click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ischemia

Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen, needed for cellular metabolism. Ischemia is caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue, it means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from constriction. Ischemia comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes. Ischemia can be total. Since oxygen is carried to tissues in the blood, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become starved of oxygen. In the metabolically active tissues of the heart and brain, irreversible damage to tissues can occur in as little as 3–4 minutes at body temperature; the kidneys are quickly damaged by loss of blood flow. Tissues with slower metabolic rates may undergo irreversible damage after 20 minutes. Clinical manifestations of acute limb ischemia include pain, pulseless, paresthesia and poikilothermia. Without immediate intervention, ischemia may progress to tissue necrosis and gangrene within a few hours.

Paralysis is a late sign of acute arterial ischemia and signals the death of nerves supplying the extremity. Foot drop may occur as a result of nerve damage; because nerves are sensitive to hypoxia, limb paralysis or ischemic neuropathy may persist after revascularization and may be permanent. Cardiac ischemia may cause chest pain, known as angina pectoris, it occurs when myocardium, receives insufficient blood flow. This most results from atherosclerosis, the long-term accumulation of cholesterol-rich plaques in the coronary arteries. Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death in most Western countries and a major cause of hospital admissions. Both large and small bowel can be affected by ischemia. Ischemia of the large intestine may result in an inflammatory process known as ischemic colitis. Ischemia of the small bowel is called mesenteric ischemia. Brain ischemia is insufficient blood flow to the brain, can be acute or chronic. Acute ischemic stroke is a neurologic emergency. Chronic ischemia of the brain may result in a form of dementia called vascular dementia.

A brief episode of ischemia affecting the brain is called a transient ischemic attack called a mini-stroke. Lack of blood flow to a limb results in acute limb ischemia. Reduced blood flow to the skin layers may result in mottling or uneven, patchy discoloration of the skin Ischemia is a vascular disease involving an interruption in the arterial blood supply to a tissue, organ, or extremity that, if untreated, can lead to tissue death, it can be caused by thrombosis of an atherosclerotic artery, or trauma. Venous problems like venous outflow obstruction and low-flow states can cause acute arterial ischemia. An aneurysm is one of the most frequent causes of acute arterial ischemia. Other causes are heart conditions including myocardial infarction, mitral valve disease, chronic atrial fibrillation and prosthesis, in all of which thrombi are prone to develop; the thrombi may dislodge and may travel anywhere in the circulatory system, where they may lead to pulmonary embolus, an acute arterial occlusion causing the oxygen and blood supply distal to the embolus to decrease suddenly.

The degree and extent of symptoms depend on the size and location of the obstruction, the occurrence of clot fragmentation with embolism to smaller vessels, the degree of peripheral arterial disease. Thromboembolism Embolism Traumatic injury to an extremity may produce partial or total occlusion of a vessel from compression, shearing, or laceration. Acute arterial occlusion may develop as a result of arterial dissection in the carotid artery or aorta or as a result of iatrogenic arterial injury. An inadequate flow of blood to a part of the body may be caused by any of the following: Thoracic outlet syndrome Atherosclerosis Hypoglycemia Tachycardia Radiotherapy Hypotension Outside compression of a blood vessel, e.g. by a tumor or in the case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome Sickle cell disease Induced g-forces which restrict the blood flow and force the blood to the extremities of the body, as in acrobatics and military flying Localized extreme cold, such as by frostbite or improper cold compression therapy Tourniquet application An increased level of glutamate receptor stimulation Arteriovenous malformations and peripheral artery occlusive disease rupture of significant blood vessels supplying a tissue or organ.

Anemia vasoconstricts the periphery so that red blood cells can work internally on vital organs such as the heart, etc. thus causing lack of oxygen to the periphery. Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant. Unconsciousness, such as due to the ingestion of excessive doses of central depressants like alcohol or opioids, can result in ischemia of the extremities due to unusual body positions that prevent normal circulation Ischemia results in tissue damage in a process known as ischemic cascade; the damage is the result of the build-up of metabolic waste products, inability to maintain cell membranes, mitochondrial damage, eventual leakage of autolyzing proteolytic enz

Azadi Tower

The Azadi Tower known as the Shahyad Tower, is a monument located on Azadi Square in Tehran, Iran. It is one of the landmarks of Tehran, marking the west entrance to the city, is part of the Azadi Cultural Complex, which includes an underground museum; the tower is about 45 metres tall and is clad in cut marble. It was commissioned by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran and completed in 1971. After winning a competition, architect Hossein Amanat was tasked to design the tower, his ideas were based upon classical and post-classical Iranian architecture, popular influences on art in the 1960s following the White Revolution. Iran's increasing wealth sparked modernization programs and sent the art industry into a renaissance-like period; the first name associated with this monument was Darvāze-ye Kuroš, at the time of the Centenary Celebrations, Asadollah Alam, who chaired the Council of Celebrations, referred to the monument as Darvāze-ye Šāhanšāhi.

The monument's ultimate official name was decided before the announcement of the competition for the monument's design in September 1966. Bahram Farahvashi, a scholar and professor of ancient Iranian languages who worked with the Council of Celebrations, came up with the designated name of the structure, Šahyād Āryāmehr. Built in 1971 in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, this "gateway into Tehran" was named the Šahyād in honor of the Shah, but was renamed Āzādi following the 1979 Revolution. During the 1960s, Iran became a major oil-exporting country, using the newly-found wealth, the Shah launched programs to modernize and industrialize the country; this followed a cultural growth that architect Hossein Amanat describes as "a mini renaissance". In 1966, Amanat won a competition to design the building. Due to governmental concerns, Amanat was required to sign underneath contracts "on condition of the approval of the Council of Celebrations", which would serve as the client.

Amanat planned to contract the British company of Arup to assist in the structural design of the tower, as he was impressed by their contributions towards the design and construction of the Sydney Opera House. He faced opposition from the head of the council, as well as several conservative and nationalistic Iranian engineers, as he was turning to a foreign engineer for assistance. Despite that, the Shah supported Amanat, sending a letter to the council which would leave the decision to the architect. Shahbanu Farah Pahlavi was supportive of Amanat's decisions. Amanat told the BBC World News in an interview that "overall, the building starts from the base and moves up towards the sky." He states that he was inspired to design the tower in this way because he felt that Iran "should be moving towards a higher level." According to him, the main vault is a Sassanian arch representing the classical era, while the broken arch above it is a popular medieval form of arch representing the post-classical era.

The "network of ribs", which connects the arches together, would represent the connection between classical and post-classical Iran. Built with white marble from Isfahan Province, the monument includes 8,000 blocks of stone; the stones were all located and supplied by Ghanbar Rahimi, well known for his extensive knowledge of quarries known as the Soltān-e Sang-e Irān. Computers were used to "define its complex woven surfaces," which, at the time, was a new technological technique; the main contractor for the construction of the tower was the MAP Company, supervised by Ghaffar Davarpanah Varnosfaderani, a renowned Iranian stonemason. The project was funded by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists. According to a report by MEED, the construction cost about six million dollars. On October 16, 1971, the inauguration of the tower took place. However, it was not until January 1972 that the tower was open to the public; the iconic Martyrs' Memorial in Algiers, built in 1982, shows a strong influence by this monument.

The Azadi Museum is located at the basement level. Inside are austere black walls of dignified proportions. A concrete mesh forms the ceiling. Heavy doors open onto a crypt with subdued lighting from each containing an object; the museum houses a number of gold and enamel pieces, painted pottery and paintings. Fifty pieces have been selected, each representing a particular period in Iran's history. Among the earliest items on display are square flagstones, gold sheeting, terracotta tablets from Susa covered with cuneiform characters. Before the 1979 Revolution, the main display was occupied by a copy of the Cyrus Cylinder, the original being kept at the British Museum. A translation of the cylinder's cuneiform inscription is inscribed in golden letters on the wall of one of the galleries leading to the museum's audio-visual center. A similar plaque facing the cylinder listed the Twelve Points of the White Revolution. Next, to the Cyrus Cylinder, there was a gold plaque commemorating the original presentation of the museum to Mohammad Reza Pahlavi by the Mayor of Tehran.

Potteries, varnished porcelains, an illuminated Quran, miniatures highlighted milestones in the country's history up to the 19th century, which were represented by two painted panels from Empress and the structure was to represent Farah Pahlavi as in is stated in some ancient texts. The original show, devised in 1971, was replaced in

Marconi Company

The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987. It was derived from earlier variations in the name and incorporation, spanning a period from its inception in 1897 until 2006, during which time it underwent numerous changes and acquisitions; the company was founded by the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi and began as the Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. The company was a pioneer of wireless long distance communication and mass media broadcasting becoming one of the UK's most successful manufacturing companies. In 1999, its defence manufacturing division, Marconi Electronic Systems, merged with British Aerospace to form BAE Systems. In 2006, extreme financial difficulties led to the collapse of the remaining company, with the bulk of the business acquired by the Swedish telecommunications company, Ericsson. 1897–1900: The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company 1900–1963: Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company 1963–1987: Marconi Company Ltd 1987–1998: GEC-Marconi Ltd 1998–1999: Marconi Electronic Systems Ltd 1999–2003: Marconi plc 2003–2006: Marconi Corporation plc Marconi's "Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company" was formed on 20 July 1897 after the granting of a British patent for wireless in March of that year.

The company opened the world's first radio factory on Hall Street in Chelmsford in 1898 and was responsible for some of the most important advances in radio and television. These include: The subsidiary Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America called "American Marconi", was founded in 1899, it was the dominant radio communications provider in the US until the formation of the Radio Corporation of America in 1919. In 1900 the company's name was changed to "Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company" and Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Training College was set up in 1901; the company and factory was moved to New Street Works in 1912, to allow for production expansion in light of the RMS Titanic disaster. Along with private entrepreneurs, Marconi company formed in 1924 the Unione Radiofonica Italiana, granted by Mussolini's regime a monopoly of radio broadcasts in 1924. After the war, URI became the RAI. In 1939, the Marconi Research Laboratories at Great Baddow were founded and in 1941 there was a buyout of Marconi-Ekco Instruments to form Marconi Instruments.

English Electric acquired the Marconi Company in 1946. In 1948 the company was reorganised into four divisions: These had expanded to 13 manufacturing divisions by 1965 when a further reorganisation took place; the divisions were placed into three groups: At this time the Marconi Company had facilities at New Street Chelmsford, Basildon and Writtle as well as in Wembley and Hackbridge. It owned Marconi Instruments, Sanders Electronics, Eddystone Radio and Marconi Italiana. In 1967 Marconi took over Company to form Eddystone Radio. In 1903, Marconi founded the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company of Canada, renamed as the Canadian Marconi Company in 1925; the radio business of the Canadian Marconi Company is known as Ultra Electronics TCS since 2002 and its avionic activities as CMC Electronics, owned by Esterline since 2007. In 1967 or 1968, English Electric was subject to a takeover bid by the Plessey Company but chose instead to accept an offer from GEC. Under UK government pressure, the computer section of GEC, English Electric Leo Marconi, merged with International Computers and Tabulators to form International Computers Limited.

The computer interests of Elliott Automation which specialised in real-time computing were amalgamated with those of Marconi's Automation Division to form Marconi-Elliott Computers renamed as GEC Computers. In 1968 Marconi Space and Defence Systems and Marconi Underwater Systems were formed; the Marconi Company continued as the primary defence subsidiary of GEC-Marconi. Marconi was renamed GEC-Marconi in 1987. During the period 1968–1999 GEC-Marconi/MES underwent significant expansion. Acquisitions which were folded into the company and partnerships established include: Other acquisitions include: Divisions of Plessey in 1989. Plessey Avionics Plessey Naval Systems Plessey Cryptography Plessey Electronic Systems Sippican Leigh InstrumentsIn a major reorganisation of the company, GEC-Marconi was renamed Marconi Electronic Systems in 1996 and was separated from other non-defence assets. In 1999 GEC underwent a major transformation. Marconi Electronic Systems which included its wireless assets was demerged and sold to British Aerospace which formed BAE Systems.

GEC, realigning itself as a telecommunications company following the MES sale, retained the Marconi brand and renamed itself Marconi plc. BAE were granted limited rights to continue its use in existing partnerships, however by 2005 no BAE businesses use the Marconi name. Major spending and the dot-com collapse led to a major restructuring of that group, in a debt-for-equity swap shareholders were given 0.5% of the new company, Marconi Corporation plc. In 1999 Reltec and Fore Systems were acquired at the height of the "dot-com" boom. With its subsequent collapse the Marconi Corporation got into financial difficulties. In October 2005 the Swedish firm Ericsson offered to buy most of the assets; the transaction was completed on 23 January 2006 effective as of 1 January 2006. The Marconi name will still be used as a brand within Ericsson. At the time of the acquisition Ericsson announced that they would be rebranding Marconi assets Ericsson

Georgia State Route 107

Georgia State Route 107 is a 61.8-mile-long state highway that exists in the southern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. It travels from Interstate 75 in Ashburn to U. S. Route 221 in rural Jeff Davis County. SR 107 begins at an interchange with Interstate 75 in Ashburn, it travels to the east toward Fitzgerald, concurrent with SR 112 for 3 miles before departing. The highway goes through rural Turner and Irwin counties before an intersection with SR 125 just west of Fitzgerald. Once in Fitzgerald, SR 107 has an intersection with U. S. Route 129 and US 319, it shares a concurrency with US 319 as the highway leaves Fitzgerald and goes through rural Ben Hill County. The highway has intersections with SR 182 before entering Coffee County. Soon after entering Coffee County, the highway intersects US 441 and leaves its concurrency with US 319. SR 107 shares a brief concurrency with US 441 before turning east into rural Coffee and Jeff Davis counties. SR 107 has an intersection with SR 268 in Snipesville before reaching its eastern terminus with US 221 north of Denton.

Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 107 at Wikimedia Commons

Krapanj

Krapanj is an island of Croatia in the central Dalmatian county of Šibenik-Knin. Krapanj is one of the smallest inhabited islands of the Adriatic Sea covering 0.36 km². It is the most densely inhabited island and has the lowest elevation. Krapanj is 300 m offshore at its closest point from the mainland village of Brodarica; the average elevation is about 2 metres and the highest point is 7 metres above sea level. It lies from north-west to south-east. Krapanj is composed of Mesozoic dolomite; the island of Krapanj is situated in the central part of the Croatian littoral and is characterised by a warm, dry Mediterranean climate. According to data from the nearest weather station, in Sibenik, for the period from 1986 to 1996 the average annual temperature was 15.5 °C and the average annual precipitation 711.7 mm. Many of the Adriatic Islands were populated in pre-history by the Illyrians. Krapanj however was first populated by Croatian Toma Jurić, a nobleman from Šibenik and a descendant of the Šubić family from Bribir.

Jurić purchased the island in 1436 from the Šibenik County with the intention of building a Franciscan church on the uninhabited island. Realising their father's dream after his death, Jurić's 4 sons completed The Holy Cross Church and monastery in 1523 with blessings from Pope Eugene IV on one condition: only the Friars were to live and inhabit Krapanj. Krapanj came under the possession of the Franciscan Province of St. Jerome of Dalmatia in the 16th century as the Ottoman Empire invaded neighbouring lands; the Franciscans allowed people living on the neighbouring mainland to build their own settlement, southeast of the monastery who united to defend themselves against the Ottomans. Since the work of the Franciscan friars was connected to the inhabitants of the island, in 1652, the monastery was given a parish and the friars began offering spiritual and other assistance to parishes on the mainland; the remains of the old church walls, in part, can be seen by the front door of the cloister.

The church was expanded in 1937, the wall bearing the consecration date joins the new church building with the cloister. Krapanj was the most densely populated of all Croatian Islands given a lucrative economy, but from the middle to late 20th century, many inhabitants fled communism and poverty by emigrating to Australia and the United States. Adding to the trend of depopulation, the population decreased from 1,767 in 1981 to only 237 in 2001; the island of Krapanj's culture and traditions reflect the Dalmatian way of life. Hard work, good food and a healthy lifestyle embodies the seaside rock houses and tiny side-streets. Krapanj takes pride in its origins of deepsea diving and personifies a seafaring culture. Krapanj's tourist industry is vastly underdeveloped, with the main factor being the prohibition of vehicles on the island; as a result, the island has kept many of the old-world traditions. The art of producing wine, olive oil and sea sponge are traditions that date back to pre-history but are still evident in modern-day Krapanj.

Food is seafood, caught by local fisherman and distributed locally. Krapanj holds a host of cultural antiquities in the monastery including "The Last Supper" by the 16th-century Italian artist Francesco da Santa Croce and a Renaissance painting titled "The Black Madonna On The Throne"; the biggest event on the island's calendar is the annual Krapljanska Fešta. The day-long festival celebrates Gospe od Anđela. Thousands of people gather on the island for the cultural feast of good food, good wine and centuries of culture; the locals annually proclaim "a night the island sank". Krapanj's island culture has spread throughout the region as many inhabitants now live in mainland Brodarica. Traditionally fish and octopus are either grilled over dried vine leaves or cooked in a wood-fired oven; the signature dishes of the region are Octopus Potato Salad and Grilled Fish. Krapanj has a rich history in deepsea diving in the harvesting and selling of sea sponges. Antun from Crete introduced Krapanj's inhabitants to diving and sea sponge gathering/processing over 300 years ago.

For many years, diving for sponges had been the major income for Krapanj families, earning them the title of "Spužvari". By the middle of the 20th century the industry peaked with the inception of breathing apparatus and motorised boats. Crews would dive 6 times a day, over 20 days taking turns one at a time at depths of over 40 metres, it was a dangerous occupation as just the weight of the suit was 100 kg and the constant danger of decompression sickness discouraged generations to come. The small industry still persists, with sponges from Krapanj sold throughout Europe with a primary market in Greece and Italy; the cosmetic market has in recent years opened the market for Krapanj sponges on an international scale. The tradition of diving has in latter days given rise to scuba diving, free diving and spearfishing professionals from Krapanj; the Krapanj monastery museum permanently exhibits a show on sea sponge diving. Krapanj is not on the tourist map. Since the end of the Croatian War of Independence, the island has begun a slow rebuild.

Many of its old terraces have either been restored or are in the process of rebuild under strict heritage by-laws. This has started a steady stream of tourists to the island which now supports a certain level of tourism infrastructure. Many other Adriatic Islands have constructed bridges to allow tourist access by car. Krapanj has made the decision not to connect to the

Hannah Montana video games

Since the show's premiere, there have been a number of adventure/rhythm video games based on the Disney Channel show, Hannah Montana and the film. All the games were published by Disney Interactive Studios. Hannah Montana is a 2006 adventure video game released in October 2006 for the Nintendo DS; the player plays as Miley Stewart and Lilly Truscott as they search for the person who might reveal Miley's secret alter ego, Hannah Montana. The player must find clues and combine items to solve three original mysteries, with the help of gadgets: a specialized magnifying glass and a specialized flashlight. There is an interactive dialogue and gesture system used to communicate with other people. In addition, Lilly may ride her skateboard, rollerblades, or scooter in timed challenges. Players can design customized clothing and access Hannah Montana's secret wardrobe via the Nintendo DS' wireless network; the player has to search for clues with Oliver Oken's gadgets. The player must avoid Amber and Jackson.

In the end, when the game is finished, players can to the places and look for more wardrobe items and explore Malibu. The game sold 1.3 million copies. Hannah Montana: Spotlight World Tour was developed by Avalanche Software and released on November 6, 2007 in the U. S for PlayStation 2 and Wii, it features nine tour arenas including Tokyo and Paris. Players will dance pads; the game includes 16 songs, 8 from season 1 and 8 from season 2. It was released shortly after another game, Hannah Montana: Music Jam for the Nintendo DS; the game was released for PlayStation 2 on August 12, 2008. Hannah Montana: Music Jam was released on November 7, 2007 in North America and on May 29, 2008 in Europe for Nintendo DS; the game lets the player create his or her own songs, make music videos, show it to other players. Players are able to link Nintendo DS systems over short-range wireless to form live "instrument" bands. Hannah Montana: The Movie video game was developed by n-Space; the game was released in North America—three days before the film's theatrical release—on April 7, 2009, in Europe on May 8, 2009 and in Australia in May 2009 for the PlayStation 3, Nintendo DS, Xbox 360, Wii.

It was revealed by ESRB. The game had been leaked onto the internet about a week before the release date; the player plays as Miley and Hannah and explore Crowley Corners and interact with Miley's circle of family and friends during quests. Players unlock key items for Hannah concerts - like songs and concert venues - as one complete quests. In concert mode, players perform on 6 different stages to 9 Hannah songs. Players can play with them on the drums, keyboard or guitar. It's only possible to perform the songs in concert venues that have been unlocked in Story Mode. Points are given at performances and when a task is completed and can be used to buy more clothes and accessories; the Z-Phone is the tool for navigating the way around Crowley Corners. When someone receives a call, a small icon will flash on screen. It's needed to answer the call while the icon is flashing on screen to get important messages such as keeping track of furniture and achievements that the player unlocks; the player will play various mini-games to earn achievement points or trophies and unlock new game content.

Mini-games can be played in Quick Play Mode. Horse Riding- Go on a ride with Blue Jeans. Milk Jug Topple - Toss beanbags to topple milk jugs at the County Fair. Collect points for each jug, toppled to the ground. Horse Races- The player races a horse down a track, or competes with other players by hitting the target with a water pistol. Frog Jump- The player earns points by launching rubber frogs onto passing lily pads with a hammer. Hannah Montana: Rock Out The Show was bundled with the Hannah Montana PSP Entertainment Pack which includes a lilac PSP, a UMD featuring selected Hannah Montana episodes, a 2 GB memory stick and vinyl stickers. Developed by Page 44 Studios, standalone games were released on August 2009 in North America. In the game, Robbie Ray gets sick; the player must create the stages, select the songs, dress Hannah. The song list includes 11 songs, with some new ones, from the third season; the player must play rhythm-based games. While the Wii version was met with positive reviews, the Xbox 360 version of the game was panned by critics where it received a low score on Metacritic of 25/100.

Hannah Montana: Pop Star Exclusive was to be the fifth video game based on the Hannah Montana television show, sixth based on the Hannah Montana character. Developed by EA Bright Light Studio, the game was put on indefinite hold. Players would have assumed the role of Hannah's VIP photojournalist and embark on an opportunity to tour with Hannah Montana. Players solve puzzles to set up the optimal photo-shoot experience and help Hannah create outfits for every occasion. Magazine layouts can be created to send to an editor for the cover story for a top teen magazine. IGN gave Spotlight World Tour for the PS2 a 4.5 rating. GamesRadar+ ranked the Xbox 360 version of Hannah Montana: The Movie as the 48th worst game made