2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Mille Lacs County, Minnesota
Mille Lacs County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,097, its county seat is Milaca. The county was founded in 1857, its boundary was expanded in 1860. Mille Lacs County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. A portion of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is in the county; the name Mille Lacs, meaning "thousand lakes" in French, was associated with Mille Lacs Lake in the region. This is the largest lake in the Brainerd Lakes Area, called "Region of the Thousand Lakes" by French colonists and traders. Mille Lacs County was organized on May 23, 1857, cleaving off the eastern part of Benton County, Minnesota; the original Mille Lacs County consisted of the portion of the contemporary Mille Lacs County east of the west branch of the Rum River and two townships now part of Isanti County, adjacent to Mille Lacs County. In 1858, the 12 townships forming the contemporary southern 10 townships of Mille Lacs County and the two northwestern townships in Isanti County were organized apart from Benton and Mille Lacs Counties to form Monroe County, leaving the northern "Square Top-knot" as Mille Lacs County.
In 1860, Monroe and Mille Lacs Counties merged. Shortly thereafter, the two southeastern townships were transferred to Isanti County, forming the contemporary boundaries for the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 682 square miles, of which 572 square miles is land and 109 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 169 Minnesota State Highway 18 Minnesota State Highway 23 Minnesota State Highway 27 Minnesota State Highway 47 Minnesota State Highway 95 Aitkin County Kanabec County Isanti County Sherburne County Benton County Morrison County Crow Wing County Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 22,330 people, 8,638 households, 6,003 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 10,467 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.55% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 4.68% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.05% from two or more races.
0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.9% were of German, 14.4% Swedish and 14.2% Norwegian ancestry. There were 8,638 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.50% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.00% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,977, the median income for a family was $44,054. Males had a median income of $32,348 versus $22,036 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,656. About 6.70% of families and 9.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.90% of those under age 18 and 11.30% of those age 65 or over. Bayview Cove Estes Brook Long Siding Opstead Red Top Vineland Brickton Burnhelm Siding Esteville Freer Johnsdale Soule's Crossing Stirling National Register of Historic Places listings in Mille Lacs County, Minnesota Mille Lacs County government’s website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Mille Lacs County
Pine County, Minnesota
Pine County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,750, its county seat is Pine City. The county was formed in 1856 and organized in 1872. A portion of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is Pine County. Pine County was organized on March 1856, with Chisago County being its primary parent county. Other portions of the original Pine County originated from Ramsey County; the original county seat was Chengwatana. In 1857, Buchanan County in full and southern portions of Aitkin and Carlton counties were formed from the original Pine County, with Kanabec County organized a year later. In 1861, Buchanan County was folded into Pine County. Pine County was re-organized with Pine City becoming the new county seat. Pine County has been featured in a series of Mysteries written by Dean Hovey; the titles include: Where Evil Hides, Unforgettable, The Deacon's Demise, Family Trees. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,435 square miles, of which 1,411 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water.
Carlton County Douglas County, Wisconsin Burnett County, Wisconsin Chisago County Isanti County Kanabec County Aitkin County Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the 2000 census, there were 26,530 people, 9,939 households, 6,917 families residing in the county. The population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 15,353 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.9% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 3.1% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. 2.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.3 % were of 11.1 % Norwegian and 5.5 % American ancestry. There were 17,276 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 108.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,379, the median income for a family was $44,058. Males had a median income of $31,600 versus $22,675 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,445. About 7.80% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 10.00% of those age 65 or over. National Register of Historic Places listings in Pine County, Minnesota Pine County Government's Website Mn/DOT Official Map of Southern Pine County Mn/DOT Official Map of Northern Pine County
Chisago County, Minnesota
Chisago County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 53,887, its county seat is Center City. Chisago County is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Chisago County was organized in 1851, it took its name from Chisago Lake. Chisago County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Croix flows south-southeasterly along the county's east border; the Sunrise River flows northerly through the central part of the county, collecting the waters of the North Branch Sunrise River and Hay Creek before discharging into the St. Croix at the county's east boundary; the county terrain consists of rolling hills, devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the south and east, with its highest point near the NW corner, at 1,017' ASL; the county has a total area of 442 square miles, of which 415 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Center City have ranged from a low of 2 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −38 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.89 inches in January to 4.48 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 53,887 people, 19,470 households, 14,389 families in the county; the population density was 130/sqmi. There were 21,172 housing units at an average density of 51.0/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.80% White, 1.20% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.90% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races. 1.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,470 households out of which 37.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.00% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families.
20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.09. The county population contained 25.70% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 28.60% from 45 to 64, 11.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.50 males. The per capita income for the county was $29,293. About 6.20% of the population was below the poverty line. As of the 2000 census, there were 41,101 people, 14,454 households, 11,086 families in the county; the population density was 99.0/sqmi. There were 15,533 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.21% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races.
1.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.3 % were of 11.3 % Norwegian and 6.9 % Irish ancestry. There were 14,454 households out of which 41.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.50% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.30% were non-families. 18.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.18. The county population contained 30.20% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 32.20% from 25 to 44, 20.70% from 45 to 64, 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 103.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $52,012, the median income for a family was $57,335. Males had a median income of $40,743 versus $27,653 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $21,013. About 3.20% of families and 5.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.40% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Chisago Lakes High School Chisago County is influenced by the German and Norwegian immigrants that settled there in the middle of the 19th century, it provided the setting for much of Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg's The Emigrants suite of novels in the 1950s, Moberg engaged in both archival and oral history research in preparation for his books to recreate the early Swedish immigration in the area. Sculptor Ian Dudley's bronze statue of the author stands in Chisago City’s park, his fictional characters Karl-Oskar and Kristina Nilsson from Ljuder parish in Småland settled around the Lake Ki-Chi-Saga. The heritage of the early settlers is still honored by the annual Karl Oskar Days in Lindström. Chisago Country has trended conservative in recent state and federal elections, backing every Republican candidate for President since 2000.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Chisago County, Minnesota Chisago County government's website Chisago County Historical Society website Minnesota DOT Highway map of Chisago County
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual
The Dakota are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America. They compose two of the three main subcultures of the Sioux people, are divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western Dakota; the Eastern Dakota are the Santee, who reside in the eastern Dakotas, central Minnesota and northern Iowa. They have federally recognized tribes established in several places; the Western Dakota are the Yankton, the Yanktonai, who reside in the Upper Missouri River area. The Yankton-Yanktonai are collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, they have distinct federally recognized tribes. In the past the Western Dakota have been erroneously classified as Nakota, a branch of the Sioux who moved further west; the latter are now located in Montana and across the border in Canada, where they are known as Stoney. The word Dakota means "ally" in the Dakota language, their autonyms include Ikčé Wičhášta and Dakhóta Oyáte; the Eastern and Western Dakota are two of the three groupings belonging to the Sioux nation, the third being the Lakota.
The three groupings speak dialects that are still mutually intelligible. This is referred to Dakota-Lakota, or Sioux; the other two languages of the Dakotan dialect continuum and Stoney, have grown or unintelligible to Dakota and Lakota speakers. The Dakota include the following bands: Santee division Mdewakanton notable persons: Taoyateduta Sisseton Wahpekute notable persons: Inkpaduta Wahpeton Yankton-Yanktonai division Yankton Yanktonai Upper Yanktonai Húŋkpathina or Lower Yanktonai In the 21st century, the majority of the Santee live on reservations and communities in Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Canada; some have moved to cities for more work opportunities. In the north woods of Minnesota, some Santee continue to live in historic communities at the Ottertail Lake and Inspiration Peak areas, their ancestors were never sent to reservations, as they were protected by settlers whom they had befriended. After the Dakota War of 1862, the federal government expelled the Santee from Minnesota.
Many were sent to Crow Creek Indian Reservation. In 1864 some from the Crow Creek Reservation were sent to St. Louis and by boat up the Missouri River to the Santee Sioux Reservation; the Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ live predominantly at the Prairie Shakopee reservations in Minnesota. Most of the Yankton live on the Yankton Indian Reservation in southeastern South Dakota; some Yankton live on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation and Crow Creek Reservation, occupied by the Lower Yanktonai. The Upper Yanktonai live in the northern part of Standing Rock Reservation, on the Spirit Lake Reservation in central North Dakota. Others live in the eastern half of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. In addition, they reside at several Canadian reserves, including Birdtail, Oak Lake, Whitecap, it is difficult to determine where the Dakota people came from before the recorded era. The most similar people to them linguistically were Great Lakes–region speakers of Chiwere, a linguistically conservative Siouan language.
However, the Dakota language, Dakhótiyapi/Dakȟótiyapi, is very related to that of the Dhegihan and Hokan Siouan peoples — both of whom have oral histories explaining that they came west from present-day Ohio in migrations ending around the 13th century. A single line of older history seems to have survived from the Dakotas — that they had come to live with the Winnebago, but the Winnebago soon became angry and ordered them to leave. Combining this with the histories of the Dhegihans, it is possible to surmise that the ancestors of the Dakota people may have been refugees from further east who started taking refuge with other Siouan allies — even predating the move of the Dhegihan Sioux peoples; the Winnebago may have been forced to send the Dakota off to find a new homeland because of overcrowding or because the Dhegihans' arrival on the Plains disrupted commerce and trading along the Mississippi River. Either explanation, can only be an educated guess; the Dakota Oyate lived in Minnesota prior to the 18th century.
Most of their early history was recorded by a white man named James Walker close to the end of the 19th century, as he offered aid among the Lakota/Dakota people. He recorded much of what he knew in three books: Lakota Myth, Lakota Belief and Ritual, Lakota Society. According to Walker, the group was one people with one chief, which grew and developed four sub-factions over time, each with their own equal chiefs. In these two groups there evolved two distinct dialects of the original language and Dakota, their capitol was situated at a place known as Ble Wakan, identified as Lake Mille Lac. Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants; the French were trying t