A kathisma "seat", is a division of the Psalter, used by Eastern Orthodox Christians and Eastern Catholics who follow the Byzantine Rite. The word may describe a hymn sung at Matins, a seat used in monastic churches, or a type of monastic establishment. According to ancient practice, monastics recite all 150 psalms on a regular basis; the hermits in the desert would recite the entire Psalter every day. With the spread of cenobitic monasticism, the practice began of chanting the Canonical Hours in common, the Psalter thus became the foundation of the Daily Office, augmented by numerous hymns and scriptural readings; the custom grew of reciting all 150 psalms each week during the course of the services. To facilitate this, the 150 psalms were divided into 20 sections, called kathismata, meaning "sittings"; the name is derived from the fact that, in the Office as it developed in Jerusalem and Constantinople, the psalms would be read by one of the brethren while the others sat and listened attentively.
Each kathisma is further subdivided into three staseis "standings", because at the end of each stasis the reader says: "Glory to the Father, to the Son, to the Holy Spirit..." at which all stand in honor of the Holy Trinity. The Orthodox Church uses as its official version of the Old Testament, the ancient Septuagint as opposed to the more recent Masoretic recension. For this reason, the numbering of the psalms follows the Greek rather than the Hebrew; the difference in numbering can be determined from the following table
J. B. Bury
John Bagnell Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist. He objected to the label "Byzantinist" explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire, he was Erasmus Smith's Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin, before being Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge from 1902 until his death. Bury was born and raised in Clontibret, County Monaghan, where his father was Rector of the Anglican Church of Ireland, he was educated first by his parents and at Foyle College in Derry. He studied classics at Trinity College, where he was elected a scholar in 1879, graduated in 1882, he was elected a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin in 1885 at the age of 24. In 1893, he was appointed to the Erasmus Smith's Chair of Modern History at Trinity College, which he held for nine years. In 1898 he was appointed Regius Professor of Greek at Trinity, a post he held with his history professorship. In 1902 he became Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge.
At Cambridge, Bury became mentor to the medievalist Sir Steven Runciman, who commented that he had been Bury's "first, only, student." At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off. Bury was the author of the first authoritative biography of Saint Patrick. Bury remained at Cambridge until his death at the age of 65 in Rome, he is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. He received the honorary degree Doctor of Laws from the University of Glasgow in June 1901, the honorary degree Doctor of Letters from the University of Oxford in October 1902, in connection with the tercentenary of the Bodleian Library, his brother, Robert Gregg Bury, was an Irish clergyman, philologist, a translator of the works of Plato and Sextus Empiricus into English. Bury's writings, on subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the 19th-century papacy, are at once scholarly and accessible to the layman, his two works on the philosophy of history elucidated the Victorian ideals of progress and rationality which undergirded his more specific histories.
He led a revival of Byzantine history, which English-speaking historians, following Edward Gibbon, had neglected. He contributed to, was himself the subject of an article in, the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. With Frank Adcock and S. A. Cook he edited The Cambridge Ancient History, launched in 1919. John Bagnell Bury's career shows his evolving thought process and his consideration of the discipline of history as a "science". From his inaugural lecture as Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge in 1902 comes his public proclamation of history as a "science" and not as a branch of "literature", he stated: I may remind you that history is not a branch of literature. The facts of history, like the facts of astronomy, can supply material for literary art. Bury's lecture continues by defending the claim that history is not literature, which in turns questions the need for a historian's narrative in the discussion of historical facts and evokes the question: is a narrative necessary? But Bury describes his "science" by comparing it to Leopold von Ranke's idea of science and the German phrase that brought Ranke's ideas fame when he exclaimed "tell history as it happened" or "Ich will nur sagen wie es eigentlich gewesen ist."
Bury's final thoughts during his lecture reiterate his previous statement with a cementing sentence that claims "...she is herself a science, no less and no more". In his book, History of Freedom of Thought he said the following; some people speak as if we were not justified in rejecting a theological doctrine unless we can prove it false. But the burden of proof does not lie upon the rejecter.... If you were told that in a certain planet revolving around Sirius there is a race of donkeys who speak the English language and spend their time in discussing eugenics, you could not disprove the statement, but would it, on that account, have any claim to be believed? Some minds would be prepared to accept it, if it were reiterated enough, through the potent force of suggestion; the Odes of Pindar The Nemean Odes of Pindar The Isthmian Odes of Pindar Rome A History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene A History of the Roman Empire From its Foundation to the Death of Marcus Aurelius A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I A History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians The Life of St. Patrick and His Place in History History of the Papacy in the 19th Century Greece A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great The Ancient Greek Historians The Hellenistic Age: Aspects of Hellenistic Civilization, with E.
A. Barber, Edwyn Bevan, W. W. TarnPhilosophical A History of Freedom of Thought The Idea of Progress: An Inquiry into Its Origin and Growth Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of t
The Chalke Gate, was the main ceremonial entrance to the Great Palace of Constantinople in the Byzantine period. The name, which means "the Bronze Gate", was given to it either because of the bronze portals or from the gilded bronze tiles used in its roof; the interior was lavishly decorated with marble and mosaics, the exterior façade featured a number of statues. Most prominent was an icon of Christ which became a major iconodule symbol during the Byzantine Iconoclasm, a chapel dedicated to the Christ Chalkites was erected in the 10th century next to the gate; the gate itself seems to have been demolished in the 13th century, but the chapel survived until the early 19th century. The gate lay on the southeastern corner of the Augustaion, the main ceremonial plaza of the city, with the Hagia Sophia cathedral on the northern side and the Baths of Zeuxippos and the Hippodrome of Constantinople on the southern and western sides; the first structure in that location was erected by the architect Aetherius during the reign of Emperor Anastasius I to celebrate the victory in the Isaurian War.
Like much of the city's center, this structure burned down in the Nika riots of 532, was subsequently rebuilt by the Emperor Justinian I. This building was extensively described by the historian Procopius in his De Aedificiis. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the Chalke itself or its dependencies became a prison, until Emperor Basil I repaired it and converted it into a law court. Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos attached a small chapel dedicated to Christ Chalkites, rebuilt on a grander scale by Emperor John I Tzimiskes, who endowed it with relics and was himself buried there; this rebuilding was facilitated by the fact that his predecessor, Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas, had enclosed the palace precinct with a new wall of reduced girth, to which the Chalke was no longer attached. The main gatehouse, denuded of its bronze gates by Emperor Isaac II Angelos during his first reign, is not mentioned by Byzantine chroniclers after ca. 1200. The chapel however survived long after: it is mentioned as being intact by Russian pilgrims in the 14th century, in Ottoman times, the ruins of the chapel were known as Arslanhane and functioned as a menagerie.
The remains of the chapel are depicted in 18th-century drawings, until demolished in 1804. Several literary descriptions of the gate survive. Procopius is the earliest and most prominent source, but accounts of the statues decorating the gatehouse's façade come from the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai. Justinian's Chalke was a rectangular building, with four engaged piers supporting a central dome on pendentives, which in turn rested on four barrel arches in the typical Byzantine fashion; the piers to the south and north were somewhat lower than those to the west. The central structure was adjoined by two smaller chambers on either side to the south and north, each again featuring a vaulted roof; the relation of the Church of Christ Chalkites with the gate is unclear. It is known that the chapel was placed atop an elevated platform, 18th-century depictions locate it some 100 m southeast of the Hagia Sophia; the vestibule's interior decoration is described by Procopius: the walls were decorated with slabs of multi-colored marble, while the ceilings were covered with mosaics, which depicted Justinian and his empress Theodora flanked by the Senate, as well as the victories of Belisarius in the Vandalic and Gothic wars and his triumphal return bearing spoils, defeated kings and kingdoms to his emperor.
The external decoration is comparatively unknown, but the Parastaseis syntomoi record the existence of various statues placed in niches above the central doorway. These included Emperor Maurice and his wife and children, a pair of statues of philosophers taken from Athens, stretching their arms towards one another, statues of Emperor Zeno and Empress Ariadne, as well as four gorgon heads from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus that "surround the Chalke with the sign of the cross above them"; the same text records that statues of Emperor Maximian and the entire House of Theodosius were located "nearby", while the exact location of a statue of Empress Pulcheria in relation to the building is unclear. Cyril Mango, who studied the problem of the statuary recorded in the Parastaseis, concluded that the references came from a text written in ca. 600 – in great part because the images of Emperor Maurice and his family are unlikely to have survived their overthrow and murder by Phocas in 602. Above the main entrance of the Chalke, there stood an icon of Christ, the so-called Christ Chalkites.
The origins of the icon are obscure: based on its mention in the Parastaseis, it may have existed by ca. 600, but it cannot be stated with any certainty. Its prominent display on the entrance to the imperial palace made it one of the city's major religious symbols, its removal, in 726 or 730, by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, was both a major political statement and a spark for violent rioting in the city, marked the beginning of the official prohibition of icons in the Empire. The icon was restored a first time by Empress Eirene. 787, until it was again removed by Leo V the Armenian and replaced by a simple cross. After the definitive restoration of the veneration of icons in 843, a mosaic icon by the famed iconodule monk and artist Lazaros replaced it; the exact appearance of the icon is unclear: although the early i
Proskynesis or proscynesis refers to the traditional Persian act of bowing or prostrating oneself before a person of higher social rank. In the Eastern Orthodox Church the term proskynesis is used theologically to indicate the veneration given to icons and relics of the saints; the Greek word προσκύνησις is derived from the verb προσκυνέω, itself formed from the compound words πρός, pros and κυνέω, kyneo. It describes an attitude of humbling, submission, or worship adoration – towards a sovereign ruler, God or the gods. According to Herodotus in his Histories, a person of equal rank received a kiss on the lips, someone of a lower rank gave a kiss on the cheek, someone of a inferior social standing had to bow down to the other person before them. To the Greeks, giving proskynesis to a mortal seemed to be a barbaric and ludicrous practice; this may have led some Greeks to believe that the Persians worshipped their king as a god, the only Persian that received proskynesis from everyone, other misinterpretations caused cultural conflicts.
Alexander the Great proposed this practice during his lifetime, in adapting to the customs of the Persian cities he conquered, but it failed to find acceptance amongst his Greek companions - and in the end, he did not insist on the practice. Most of his men could cope with Alexander’s interest for having a Persian wardrobe, but honouring the king as if he was a god by performing proskynesis went a bit too far. According to Arrian, Callisthenes explains the existence of separated ways of honouring a god or a human and that prostration is a way to explicitly honour gods, it is seen as a threat to the Greeks, ‘who are men most devoted to freedom’. According to Callisthenes, prostration is a degrading fashion; the emperor Diocletian is thought to have introduced the practice to the Roman Empire, forming a break with the Republican institutions of the principate, which preserved the form, if not the intent, of republican government. However, there is some evidence that an informal form of proskynesis was practiced at the court of Septimius Severus.
The political reason for this change was to elevate the role of the emperor from "first citizen" to an otherworldly ruler, remote from his subjects, thus reducing the likelihood of successful revolt, which had plagued the Empire during the preceding 50 years. The emperor was hailed no longer as "Imp" on coins, which meant "commander in chief" but as "D N" - "Our Lord." With the conversion of Constantine I to Christianity, proskynesis became part of an elaborate ritual, whereby the emperor became God's vice-regent on earth. Titular inflation affected the other principal offices of the Empire. Justinian I and Theodora both insisted on an extreme form of proskynesis from members of the Roman Senate, they were attacked for it by Procopius in his Secret History. Prostration Zemnoy poklon Kowtow References SourcesJosef Wiesehöfer: "Denn ihr huldigt nicht einem Menschen als eurem Herrscher, sondern nur den Göttern". Bemerkungen zur Proskynese in Iran", in: C. G. Cereti / M. Maggi / E. Provasi, Religious Themes and Texts of Pre-Islamic Iran and Central Asia.
Studies in Honour of Gh. Gnoli on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday on 6 December 2002, Wiesbaden 2003, S. 447-452. Livius.org: Proskynesis Proskynesis in the late Roman Empire
Great Palace of Constantinople
The Great Palace of Constantinople known as the Sacred Palace, was the large Imperial Byzantine palace complex located in the south-eastern end of the peninsula now known as Old Istanbul, in modern Turkey. It served as the main royal residence of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine emperors from 330 to 1081 and was the center of imperial administration for over 690 years. Only a few remnants and fragments of its foundations have survived into the present day; when Constantine I moved the Roman capital to Constantinople in 330, he planned out a palace for himself and his heirs. The palace was located between the Hagia Sophia, it was expanded several times during its history. Much of the complex was destroyed during the Nika riots of 532 and was rebuilt lavishly by the emperor Justinian I. Further extensions and alterations were commissioned by Justinian II and Basil I. However, it had fallen into disrepair by the time of Constantine VII. From the early 11th century onwards the Byzantine emperors favored the Palace of Blachernae as an imperial residence, though they continued to use the Great Palace as the primary administrative and ceremonial center of the city.
It declined during the following century when parts of the complex were demolished or filled with rubble. During the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, the Palace was plundered by the soldiers of Boniface of Montferrat. Although the subsequent Latin emperors continued to use the Palace complex, they lacked money for its maintenance; the last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went as far as removing the lead roofs of the Palace and selling them. When the city was retaken by the forces of Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261, the Great Palace was in disrepair; the Palaiologos emperors abandoned it, ruling from Blachernae and using the vaults as a prison. When Mehmed II entered the city in 1453, he found the palace abandoned; as he wandered its empty halls and pavilions, he whispered a quote from the Persian poet, Saadi: The spider is curtain-bearer in the palace of Chosroes, The owl sounds the relief in the castle of Afrasiyab. Much of the palace was demolished in the general rebuilding of Constantinople in the early years of the Ottoman era.
The area was turned into housing with a number of small mosques before Sultan Ahmet I demolished the remnants of the Daphne and Kathisma Palaces to build the Sultan Ahmed Mosque and its adjoining buildings. The site of the Great Palace began to be investigated in the late 19th century and an early 20th-century fire uncovered a section of the Great Palace. On this site prison cells, many large rooms, tombs were found. Initial excavations were carried out by French archaeologists at the Palace of Manganae between 1921-23. A much larger excavation was carried out by the University of St Andrews in 1935 to 1938. Further excavations took place under the directorship of David Talbot Rice from 1952 to 1954, which uncovered a section of one of the south-western buildings at the Arasta Bazaar; the archaeologists discovered a spectacular series of wall and floor mosaics which have been conserved in the Great Palace Mosaic Museum. Excavations are continuing elsewhere, but so far, less than one quarter of the total area covered by the palace has been excavated.
The Palace was located in the southeastern corner of the peninsula where Constantinople is situated, behind the Hippodrome and the Hagia Sophia. The Palace is considered by scholars to have been a series of pavilions, much like the Ottoman-era Topkapı Palace that succeeded it; the total surface area of the Great Palace exceeded 200,000 square feet. It stood on a steeply sloping hillside that descends nearly 33 metres from the Hippodrome to the shoreline, which necessitated the construction of large substructures and vaults; the palace complex occupied six distinct terraces descending to the shore. The main entrance to the Palace quarter was the Chalke gate at the Augustaion; the Augustaion was located on the south side of the Hagia Sophia, it was there that the city's main street, the Mese, began. To the east of the square lay the Senate house or Palace of Magnaura, where the University was housed, to the west the Milion, the old Baths of Zeuxippus. Behind the Chalke Gate, facing southwards, were the barracks of the palace guards, the Scholae Palatinae.
After the barracks stood the reception hall of the 19 Accubita, followed by the Palace of Daphne, in early Byzantine times the main imperial residence. It included the emperor's bedchamber. From the Daphne, a passage led directly to the imperial box in the Hippodrome; the main throne room was the Chrysotriklinos, built by Justin II, expanded and renovated by Basil I, with the palatine chapel of the Theotokos of the Pharos nearby. To its north lay the Triconchos palace, built by the emperor Theophilos and accessible through a semicircular antechamber known as the Sigma. To the east of the Triconchos lay the lavishly decorated Nea Ekklesia, built by Basil I, with five gilded domes; the church survived until after the Ottoman conquest. It was used as a gunpowder magazine and exploded when it was struck by lightning in 1490. Between the church and the sea walls lay the polo field of the Tzykanisterion. Further to the south, detached from the main complex lay
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
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A barbarian is a human, perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype. Alternatively, they may instead be romanticised as noble savages. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel and insensitive person; the term originates from the Greek: βάρβαρος. In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs. In Ancient Rome, the Romans used the term towards tribal non-Romans such as the Germanics, Gauls, Thracians, Berbers and Sarmatians. In the early modern period and sometimes the Byzantine Greeks used it for the Turks, in a pejorative manner; the Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος, "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης, "citizen". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, pa-pa-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script; the Greeks used the term barbarian for all non-Greek-speaking peoples, including the Egyptians, Persians and Phoenicians, emphasizing their otherness.
According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds "bar..bar... However, in various occasions, the term was used by Greeks the Athenians, to deride other Greek tribes and states but fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner. Of course, the term carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning; the verb βαρβαρίζω in ancient Greek meant to behave or talk like a barbarian, or to hold with the barbarians. Plato rejected the Greek–barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian in his seventh letter. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once, in the form βαρβαρόφωνος, used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure in archaic literature before the 5th century BC, it has been suggested that the "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but those who spoke Greek badly.
A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period'barbarian' is used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war; the Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age, including the Germanic peoples, Gauls and Carthaginians. The Greek term barbaros was the etymological source for many words meaning "barbarian", including English barbarian, first recorded in 16th century Middle English. A word barbara- is found in the Sanskrit of ancient India, with the primary meaning of "stammering" implying someone with an unfamiliar language; the Greek word barbaros is related to Sanskrit barbaras. This Indo-European root is found in Latin balbus for "stammering" and Czech blblati "to stammer".
In Aramaic, Old Persian and Arabic context, the root refers to "babble confusedly". It appears as barbary or in Old French barbarie, itself derived from the Arabic Barbar, an ancient Arabic term for the North African inhabitants west of Egypt; the Arabic word might be from Greek barbaria. The Oxford English Dictionary defines five meanings of the noun barbarian, including an obsolete Barbary usage. 1. Etymologically, A foreigner, one whose language and customs differ from the speaker's. 2. Hist. a. One not a Greek. B. One living outside the pale of the Roman Empire and its civilization, applied to the northern nations that overthrew them. C. One outside the pale of Christian civilization. D. With the Italians of the Renaissance: One of a nation outside of Italy. 3. A rude, uncivilized person. B. Sometimes distinguished from savage. C. Applied by the Chinese contemptuously to foreigners. 4. An uncultured person, or one who has no sympathy with literary culture. †5. A native of Barbary. Obs. †b. Barbary pirates & A Barbary horse.
Obs. The OED barbarous entry summarizes the semantic history. "The sense-development in ancient times was'foreign, non-Hellenic,' later'outlandish, brutal'. Greek attitudes towards "barbarians" developed in parallel with the growth of chattel slavery - in Athens. Although the enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debts continued in most Greek states, Athens banned this practice under Solon in the early 6th century BC. Under the Athenian democracy established ca. 50