Roman Catholic Diocese of Toul
The Diocese of Toul was a Roman Catholic diocese seated at Toul in present-day France. It existed from 365 until 1824. From 1048 until 1552, it was a state of the Holy Roman Empire; the diocese was located at the western edge of the Holy Roman Empire. It was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552, and, recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, it was part of the province of the Three Bishoprics. After the Duchy of Lorraine became part of France in the 18th century, the Diocese of Toul was merged with the Diocese of Nancy into the Diocese of Nancy-Toul; the Diocese of Toul belonged to the ecclesiastical province of the Archbishop of Trier. Mansuetus 338–375, first bishop Amon c. 400? Alchas c. 423? Gelsimus c. 455? Auspicius c. 478? Ursus around 490 Aprus 500–507 Aladius 508–525? Trifsorich 525–532 Dulcitius 532?–549 Alodius c. 549 Premon Antimund Eudolius c. 602 Theofred 640–653 Bodo of Toul c. 660 Eborinus around 664 Leudinus 667?–669 Adeotatus 679–680 Ermentheus c. 690?
Magnald c. 695? Dodo c. 705 Griboald 706–739? Godo 739?–756 Jakob 756–767 Borno 775–794 Wannich 794?–813 Frotar 814–846 Arnulf 847–871 Arnald 872–894 Ludhelm 895–905 Drogo 907–922 Gosselin 922–962 Gerard I 963–994 Stephen 994–995 Robert 995–996 Berthold 996–1019 Herman 1020–1026 Bruno Egisheim-Dagsburg † Sede Vacant 1049-1051 Odo 1052–1069 Poppo 1070–1107 Richwin of Commercy 1108–1126 Heinrich I von Lothringen 1127-1167 Peter of Brixey 1168–1192 Odo of Vaudemont 1192–1197 Matthias of Lorraine 1197–1206, † 1217 Reinald of Chantilly 1210–1217 Gerard II of Vaudemont 1218–1219 Odo II of Sorcy 1219–1228 Garin 1228–1230 Roger of Marcey 1231–1251 Giles of Sorcy 1253–1271 Conrad II of Tübingen 1272–1296 John I of Sierck 1296–1305 Vito Venosa 1305–1306 Odo III of Grançon 1306–1308 Giacomo Ottone Colonna 1308–1309 John II of Arzillières 1309–1320 Amatus of Geneva 1320–1330 Thomas of Bourlemont 1330–1353 Bertram de la Tour 1353–1361 Pietro di la Barreria 1361–1363 John III of Hoya 1363–1372 John IV of Neufchatel 1373–1384, † 1398 Savin de Floxence 1384–1398 Philip II de la Ville-sur-Illon 1399–1409 Henry II de la Ville-sur-Illom 1409–1436 Louis de Haraucourt 1437–1449 William Fillatre 1449–1460 John V de Chevrot 1460 Anthony I of Neufchatel 1461–1495 Ulric of Blankenberg 1495–1506 Hugh des Hazards 1506–1517 John, Cardinal of Lorraine 1517–1524, † 1544 Hector de Ailly-Rochefort 1526–1532 John, Cardinal of Lorraine 1532–1537 Anthony II Pellagrin 1537–1542 John of Lorraine-Guise 1542–1543, † 1544 Toussaint de Hossey 1543–1565 Peter III de Châtelet 1565–1580 Charles de Lorraine de Vaudémont 1580–1587 Christopher de la Vallée 1589–1607 John VII Porcelet de Maillane 1609–1624 Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine 1625–1634 Charles Christian de Gournay 1634–1637 Henri Arnauld 1637-1643 Paolo Fiesco 1643–1645 Jacques Lebret 1645 Henri-Pons de Thiard de Bissy 29 March 1687 to 10 May 1704 François Blouet de Camilly 1706–1723 Scipion-Jérôme Begon 1723–1753 Claude Drouâs de Boussey 1754–1773 Etienne-François-Xavier des Michels de Champorcin, last bishop, 1773–1802 Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France Gams, Pius Bonifatius.
Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 548–549. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 301. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 175. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 219. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Jean, Armand. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801. Paris: A. Picard. Pisani, Paul. Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel. Paris: A. Picard et fils. Bishopric of Toul at Catholic-hierarchy.org
County of Veldenz
The County of Veldenz was a principality in the contemporary Land Rhineland-Palatinate. The county was located between Kaiserslautern and Zweibrücken on the Mosel in the Archbishopric of Trier. A municipality of the same name, a castle, Schloss Veldenz, are located in the district of Bernkastel-Wittlich; the Counts of Veldenz separated from the Wildgraves of Kyrburg and Schmidburg family in 1112. The direct male line of the first comital house ceased in 1260 with the death of Gerlach V of Veldenz and his daughter Agnes of Veldenz inherited the county in 1260, her husband Heinrich of Geroldseck became the founder of the second line of Counts of Veldenz or the House of Veldenz-Geroldseck. In 1444 the county came under the rule of Count palatine Stefan of Pfalz-Simmern-Zweibrücken by his marriage to Anna of Veldenz, the only heiress of Count Frederick III of Veldenz. In 1543, by the Marburg treaty, it was agreed that the uncle of Duke Wolfgang of Zweibrücken, should receive the county of Veldenz.
Ruprecht died in 1544 but his son Hans Georg married Anna Maria of Sweden, a daughter of Gustav I of Sweden in 1563. This was the joining of the House of Wittelsbach with the Swedish Vasa royal family, strengthened by a further marriage when Johann Casimir of Pfalz-Zweibrücken married Catharina of Sweden, a sister of Gustavus Adolphus in the 17th century. Wolfgang had in 1553 with the Heidelberg Succession agreement regulated the mutual inheritance of all Wittelsbach lines reaching from Veldenz-Palatinate to the county Lützelstein in Alsace; the grandson of Georg Hans, Leopold Ludwig von Lützelstein, died in 1694 without legitimate offspring and the county-Palatinate of Veldenz reverted to the Zweibrücken line. In 1801 it was incorporated into the Saardepartement of the First French Empire; the Congress of Vienna, 1815, gave the smaller part of the county lying on the Mosel to Prussia and the remainder to Bavaria. Emicho, Count of Kyrburg and Schmidburg Gerlach I, Count of Veldenz Gerlach II, Count of Veldenz Gerlach III, Count of Veldenz Gerlach IV, Count of Veldenz Gerlach V, Count of Veldenz Agnes, Countess of Veldenz Henry, Count of Geroldseck ∞ Agnes of Veldenz Walter, Count of Veldenz George I, Count of Veldenz Henry II, Count of Veldenz Frederick II, Count of Veldenz Henry III, Count of Veldenz Henry IV, Count of Veldenz Frederick III, Count of Veldenz Stephen of Pfalz-Simmern-Zweibrücken, married Anna of Veldenz Louis I of Pfalz-Zweibrücken Alexander of Pfalz-Zweibrücken Louis II of Pfalz-Zweibrücken Wolfgang of Pfalz-Zweibrücken.
In 1543, he handed Veldenz to his uncle Rupert. Rupert, Count Palatine of Veldenz George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz, from 1544 to 1592 Pfalzgraf of Pfalz-Veldenz George Gustavus, Count Palatine of Veldenz Leopold Louis, Count Palatine of Veldenz, died without heir, Veldenz returned to ZweibrückenContinued in the Pfalz-Zweibrücken line. Crollius, Georg Christian: Vorlesung: Von dem ersten geschlecht der alten graven von Veldenz und dessen gemeinschaftlichen abstammung mit den ältern Wildgraven von den graven im Nohgau. Historia et Commentationes. Academiae Electoralis Scientiarvm et Elegantiorvm Litterarvm Theodoro-Palatinae. Mannhemii Typis Academicis 1770 Crollius, Georg Christian: Vorlesung: von dem zweiten geschlechte der grafen von Veldenz, aus dem hause der herren von Geroldseck in der Ortenau. Historia et Commentationes. Academiae Electoralis Scientiarvm et Elegantiorvm Litterarvm Theodoro-Palatinae. Mannhemii Typis Academicis 1778 Gerbert, Martin: Pragmatische Geschichte des Hauses Geroldsek, wie auch derer Reichsherrschaften Hohengeroldsek, Lahr und Mahlberg in Schwaben.
Frankfurt und Leipzig 1766 www.schlossveldenz.com List of the county's belonging locations ca. 1350 Historical map
The festival and spa town of Bad Hersfeld is the district seat of the Hersfeld-Rotenburg district in northeastern Hesse, Germany 50 km southeast of Kassel. Bad Hersfeld is known countrywide above all for the Bad Hersfelder Festspiele, which have taken place each year since 1951 at the monastery ruins; these themselves are said to be Europe's biggest Romanesque church ruin. In 1967, the town hosted the seventh Hessentag state festival; the town lies in the Hersfeld Basin formed here by the forks of the Haune. The inner town lies on the Fulda's left bank. Furthermore, the Geisbach and the Solz empty into the Fulda in the municipal area. In the southwest lie the Vogelsberg Mountains, in the northwest the Knüll and in the northeast the Seulingswald; the town's lowest point, at 195 m above sea level, is to be found in the area where the Solz empties into the Fulda, whereas the highest point within town limits is the Laxberg in the Knüllgebirge, at 408 m above sea level. The town can be said to belong both to Eastern Hesse.
The nearest cities are Kassel, 52 km to the north, Gießen, 79 km to the southwest, Fulda, 36 km to the south and Eisenach, 45 km to the east. Through Bad Hersfeld runs the Deutsche Fachwerkstraße, a holiday road that showcases many of Germany's timber-frame houses and buildings; the Old Town stands on an alluvial or fluvial fan made of gravel and pebbles, which were washed up between Fulda and Geisbach. In the Fulda valley are found gravel and pebbles from the Holocene that are of alluvial origin. There are layers of flood-deposited loess and loam of Pleistocene origin running through them; the gravel and pebbles are to a great extent made up of Middle Bunter, the most widespread stone here. In the west and east, this layer reaches from the Germanic Triassic on the Stellerskuppe and the Haukuppe up to 400 m above sea level. In the east, on the Wippershainer Höhe, the layer reaches up to 440 m above sea level; the Middle Bunter's lower limit is found at about 110 m above sea level. Newer mineral layers from the Triassic are found only in sporadic deposits and discontinuous layers within town limits.
This is the Röt formation, which crops up in the headwaters of the many small brooks around the town. The Lower or Middle Muschelkalk that overlies it can only be found in a narrow, west-to-east running rift stretching between Heenes and Oberrode, north of the inner town; the newest mineral layer from the Triassic – the Lower Keuper – is only preserved in the region under a lava flow, which does not show itself above ground anywhere near the town. Owing to uplift in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, there are no mineral layers from these geological time periods. Volcanic rock from the Miocene can be found on the Haukuppe. Mineral layers that do not reach the surface here are the Lower Bunter, running from a depth of some 90 m underneath the town down to some 390 m farther down, following at yet greater depths and Lower Zechstein from the Permian. From this layer come the two mineral springs in Bad Hersfeld; this layer is used in underground mining from the 400-metre level on down on the Werra and on the Fulda, yielding potash.
Today's main town spreads over the slopes of the Tageberg, the Frauenberg, the Wehneberg and the Wendeberg, further reaching into the valleys of the Meisebach and the Geisbach. From southwest to northeast it stretches some 4.5 km, from northeast to southwest some 3.5 km. The Old Town in the Fulda valley has an area of some 40 ha. From west to east it from south to north some 570 m; this can still be seen today, as where the town moat once led around the town there is today a ringroad that leads traffic around it. Besides the main town – called Bad Hersfeld – the town has the outlying centres of Allmershausen, Beiershausen, Heenes, Hohe Luft, Kathus, Kohlhausen and Sorga. Further subdivisions in the main town are not Stadtteile; the Old Town itself is divided into the Unterstadt to the east. Between the two lies the oldest part of the Old Town; the spa is considered part of the main town. Furthermore, there are Kalkobes, Zellersgrund, Hof Hählgans and Mönches. Clockwise from the north, these are Ludwigsau, Schenklengsfeld, Niederaula and Neuenstein.
The town's sheltered location in the Fulda valley with the surrounding Hessian and Thuringian low mountain ranges leads to a high average yearly temperature in Bad Hersfeld of 8.7 °C and a rather dry climate with yearly precipitation averaging only 718.1 mm. The average yearly sunshine, therefore, is quite high at 1,385.4 hours. On average over the year, Bad Hersfeld has 34 “summer days”, 86 “frost days” and 22 “ice days”. Bad Hersfeld's written history begins with the monk Sturm, who established a monastic settlement in Haerulfisfeld but evacuated it to Fulda
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg
Bishopric of Verdun
The Bishopric of Verdun was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. It was located at the western edge of the Empire and was bordered by France, the Duchy of Luxembourg, the Duchy of Bar; this fief included the advowson of the church of Verdun over its possessions along the river Moselle. According to a chronist's report, written around the year 900, the Merovingian king Childebert II came to visit Verdun. There was not enough wine to serve the monarch and the Bishop Agericus was embarrassed; however God miraculously increased the amount of wine. The king presented Agericus of Verdun with the Schloss Veldenz as a fief of Verdun "because of the wine". Around 1156 Frederick Barbarossa confirmed the holding by Bishop Albert I of Verdun of the castle together with the surrounding land. A story that Peter, successor of Madalvaeus, was granted temporal lordship of the Diocese by Charlemagne, but this is no longer accepted; because of the destruction of the archives in a fire Bishop Dadon commissioned the Gesta episcoporum Virodunensium from Bertharius, a Benedictine monk.
This was continued to 1250 by a second monk, by an anonymous writer. A key element of Emperor Otto I's domestic policy was to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities at the expense of the nobility who threatened his power. To this end he filled the ranks of the episcopate with his own relatives and with loyal chancery clerks; as protector of the Church he invested them with the symbols of their offices, both spiritual and secular, so the clerics were appointed as his vassals through a commendation ceremony. Historian Norman Cantor concludes: "Under these conditions clerical election became a mere formality in the Ottonian empire..." The Bishop of Verdun, appointed by Otto, was faithful to the emperor. In 990 Bishop Haimont ordered the construction of a new cathedral on the Romano-Rhenish plan: a nave, two transepts, two opposing apses, each one flanked by two bell towers; the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III bestowed the title Count on Bishop Haimont and his successors in 997. The bishops had the right to appoint a temporary "count for life", theoretically subject to the authority of the bishop.
These counts were selected from the noble family of Ardennes. There was frequent conflict between the bishop. With the marriage of Philip IV with Joan I of Navarre, the daughter of the Count of Champagne and Verdun become a primary focus for the crown of France. After 1331, appointment to the episcopal see was controlled by the King of France rather than the Emperor; the Bishopric was annexed to France in 1552. It was a part of the province of the Three Bishoprics. Ca. 346: St. Saintin 356–383: St. Maurus???–420: Salvinus ca. 440: Arator 454–470: Polychronius 470–486: Possessor 486–502: Freminus 502–529: Vitonus 529–554: Desideratus 554–591: Agericus v. 595: Charimeres v. 614: Harimeris???–621: St. Ermenfred 623–626: Godo 641–648: Paulus 648–665: Gisloald 665–689: Gerebert 689–701: Armonius 701–710: Agrebert 711–715: Bertalamius 716: Abbo 716–722: Pepo 722–730: Volchisus 730–732: Agronius 753–774: Madalveus 774–798: Peter 798–802: Austram 802–824: Heriland 824–847: Hilduin 847–870: Hatto 870–879: Bernard 880–923: Dado 923–925: Hugh I 925–939: Bernuin, son of Matfried I, Count of Metz, of Lantesinde 939–959: Berengar 959–983: Wigfrid 983–984: Hugh II 984–984: Adalbero I Bishop of Metz 985–990: Adalbero II Bishop of Metz.
990–1024: Haimont 1024–1039: Reginbert 1039–1046: Richard I 1047–1089: Theoderic 1089–1107: Richhar 1107–1114: Richard II of Grandpré 1114–1117: Mazo, administrator 1117–1129: Henry I of Blois, deposed at the Council of Chalon 1129–1131: Ursio 1131–1156: Adalbero III of Chiny 1156–1162: Albert I of Marcey 1163–1171: Richard III of Crisse 1172–1181: Arnulf of Chiny-Verdun 1181–1186: Henry II of Castel 1186–1208: Albert II of Hierges 1208–1216: Robert I of Grandpré 1217–1224: John I of Aspremont 1224–1245: Radulf of Torote 1245–1245: Guy I of Traignel 1245–1247: Guy II of Mellote 1247–1252: John II of Aachen 1252–1255: James I Pantaléon of Court-Palais 1255–1271: Robert II of Médidan 1271–1273: Ulrich of Sarvay 1275–1278: Gerard of Grandson 1278–1286: Henry III of Grandson 1289–1296: James II of Ruvigny 1297–1302: John III of Richericourt 1303–1305: Thomas of Blankenberg 1305–1312: Nicholas I of Neuville 1312–1349: Henry IV of Aspremont 1349–1351: Otto of Poitiers 1352–1361: Hugh III of Bar 1362–1371: John IV of Bourbon-Montperoux 1371–1375: John V of Dampierre-St. Dizier 1375–1379: Guy III of Roye 1380–1404: Leobald of Cousance 1404–1419: John VI of Saarbrücken 1419–1423: Louis I of Bar, administrator 1423–1423: Raymond 1423–1424: William of Montjoie 1424–1430: Louis I of Bar, administrator 1430–1437: Louis of Haraucourt 1437–1449: William Fillatre 1449–1456: Louis of Haraucourt 1457–1500: William of Haraucourt 1500–1508: Warry de Dommartin 1508–1522: Louis de Lorraine 1523–1544: Jean de Lorraine, brother of predecessor 1544–1547: Nicolas de Mercœur, nephew of predecessor 1548–1575: Nicolas Psaume 1576–1584: Nicolas Bousmard 1585–1587: Charles de Lorraine 1588–1593: Nicolas Boucher 1593–1610: Eric of Lorraine1593–1601: Christophe de la Vallée, administrator 1610–1622: Charles de Lorraine, nephew of predecessor 1623–1661: François de Lorraine, brother of predecessor 1667–1679: Armand de Monchy d'Hocquincourt 1681–1720: Hippolyte de Béthune 1721–1754: Charles-François D'Hallencourt 1754–1769: Aymar-Fr.-Chrétien-Mi. de Nicolai 1770–1793: Henri-Louis Rene DesnosUntil 1801 Verdun was part of the e
Idstein is a town of about 25,000 inhabitants in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. Because of its well preserved historical Altstadt it is part of the Deutsche Fachwerkstraße, connecting towns with fire fachwerk buildings and houses. In 2002, the town hosted the 42nd Hessentag state festival. Idstein lies in the Taunus mountain range, about 16 kilometres north of Wiesbaden; the town's landmark is a 12th-century bergfried and part of Idstein Castle. The Old Town is found between the two brooks running through town, the Wolfsbach in the east and the Wörsbach in the west, on a high ridge reaching up to 400 m above sea level; this comes to an end in the Old Town's north end with the castle and palace crags, behind which the two brooks run together. On the Wolfsbach, remnants of the like-named, now forsaken village can still be made out; the estate agent Gassenbach in the town's south goes back to an old settlement called Gassenbach. West of town, beyond the Wörsbach valley, lies another high ridge with peaks ranging from the Hohe Kanzel to the Roßberg and the Rügert to the Rosenkippel.
Just under the western heights run the Autobahn A 3 and the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line. On the other side of the Rügert are the constituent communities of Oberauroff and Niederauroff in the valley of the Auroffer Bach. North of Idstein, the Wörsbach valley reaches into the Goldener Grund, fertile cropland that stretches all the way to the Lahn valley. Idstein borders in the north on the town of Bad Camberg and the community of Waldems, in the east on the community of Glashütten, in the southeast on the town of Eppstein, in the south on the community of Niedernhausen, in the southwest on the town of Taunusstein and in the west on the community of Hünstetten; the town is made up of a main town bearing the same name as the whole and eleven other independent villages: Until 1977, Idstein belonged to the Untertaunuskreis, which in the course of district reform was merged with the Rheingau-Kreis into the new Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis. With about 25,700 inhabitants, Idstein is the second biggest town in the district.
Idstein, which had its first documentary mention in 1102 as Etichenstein, was granted town and market rights in 1287 by King Rudolph of Habsburg. Besides the Hexenturm near the old Nassau castle, mentioned, the town has a mediaeval town centre with many timber-frame buildings; the town's oldest preserved house was built in 1410. From the documentary mention in 1102 until 1721, Idstein was, with interruptions, residence of the Counts of Nassau-Idstein and other Nassau lines. One of the Counts, Adolf of Germany, was, as a compromise candidate, the Holy Roman Emperor from 1292 to 1298 falling in battle against the anti-king Albrecht I of Habsburg; the Nassau Counts' holdings were subdivided many times among heirs, with the parts being brought together again whenever a line died out. This yielded an older Nassau-Idstein line from 1480 to 1509 merging once again with Nassau-Wiesbaden and Nassau-Weilburg and, from 1629 to 1721, a newer Nassau-Idstein line. In the 17th century, Count Johann of Nassau-Idstein persecuted witches in Idstein.
In 1721, Idstein passed to Nassau-Ottweiler, in 1728 to Nassau-Usingen, thereby losing its status as a residence town, although it became the seat of the Nassau Archives and of an Oberamt. Nassau-Usingen was united with Nassau-Weilburg in 1806 into the Duchy of Nassau, becoming a member of the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Prussia annexed the Duchy as the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau; the residential palace from the 17th century is used by the Pestalozzischule as a school building. It was expanded with a new building below the palace. From the late 18th century to the mid 20th, Idstein was the centre of an important leather industry. During the Second World War, many women became forced labour for work in the tanneries. In 1959, the dominant tannery in the middle of the town core was shut down for economic reasons; the lands were used until the 1980s as a carpark. Today, new shops and apartments surround the Löherplatz, now a marketplace; the private Kalmenhof clinic in Idstein was drawn into the Nazi Euthanasia programme.
Under Action T4, the Kalmenhof served as a way station for the "killing institute" at Hadamar. After the gassings at Hadamar came to an end in the face of public protests from the churches, the Kalmenhof itself, in the course of Aktion Brandt, became a killing institute. Shortly after the war, reports of young wards being mishandled came to light. Eleven independent villages were merged as of 1971 into Idstein, under the framework of municipal reform; the town's arms might be described thus: Azure a round castle wall embattled with two portcullises open, the wall enclosing two towers, the whole Or, with peaked roofs gules, between the portcullises an inescutcheon azure with a lion rampant Or armed and langued gules among six billets Or. The inescutcheon is the arms borne by the House of Nassau; the town's flag bears this design set against oran
Heitersheim is a town in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The name of the school located in Heitersheim is Johanniterschule; the city is located in Markgräflerland in South Baden. The city contains newer Gallenweiler. 777. The city is mentioned for the first time in Lorscher codex 1810; the becomes a city 1847. Railway Freiburg - Basel passes through city 1971. Unification with Gallenweiler The Austrian town of Vandans is the sister city of Heitersheim since 1991. Monastic State of the Knights Hospitaller Knights Hospitaller