the power struggle with the bishop of Pamplona started during his fathers reign.
The former stood by his native Basque parishioners of the Navarreria borough, while Theobald championed the Saint Nicolas borough of Pamplona, in other affairs, Theobald continued the policies of his father. He improved the administration, of incomes and expenditures. The count of 1266 indicated a population of 150,000 inhabitants in Navarre, approximately 6. 75% of royal revenues were spent on a bureaucracy,33. 84% on the military, and 59. 6% to the maintenance of the monarch and his household and duties. Theobald found support in Louis IX of France, who supported his fellow kings against their vassals with consistency, Theobald married Isabella, Louiss daughter, on 6 April 1255. Theobald acted as an advisor of Louis and Louis as an arbiter in Navarres internal problems. When Alfonso X of Castiles daughter Berengaria was betrothed to Louis IX of Frances son Louis, Castile ceded the use of the ports of Fuenterrabía, in July 1270, Theobald embarked with his father-in-law on the Eighth Crusade to Tunis.
Louis died of dysentery at the siege, Theobald died childless at Trapani in Sicily while returning that same year. He was succeeded by his brother, Henry I. His widow Isabella returned home to France, where she died a few months later, ciampolo, a soul found by Dante in the Inferno who defrauded Theobald
Isabella of Hainault
Isabella of Hainaut was Queen of France as the first spouse of King Philip II. Isabella was born in Valenciennes on 5 April 1170, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, at the age of one, her father had her betrothed to Henry, the future Count of Champagne. He was the nephew of Adèle of Champagne, who was Queen of France, in 1179, both their fathers swore that they would proceed with the marriage, but her father agreed to her marrying Philip II of France. She married King Philip on 28 April 1180 at Bapaume and brought as her dowry the county of Artois, the marriage was arranged by her maternal uncle Philip, Count of Flanders, who was advisor to the King. Isabella was crowned Queen of France at Saint Denis on 28 May 1180, as Baldwin V rightly claimed to be a descendant of Charlemagne, the chroniclers of the time saw in this marriage a union of the Carolingian and Capetian dynasties. The wedding did not please the queen mother, since it had meant the rejection of her nephew and the lessening of influence for her kinsmen.
Meanwhile, King Philip in 1184, was waging war against Flanders, according to Gislebert of Mons, Isabella appeared barefooted and dressed as a penitent in the towns churches and thus gained the sympathy of the people. Her appeals angered them so much that they went to the palace, the kings uncle, successfully interposed and no repudiation followed as repudiating her would have meant the loss of Artois to the French crown. Finally, on 5 September 1187, she gave birth to the needed heir and her second pregnancy was extremely difficult, on 14 March 1190, Isabella gave birth to twin boys named Robert and Philip. Due to complications in childbirth, Isabella died the next day and she was not quite 20 years old and was mourned for greatly in the capital, since she had been a popular queen. The twins lived only four days, both having died on 18 March 1190 and her son Louis succeeded her as Count of Artois. Isabellas dowry of Artois eventually returned to the French Crown following the death of King Philip, Queen Isabelle, she of noble form and lovely eyes.
In 1858, Isabelles body was exhumed and measured at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, at 90 cm from pelvis to feet, she would have stood about 58-59, tall. It was during this exhumation that a seal was discovered in the queens coffin. Little used during her time, it is one of the few medieval seals with a royal connection to survive from the Middle Ages. Philip Augustus, King of France 1180-1223, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Blanche of Castile
Blanche of Castile was Queen of France by marriage to Louis VIII. She acted as regent twice during the reign of her son, Louis IX, during his minority from 1226 until 1234 and she was born in Palencia, Spain,1188, the third daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile, and Eleanor of England. Eleanor was a daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, in her youth, she visited the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, founded by her parents, several times. In consequence of the Treaty of Le Goulet between Philip Augustus and John of England, Blanches sister, was betrothed to Philips son, Louis. Their grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine, after meeting the two sisters, judged that Blanches personality was more fit for a consort of France. In the spring of 1200, Eleanor crossed the Pyrenees with her, the marriage was celebrated the next day, at Port-Mort on the right bank of the Seine, in Johns domains, as those of Philip lay under an interdict. Blanche was twelve years of age, and Louis was only a year older so the marriage was consummated a few years later, Blanche bore her first child in 1205.
During the English barons rebellion of 1215-16 against King John, it was Blanches English ancestry as granddaughter to Henry II that led to Louis being offered the throne of England as Louis I. However, with the death of John in October 1216, the changed their allegiance to Johns son. Louis continued to claim the English crown in her right, only to find a nation against him. Philip Augustus refused to help his son, and Blanche was his sole support, Blanche raised money from her father-in-law by threatening to put up her children as hostages. She established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk, and an army under Robert I, Latin Emperor. With French forces defeated at Lincoln in May 1217 and routed on their way back to their London stronghold, on 24 August, the English fleet destroyed the French fleet carrying those reinforcements off Sandwich and Louis was forced to sue for peace. Philip died in July 1223, and Louis VIII and Blanche were crowned on August 6, upon Louis death in November 1226 from dysentery, he left Blanche, by 38, regent and guardian of his children.
Of her twelve or thirteen children, six had died, and Louis and she had him crowned within a month of his fathers death in Reims and forced reluctant barons to swear allegiance to him. The situation was critical, since Louis VIII had died without having completely subdued his southern nobles, the kings minority made the Capetian domains even more vulnerable. To gain support, she released Ferdinand, Count of Flanders and she ceded land and castles to Philip I, Count of Boulogne, son of Philip II and his controversial wife Agnes of Merania. Several key barons, led by Peter Mauclerc, refused to recognize the coronation of the young king, shortly after the coronation and Louis were traveling south of Paris and nearly captured
Thomas, Count of Savoy
Thomas was Count of Savoy from 1189 to 1233. He is sometimes numbered Thomas I to distinguish him from his son of the same name, Thomas was born in Aiguebelle, the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois. His birth was seen as miraculous, his father had despaired of having a male heir after three wives. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, and it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178 and he was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket. He had reached his majority by August 1191, Thomas possessed the martial abilities and brilliance that his father lacked, and Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories, in the same year he granted Aosta Valley the Charte des Franchises, recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy. This right was maintained until the eve of the French Revolution, he conquered Vaud and Carignano.
He supported the Hohenstaufens, and was known as Thomas the Ghibelline because of his career as Imperial Vicar of Lombardy, Thomas worked throughout his career to expand the control and influence of the County of Savoy. One of the key tools that he used was his number of children. In part, this was done by getting many of his sons into episcopal offices in surrounding territories, in addition to Guglielmo and Bonifacio, who made their careers in the clergy, their brother Thomas started out as a canon at Lausanne and became prévôt of Valence by 1226. Pietro was a canon at Lausanne and served as acting bishop there until he was replaced in 1231, in 1219 he worked to get his daughter Beatrice married to the fourteen-year-old Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence. This established a relationship between the two adjoining counties which would help cement Savoy control over trade between Italy and France. Thomas fought battles to expand his control. In 1215, his troops fought in an alliance with Milan against Monferrato, Thomas worked through diplomatic and economic means to expand his control.
The county of Savoy long enjoyed control over critical passes through the Alps, in his quest to gain more control over Turin, Thomas made an agreement with their rival Asti to reroute their French trade around Turin through Savoyard lands in a treaty on 15 September 1224. In 1226, Emperor Frederick II came to northern Italy and named Thomas Imperial Vicar of Lombardy, in this role, he mediated in a Genoese rebellion and a dispute between the town of Marseille and their bishop. Thomas made a policy of granting franchises and charters to towns on key trade routes which enabled the merchant class to develop more wealth and built support for his rule. In 1195 he ambushed the party of Count William I of Geneva, Thomas carried off Marguerite and married her himself, producing some eight sons and six daughters
Margaret of Geneva
Margaret of Geneva, countess of Savoy, was the daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, and Beatrice de Faucigny. She was supposed to become the wife of Philip II of France. However, when her father was escorting her to France in May 1195, attracted by her youth and her beauty, Count Thomas married her himself, claiming that Philip II was already married. Margarets father fell sick and died after the wedding, and her mother died the following year, margaret was the mother of either 14 or 19 children. She was married in 1219 and was mother to four queens consort and maternal grandmother of Philip III of France, after her death, she was buried at Hautecombe Abbey in Savoy