Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. Until modern Haskalah and Jewish emancipation, Jewish philosophy was preoccupied with attempts to reconcile coherent new ideas into the tradition of Rabbinic Judaism, thus organizing emergent ideas that are not Jewish into a uniquely Jewish scholastic framework and world-view. With their acceptance into modern society, Jews with secular educations embraced or developed new philosophies to meet the demands of the world in which they now found themselves. Medieval re-discovery of ancient Greek philosophy among the Geonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism; the philosophy was in competition with Kabbalah. Both schools would become part of classic Rabbinic literature, though the decline of scholastic rationalism coincided with historical events which drew Jews to the Kabbalistic approach. For Ashkenazi Jews and encounter with secular thought from the 18th century onwards altered how philosophy was viewed.
Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities had more ambivalent interaction with secular culture than in Western Europe. In the varied responses to modernity, Jewish philosophical ideas were developed across the range of emerging religious movements; these developments could be seen as either continuations of or breaks from the canon of Rabbinic philosophy of the Middle Ages, as well as the other historical dialectic aspects of Jewish thought, resulted in diverse contemporary Jewish attitudes to philosophical methods. Rabbinic literature sometimes views Abraham as a philosopher; some have suggested. A midrash describes how Abraham understood this world to have a creator and director by comparing this world to "a house with a light in it", what is now called the argument from design. Psalms contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works. Ecclesiastes is considered to be the only genuine philosophical work in the Hebrew Bible. Philo attempted to fuse and harmonize Greek and Jewish philosophy through allegory, which he learned from Jewish exegesis and Stoicism.
Philo attempted to make his philosophy the means of defending and justifying Jewish religious truths. These truths he regarded as fixed and determinate, philosophy was used as an aid to truth, a means of arriving at it. To this end Philo chose from philosophical tenets of Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with Judaism such as Aristotle's doctrine of the eternity and indestructibility of the world. Dr. Bernard Revel, in dissertation on Karaite halakha, points to writings of a 10th-century Karaite, Jacob Qirqisani, who quotes Philo, illustrating how Karaites made use of Philo's works in development of Karaite Judaism. Philo's works became important to Medieval Christian scholars who leveraged the work of Karaites to lend credence to their claims that "these are the beliefs of Jews" - a technically correct, yet deceptive, attribution. With the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Second Temple Judaism was in disarray, but Jewish traditions were preserved thanks to the shrewd maneuvers of Johanan ben Zakai, who saved the Sanhedrin and moved it to Yavne.
Philosophical speculation was not a central part of Rabbinic Judaism, although some have seen the Mishnah as a philosophical work. Rabbi Akiva has been viewed as a philosophical figure: his statements include 1.) "How favored is man, for he was created after an image "for in an image, Elokim made man"", 2.) "Everything is foreseen. "The world is governed by mercy... but the divine decision is made by the preponderance of the good or bad in one's actions". After the Bar Kokhba revolt, Rabbinic scholars gathered in Tiberias and Safed to re-assemble and re-assess Judaism, its laws, liturgy and leadership structure. In 219 CE, the Sura Academy was founded by Abba Arika. For the next five centuries, Talmudic academies focused upon reconstituting Judaism and little, if any, philosophic investigation was pursued. Rabbinic Judaism had limited philosophical activity until it was challenged by Islam, Karaite Judaism, Christianity—with Tanach and Talmud, there was no need for a philosophic framework. From an economic viewpoint, Radhanite trade dominance was being usurped by coordinated Christian and Islamic forced-conversions, torture, compelling Jewish scholars to understand nascent economic threats.
These investigations triggered new ideas and intellectual exchange among Jewish and Islamic scholars in the areas of jurisprudence, astronomy and philosophy. Jewish scholars influenced Islamic scholars influenced Jewish scholars. Contemporary scholars continue to debate, Muslim and, Jew—some "Islamic scholars" were "Jewish scholars" prior to forced conversion to Islam, some Jewish scholars willingly converted to Islam, such as Abdullah ibn Salam, while others reverted to Judaism, still others and raised as Jews, were ambiguous in their religious beliefs such as ibn al-Rawandi, although they lived according to the customs of their neighbors. Around 700 CE, ʿAmr ibn ʿUbayd Abu ʿUthman al-Basri introduces two streams of thought that influence Jewish and Christian scholars: Qadariyah Bahshamiyya MuʿtazilaThe story of the Bahshamiyya Muʿtazila
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, spread throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States. Israel Ben Eliezer, the "Baal Shem Tov", is regarded as its founding father, his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion, its members adhere both to Orthodox Jewish practice – with the movement's own unique emphases – and the traditions of Eastern European Jews, so much so that many of the latter, including various special styles of dress and the use of the Yiddish language, are nowadays associated exclusively with Hasidism. Hasidic thought draws on Lurianic Kabbalah, and, to an extent, is a popularization of it. Teachings emphasize God's immanence in the universe, the need to cleave and be one with him at all times, the devotional aspect of religious practice, the spiritual dimension of corporeality and mundane acts.
Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered a spiritual authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God; the various "courts" share basic convictions, but operate apart, possess unique traits and customs. Affiliation is retained in families for generations, being Hasidic is as much a sociological factor – entailing, as it does, birth into a specific community and allegiance to a dynasty of Rebbes – as it is a purely religious one. There are several "courts" with many thousands of member households each, hundreds of smaller ones; as of 2016, there were over 130,000 Hasidic households worldwide, about 5% of the global Jewish population. The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning "pietist" and "piety", have a long history in Judaism; the Talmud and other old sources refer to the "Pietists of Old" who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer.
The phrase denoted devoted individuals who not only observed the Law to its letter, but performed good deeds beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir: "Adam was a great hasid, having fasted for 130 years." The first to adopt the epithet collectively were the hasidim in Second Temple period Judea, known as Hasideans after the Greek rendering of their name, who served as the model for those mentioned in the Talmud. The title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In 12th-century Rhineland, or Ashkenaz in Jewish parlance, another prominent school of ascetics named themselves hasidim. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Luria's version of the Shulchan Aruch that, "One who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, must conduct himself in the manner of the Pious." The movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation.
But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s, the names acquired a new meaning. Its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim; the transformation was slow: The movement was at first referred to as "New Hasidism" by outsiders to separate it from the old one, its enemies derisively mocked its members as Mithasdim, " pretend hasidim". Yet the young sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse, at least, Hasid came to denote someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement, it entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning "adherent" or "disciple". One was not a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular; this linguistic transformation paralleled that of the word tzaddik, "righteous", which the Hasidic leaders adopted for themselves – though they are known colloquially as Rebbes or by the honorific Admor.
Denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature tzaddik became synonymous with the hereditary master heading a sect of followers. The lengthy history of Hasidism, the numerous schools of thought therein, its use of the traditional medium of homiletic literature and sermons – comprising numerous references to earlier sources in the Pentateuch and exegesis as a means to grounding oneself in tradition – as the sole channel to convey its ideas, all made the isolation of a common doctrine challenging to researchers; as noted by Joseph Dan, "Every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed". Motifs presented by scholars in the past as unique Hasidic contributions were revealed to have been common among both their predecessors and opponents, all the more so regarding many other traits that are extant – these play, Dan added, "a prominent role in modern non-Hasidic and anti-Hasidic writings as well"; the difficulty of separating the movement's philosophy from that of its main inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah, determining what was novel and what a recapitulation baffled historians.
Some, like Louis Jacobs, regarded the early masters as innovators who introduced "much, new if only by emphasis".
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people
Smith College is a private, independent women's liberal arts college with coed graduate and certificate programs in Northampton, Massachusetts. It is the largest member of the Seven Sisters. In its 2018 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked. Smith is a member of the Five Colleges Consortium, which allows its students to attend classes at four other Pioneer Valley institutions: Mount Holyoke College, Amherst College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst; the college was chartered in 1871 by a bequest of Sophia Smith and opened its doors in 1875 with 14 students and 6 faculty. When she inherited a fortune from her father at age 65, Smith decided leaving her inheritance to found a women's college was the best way for her to fulfill the moral obligation she expressed in her will: I hereby make the following provisions for the establishment and maintenance of an Institution for the higher education of young women, with the design to furnish for my own sex means and facilities for education equal to those which are afforded now in our colleges to young men.
By 1915–16, the student enrollment was 1,724, the faculty numbered 163. Today, with some 2,600 undergraduates on campus, 250 students studying elsewhere, Smith is the largest endowed college for women in the country; the United States Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School at Smith College in Northampton, was training grounds for junior officers of the Women's Reserve of the U. S. Naval Reserve and was nicknamed "USS Northampton". On August 28, 1942, a total of 120 women reported to the school for training. Smith has been led by two acting presidents. For the 1975 centennial, the college inaugurated its first woman president, Jill Ker Conway, who came to Smith from Australia by way of Harvard and the University of Toronto. Since President Conway's term, all Smith presidents have been women, with the exception of John M. Connolly's one-year term as acting president in the interim after President Simmons left to lead Brown University. Laurenus Clark Seelye 1875–1910 Marion LeRoy Burton 1910–1917 William Allan Neilson 1917–1939 Elizabeth Cutter Morrow 1939–1940 Herbert Davis 1940–1949 Benjamin Fletcher Wright 1949–1959 Thomas Corwin Mendenhall 1959–1975 Jill Ker Conway 1975–1985 Mary Maples Dunn 1985–1995 Ruth Simmons 1995–2001 John M. Connolly 2001–2002 Carol T.
Christ 2002–2013 Kathleen McCartney 2013–presentOn December 10, 2012, the Board of Trustees announced Kathleen McCartney had been selected as the 11th president of Smith College effective July 1, 2013. The campus was planned and planted in the 1890s as a botanical garden and arboretum, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted; the campus landscape now encompasses 147 acres and includes more than 1,200 varieties of trees and shrubs. In April 2015, the faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online. Smith College has 285 professors in 41 academic departments and programs, for a faculty:student ratio of 1:9. Smith College's acceptance rate for the class of 2022 was 31.0%. It was the first women's college in the United States to grant its own undergraduate degrees in engineering; the Picker Engineering Program offers a single ABET accredited Bachelor of Science in engineering science, combining the fundamentals of multiple engineering disciplines. Smith joined the SAT optional movement for undergraduate admission.
Smith runs its own junior year abroad programs in four European cities: Paris, Hamburg and Geneva. These programs are notable for requiring all studies to be conducted in the language of the host country. In some cases students live in homestays with local families. Nearly half of Smith's juniors study overseas, either through Smith JYA programs or at more than 40 other locations around the world. Junior math majors from other undergraduate institutions are invited to study at Smith College for one year through the Center for Women in Mathematics. Established in the fall of 2007 by Professors Ruth Haas and Jim Henle, the program aims to allow young women to improve their mathematical abilities through classwork and involvement in a department centered on women; the Center offers a post-baccalaureate year of math study to women who either did not major in mathematics as undergraduates or whose mathematics major was not strong. The Louise W. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute supports collaborative research without regard to the traditional boundaries of academic departments and programs.
Each year the Institute supports long-term and short-term projects proposed and organized by members of the Smith College faculty. By becoming Kahn Fellows, students get involved in interdisciplinary research projects and work alongside faculty and visiting scholars for a year. Students can develop leadership skills through Smith's two-year Phoebe Reese Lewis Leadership Program. Participants train in public speaking, analytical thinking, teamwork strategies and the philosophical aspects of leadership. Through Smith's internship program, "Praxis: The Liberal Arts at Work," every undergraduate is guaranteed access to one college funded internship during her years at the college; this program enables students to access interesting self-generated internship positions in social welfare and human services, the arts, health and other fields. The 2017 annual ranking of U. S. News & World Report categorizes Smith as'more sel
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Boston Latin School
The Boston Latin School is a first build public exam school in Boston, Massachusetts. It was established on April 23, 1635, making it both the oldest school in America and the first public school in the United States; the Public Latin School was a bastion for educating the sons of the Boston "Brahmin" elite, resulting in the school claiming many prominent New Englanders as alumni. Its curriculum follows that of the 18th century Latin school movement, which holds the classics to be the basis of an educated mind. Four years of Latin are mandatory for all pupils who enter the school in the 7th grade, three years for those who enter in the 9th. In 2007, the school was named one of the top 20 high schools in the United States by U. S. News & World Report magazine, it was named a 2011 "Blue Ribbon School of Excellence", the Department of Education's highest award. As of 2018, it is listed under the "gold medal" list, ranking 48 out of the top 100 high schools in the United States by U. S. News & World Report.
The Puritans placed a strong emphasis on education for their children. Puritan leaders themselves were accustomed to the highest educational standards, with most of their ministers having graduated from Oxford or Cambridge University in England, they established Boston Latin School in Massachusetts Bay Colony and modeled it after the European Latin schools which emphasized religion and classical literature. They were not funded by taxes but by donations and land rentals. A school established in nearby Dedham was the first tax-supported public school. Latin was an educational priority in the 17th century; the ability to read at least Cicero and Virgil was a requirement of all colonial colleges, to write and speak Latin in verse and prose was the first of the Harvard laws of 1642. Boston Latin prepared many students for admission to Harvard, with a total of seven years devoted to the classics. However, most graduates of Boston Latin did not go on to college, since business and professions did not require college training.
In 2015, Boston Latin School had 2,400 pupils drawn from Boston. It has produced four Harvard University presidents, four Massachusetts governors, five signers of the United States Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin and Louis Farrakhan are among its well-known dropouts; the School began as the South Grammar School and was modeled after the Boston Grammar School in Lincolnshire, England. The Latin School admitted only male students and hired only male teachers from its founding in 1635 into the 19th century. Helen Magill White was the school's first female graduate and the first American woman to earn a doctorate; the Girls' Latin School was founded in 1877, Boston Latin admitted its first co-educational class in 1972. The school appointed Marie Frisardi Cleary and Juanita Ponte as the first two women in its academic faculty in 1967. Cornelia Kelley was the school's first female headmaster, serving from 1998 until her retirement in 2007, after which Lynne Mooney Teta became headmaster.
A cadet corps was founded during the American Civil War. Boston Latin's motto is Sumus Primi, Latin; this is a double entendre, referring both to the school's date of its academic stature. Boston Latin has a history of pursuing the same standards as elite New England prep schools while adopting the egalitarian attitude of a public school. Academically, the school outperforms public schools in affluent Boston suburbs as measured by the yearly MCAS assessment required of all Massachusetts public schools. In 2006, Brooklyn Latin School was founded in New York City, explicitly modeled on Boston Latin, borrowing much from its traditions and curriculum. Admission is determined by a combination of a student's score on the Independent School Entrance Examination and recent grades, is limited to residents of the city of Boston. Although Boston Latin runs from the 7th through the 12th grade, it admits students only into the 7th and 9th grades; the higher grades have fewer students than the lower grades, as a large number of students transfer out.
The school has been described as having a sink-or-swim environment, but in recent years there have been notable efforts to create a more supportive atmosphere. Because it is a high-performing and well-regarded school, Boston Latin has been at the center of controversy concerning its admissions process. Admissions are competitive, it is not uncommon for fewer than 20% of applicants to be admitted. Before the 1997 school year, Boston Latin set aside a 35% quota of places in its incoming class for under-represented minorities; the school was forced to drop this policy after a series of lawsuits involving non-minority girls who were not admitted despite ranking higher than admitted minorities. Boston Latin subsequently defeated a legal effort to do away with its admissions process and conduct admissions by blind lottery. Since 1997, the percentage of under-represented minorities at Boston Latin has fallen from 35% to under 19% in 2005, despite efforts by Boston Latin, the Boston Public Schools, the Boston Latin School Association to recruit more minority applicants and retain more minority students.
Some advocate instituting a quota for the number of students that must be admitted from Boston's public middle schools. Declamation is the most time-honored of the school's traditions. Pupils in the 7th to 10th grade are required to give an oration, known as'Declamation', in their English class three times during the year. There is Public Declamation, where pupils from all grades, or classes, are welcomed to try out for the chance to declaim a memorized piece in front of an asse
Maimonides School is a coeducational, Modern Orthodox, Jewish day school located in Brookline, Massachusetts. The school was founded in 1937 by his wife Tonya Soloveitchik, it is named after Rabbi Moses Maimonides. Today, Maimonides is a Torah institution with 550 students from early childhood through grade twelve with over 2,000 alumni, including multiple Rhodes Scholars, National Merit Scholars, prominent professors and business leaders. More than 325 of them are living in Israel. Most Maimonides students reside in Brookline/Brighton and Sharon; the 2018-19 population includes other communities –- including Boston, Malden, Providence, RI, Waltham and Watertown. A student from a distant state or European country joins the student body, after making independent boarding arrangements; each year several Israelis whose families are temporarily studying or working in Greater Boston join the student body. Students from several feeder day schools augment the student population at transition points such as Grade 6 or 9.
Maimonides School is situated on a 4-acre campus in central Brookline, is housed in two buildings. The Saval campus, named after Maurice Saval, a longtime school Chairman and benefactor, includes the Middle School, Upper School, business office, other administrative offices. Other features of the Saval campus are the Judge J. John Fox gymnasium, S. Joseph Solomont Synagogue, 22,000 volume Levy library and Beit Midrash, laboratories, a student lounge, additional office and study space; the inner courtyard includes a SprinTurf playing surface -- the Ezra Schwartz Field -- for outdoor play. The Esther Edelman Learning Center has undergone a cosmetic upgrade with new furniture, air-conditioning and thermal pane windows; the Middle School level includes the Study Zone, a nurse's office, an art room, a science lab and a social worker's office. The elementary school is housed in the Brener building, across the street from the Saval building and was built in 1998. In addition to classrooms, the building contains a lunchroom, small gym, music room, art room, admissions office, library.
Grades K - 5 have their own playground for recess. The Brener building is named for noted philanthropist. A decorated detective with the Boston Police Department, Mr. Brener was known affectionately as'Brennan' to his coworkers. After his retirement from law enforcement, he became a financial advisor, achieving the rank of Senior Vice President with Dean Whitter Reynolds. In addition to the Brener building itself, Mr. Brener donated the art room on the Saval campus in memory of his sister; the following is an incomplete list of different middle and upper school student-run clubs and organizations, other extracurricular activities: School Newspaper Published on the first day of every month, Spectrum contains school news, world news, entertainment, world language, opinion sections. Spectrum is now online at http://www.maimospectrum.com. Mock trialThe 2009 team was the most successful team in Maimonides history having won the Massachusetts State Championship; the National Competition in Atlanta, Georgia accommodated Maimonides School in allowing the team to compete on Friday, thereby allowing the students to keep Shabbat-observance.
Because of this deviation, the power ranking system did not apply to Maimonides, the team was placed in the ranking at number 20, tied with Maine. The only previous time the team had qualified for the Massachusetts State Tournament was a Sweet 16 finish in 2006; the 2010 team reached the Sweet 16, the 2012 team reached the Final 4, the 2013 team reached the Elite Eight. Model United Nations Annually, the Maimonides School delegation receives multiple awards at the Yeshiva University National Model United Nations. Troop 54, Boy Scouts of America Chessed Committee who coordinate seasonal supply-drives, volunteer days, awareness speakers. Chidon Hatanach - Menachem Shindler, the 2009 North American Champion, won 2nd in the Diaspora and 5th in the World contests in the Yom Haatzmaut Chidon HaTanach HaOlami contest. Alexander Kahan was the 2010 North American Champion, competed in the 2011 Chidon HaTanach HaOlami contest. Past Chidon Hatanach champions from Maimonides include Yochanan Stein. David Project Club which teaches students about current events and Israel Advocacy.
Drama Club Girls' Choir Jazz Band Junior Achievement: TitanThe 2006 Co-state-champion Titan team placed fourth in the northeast, thirteenth nationally. Literary Magazine Has won several awards in the past, noted for its creativity in original music pieces, photography and short stories; the Weekly Briefing"The Weekly Briefing" is a weekly newspaper containing articles about various news stories pertaining to the last week's worth of current events. The paper posts the weekly schedule and events, a list of student birthdays and trivia, it is posted every week. Math teamThe; the 2018 team came in first in a competition between over 150 Jewish day schools in the world. MAC Kol Hamayim is a weekly student-run parsha publication. AIPAC Club Recycling Club The Maimonides Politics Club Gittel's Soup Kitchen is a student-run Brighton-based soup kit