İsfendiyar Bey

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İsfendiyar Bey (full name: İzzettin İsfendiyar) was the bey (ruler) of Candaroğlu Beylik an Anatolian beylik between 1385 and 1440. (Anatolia is the Asiatic part of Turkey) Although the name of the dynasty is Candar, Ottoman Empire historians call the beylik İsfendiyaroğlu because of İsfendiyar's long reign

His father was Bayazit Bey of the Candar dynasty and his mother was Efendizade Sultan Hatun, the daughter of Süleyman Pasha and the granddaughter of Orhan of the Ottoman Empire, the second bey of the Ottoman Empire,[1] his daughter Tacünnisa Hatun was married firstly to Sultan Murad II and after Murad's death to Ishak Pasha, one of Murad II officials.[2]

Early years[edit]

Before he was enthroned, his beylik had been reduced to a small area around Sinop, a port on Black Sea coast. Afraid to lose this last part, İsfendiyar followed a peaceful policy with the neighbors, during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezit I (1389-1402) who conquered most of the other beyliks, İsfendiyar was able to establish good relations with the Ottomans. Probably, the emergence of Kadı Burhaneddin’s short lived but powerful Turkmen state in the Central Anatolia was the main reason for the Ottoman-Candar cooperation [3]

Expansion[edit]

During Timur's campaign to Anatolia (1402) he annexed the former territory of his beylik with Timur's approval, during the Ottoman Interregnum (1402-1413) he followed a balanced policy between the contestants. During the reign of Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire (1413-1421) he tried to be an ally of the Ottomans.[1][4]

Kasım’s revolt and the last years[edit]

However, in 1416, his son Kasım revolted with Ottoman support. İsfendiyar Bey had to abandon the territory to the south of Ilgaz Mountains (i.e., Çankırı). In 1419 Ottomans further annexed the eastern part of the beylik (i.e., Samsun) Death of Mehmed I and the two revolts during the early years of the new sultan Murat II, gave İsfendiyar Bey a chance to regain the loses. However, after Murat II restored order at home, he quickly defeated İsfendiyar. According to the treaty signed in 1423 (or 1424) İsfendiyar abandoned his gains, but kept Sinop and Kastamonu.

In later years İsfendiyar established family relationships with the Ottomans, he died on 26 February 1440 in Sinop. He was succeeded by İbrahim II.

Family[edit]

He married Tatlı (Esen Kutlu) Hatun, daughter of Abdullah, and had six children:

  • Taceddin Ibrahim II Bey, next ruler of Candaroğlu Beylik between 1440 and 1443;
  • Kıvameddin Kasım Bey, married Sultan Hatun, daughter of Sultan Mehmed I;
  • Hızır Bey;
  • Murad Bey;
  • Hatice Halime Hüma Hatun, married to Sultan Murad II, and mother of Mehmed the Conqueror;
  • Tacünnisa Sultan Hatun, married to Ishak Pasha, one of Murad and his son Mehmed's officials, governor of Anatolia;

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt I, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 pp. 202-293
  2. ^ Tomb of Ishak Pasha
  3. ^ Research by Yaşar Yücel p.160 (in Turkish)
  4. ^ Sinop MP Engin Altay’s page (in Turkish)