The genus Haematomyzus includes three species of lice that differ so markedly from all other lice that they have been placed in a suborder of their own. These unusual lice are ectoparasites of warthogs, their mouthparts are elongated to form a drill-like structure that allows them to penetrate the thick skin of their host. The three species, Haematomyzus elephantis, Haematomyzus hopkinsi and Haematomyzus porci belong to a single family, the Haematomyzidae. H. elephantis is known from both the Asian Elephant. The first spelling of "Rhyncophthirina" by Ferris was a lapse, in subsequent use of the term he spelled it "Rhynchophthirina" adding the second "h". Ordinal names are not covered by the International Code of Nomenclature and thus the name and spelling comes down to a matter of personal preference; the majority of phthirapterists spell the suborder as "Rhynchophthirina" as did Hopkins and Clay, 1952, Price et al. 2003
Neoptera is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects, which are unable to flex their wings in this way; the taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification:Pterygota division Palaeoptera order Odonata order Agnatha †order Dictyoneuridea †order Megasecoptera †order Protodonata †order Protephemeroidea division Neoptera subdivision Polyneoptera superorder Orthopteroidea order Orthoptera order Plecoptera order Dermaptera order Embioptera order Phasmatodea superorder Blattopteroidea order Blattodea order Mantodea subdivision Paraneoptera order Hemiptera suborder Phytophtires suborder Auchenorrhyncha suborder Heteroptera subdivision OligoneopteraThe order Thysanoptera had uncertain systematic position, was attributed to Paraneoptera. A number of other classifications had been proposed. According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota, or to Metapterygota: 1.
Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878 1.1. Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890 1.2. Metapterygota Börner 1909 1.2.1. Odonata Fabricius 1793 1.2.2. Neoptera Martynov 1923 The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown, not yet resolved, in the cladogram: Media related to Neoptera at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Neoptera at Wikispecies
The Ural owl is a medium-sized nocturnal owl of the genus Strix, with up to 15 subspecies found in Europe and northern Asia. The Ural owl is smaller than the great grey owl, much larger than the tawny owl, which it superficially resembles. Distinguishing features apart from the size are the pale, buffish grey-brown plumage, with copious dark brown streaking on the back of the head and underparts, it has a round head with orange-yellow bill and small black eyes. The tail is long and wedge-shaped, with dark barring on the upper tail, the wings are rounded. Flight is purposeful, recalling that of the common buzzard. Sexes are similar, with no seasonal variation. Length can range wingspan from 110 to 134 cm. Weight in males is 500 -- 730 g; the Ural owl has an extended distribution area in Europe and Asia, from Sakhalin and Korea in the east to Scandinavia in the west. The northern border is at 65 degrees north latitude, the southern border follows the southern delimitation of the taiga. There are relict populations in the mountains of central Europe belonging to the subspecies S. u. macroura.
Birds in northeast Poland and Scandinavia belong to the subspecies S. u. liturata, those in western Siberia to the dominant race S. u. uralensis. The northern populations of the Ural owl occupy similar habitat to the great grey owl, nesting in lowland forests but avoiding dense areas those of purely conifers. In central Europe it is an upland species, it occupies open woodland and is more found in moist rather than dry areas. It nests in hollow tree trunks in old raptor nests, in nestboxes, it lays two to four eggs, which hatch after 27–34 days. The young will not fly until about six weeks old, it is a aggressive owl, chasing other birds of prey from its territory, it will attack human intruders when young are present. The Ural owl feeds on rodents and medium-sized to large birds such as jays and willow ptarmigan, although only up to the size of a woodpigeon, its territorial call, which can carry up to two kilometres, is a soft, deep wo-ho….. Woho uhwo-ho. Birds give unmistakable yapping bau - wau calls, which are delivered by both sexes.
Austrian Ural owl Competence Centre
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
Psyllipsocidae is a family of cave barklice in the family Psyllipsocidae. There are about 7 described species in Psyllipsocidae. Dorypteryx Aaron, 1883 Pseudorypteryx Garcia Aldrete, 1984 Psocathropos Ribaga, 1899 Psyllipsocus Selys-Longchamps, 1872
Trogiidae is a family of granary booklice in the order Psocodea. There are at least 50 described species in Trogiidae; these 10 genera belong to the family Trogiidae: Anomocopeus c g Cerobasis Kolbe, 1882 i c g b Eolepinotus c g Helenatropos c g Helminotrogia c g Lepinotus Heyden, 1850 i c g b Myrmicodipnella Enderlein, 1909 i c g Phlebotrogia c g Spinatropos c g Trogium Illiger, 1798 i c g bData sources: i = ITIS, c = Catalogue of Life, g = GBIF, b = Bugguide.net
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids and crustaceans; the term Arthropoda as proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin mineralised with calcium carbonate; the arthropod body plan consists of each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Arthopods are bilaterally symmetrical and their body possesses an external skeleton; some species have wings. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments, they have over a million described species, making up more than 80 per cent of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most other animals, are successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab.
Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a haemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates. Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are built of repeated segments, their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus; the respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong. Their vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli: in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, the compound eyes are the main source of information, but the main eyes of spiders are ocelli that can form images and, in a few cases, can swivel to track prey.
Arthropods have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles. Arthropods' methods of reproduction and development are diverse; the evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period. The group is regarded as monophyletic, many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa. Overall, the basal relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved; the relationships between various arthropod groups are still debated. Aquatic species use either external fertilization. All arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother. Arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form; the level of maternal care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions. Arthropods contribute to the human food supply both directly as food, more indirectly as pollinators of crops.
Some species are known to spread severe disease to humans and crops. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, "joint", πούς pous, i.e. "foot" or "leg", which together mean "jointed leg". Arthropods are invertebrates with jointed limbs; the exoskeleton or cuticles consists of a polymer of glucosamine. The cuticle of many crustaceans, beetle mites, millipedes is biomineralized with calcium carbonate. Calcification of the endosternite, an internal structure used for muscle attachments occur in some opiliones. Estimates of the number of arthropod species vary between 1,170,000 and 5 to 10 million and account for over 80 per cent of all known living animal species; the number of species remains difficult to determine. This is due to the census modeling assumptions projected onto other regions in order to scale up from counts at specific locations applied to the whole world. A study in 1992 estimated that there were 500,000 species of animals and plants in Costa Rica alone, of which 365,000 were arthropods.
They are important members of marine, freshwater and air ecosystems, are one of only two major animal groups that have adapted to life in dry environments. One arthropod sub-group, insects, is the most species-rich member of all ecological guilds in land and freshwater environments; the lightest insects weigh less than 25 micrograms. Some living crustaceans are much larger; the embryos of all arthropods are segmented, built from a series of repeated modules. The last common ancestor of living arthropods consisted of a series of undifferentiated segments, each with a pair of appendages that functioned as limbs. However, all known living and fossil arthropods have grouped segments into tagmata in which segments and their limbs are specialized in various ways; the three-