President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
John Custis IV was an North American Colonial British politician and a member of the Governor's Council in the British Colony of Virginia. He is designated as John Custis IV or John Custis of Williamsburg to distinguish him from his grandfather and other relatives of the same name, his parents were John Custis, a Council member, Margaret Michael Custis. Custis was born at Arlington in Virginia. On 4 May 1706 he married Frances Parke, the elder daughter and heiress of Daniel Parke, Jr. governor of the Leeward Islands. Custis had moved to Williamsburg, Virginia by 1717. There he created a magnificent 4-acre garden and corresponded with many celebrated horticulturists and naturalists, including John Bartram, Mark Catesby, Peter Collinson. Custis served on the governor's Council from 1727 until ill health forced him to request to be suspended in August 1749. In 1744, John Custis took the extraordinary step of petitioning the Governor and Council to set a slave child free; the petition stated the boy was "Christened John but called Jack, born of the body of his Negro wench, Alice."He died soon after completing his will on 14 November 1749.
At his request, he was buried on the Eastern Shore of Virginia at the Arlington plantation's Custis Tombs. In his will Custis instructed his son, on pain of being cut off with only one shilling, to place on his marble tomb the wording that Custis had "Yet lived but Seven years, the Space of time he kept a Batchelors House at Arlington on the Eastern Shoar of Virginia; this Inscription put on this Stone by his own positive Orders." His only surviving son, Daniel Parke Custis, was the first husband of Martha Washington. He was born 1567 Will in Prerogative Court of Canterbury Registered Wills, Searle 287, Principal Probate Registry, England. Kneebone, John T. et al. eds. Dictionary of Virginia Biography, 3:636-639. ISBN 0-88490-206-4. Zuppan, Jo. "John Custis of Williamsburg, 1678-1749," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 90: 177-197. Custis, John. Zuppan, Josephine Little, ed; the letterbook of John Custis IV of Williamsburg, 1717-1742. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-945612-80-3.
John Custis at Encyclopedia Virginia
Benjamin Harrison V
Benjamin Harrison V was an American planter and merchant from Charles City County, Virginia, a revolutionary leader, a Founding Father of the United States. He received his higher education at the College of William and Mary and was a representative to the Virginia House of Burgesses for Surry County and Charles City County, he was a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1777 and a signer of the Declaration of Independence during the Second Continental Congress. He served as Virginia's fifth governor from 1781 to 1784, his direct descendants include two Presidents: his son William Henry Harrison and his great-grandson Benjamin Harrison. Harrison was the oldest of ten children born to Benjamin Harrison IV and Anne Carter, a grandson of Robert Carter I; the first Benjamin Harrison is said to have arrived in the colonies around 1630. British historian F. A. Inderwick contends that Benjamin IV is descended from Thomas Harrison, a participant in the regicide of Charles I, but this is disputed.
Benjamin IV and Anne built the manor house at Berkeley Plantation in Virginia, he served as a Justice of the Peace and represented Charles City County in the Virginia House of Burgesses. Benjamin V was described in his youth as "tall and powerfully built", with "features that were defined, a well-shaped mouth above a strong pointed chin", his brother Carter Henry became a leader in Cumberland County. Brother Nathaniel settled in Prince George County, became sheriff, was elected to the House of Burgesses. Brother Henry fought in the French and Indian War and settled at Hunting Quarter in Sussex County. Brother Charles joined the rose to the rank of brigadier general. Harrison's father was struck by lightning while shutting an upstairs window on July 12, 1745 at age 51, he and daughter Hannah were killed. Benjamin inherited the bulk of his father's estate, including the family home Berkeley and a number of surrounding plantations, he assumed ownership and responsibility for the manor house's equipment and numerous slaves.
His siblings inherited another six plantations and slaves, as the father chose to depart from the tradition of leaving the entire estate to the eldest son. Harrison's father prohibited any splitting of slave families in the distribution of his estate. Harrison followed his father in representing the counties of Charles City and Surry in the House of Burgesses, he served as a county justice, he was among the first signers in 1770 of an agreement among Virginia lawmakers and merchants boycotting British imports until the British Parliament repealed its taxes on tea. He joined in sponsoring a bill which declared that laws were illegal if Parliament passed them without the consent of the colonists; the Boston Tea Party occurred in 1773 and the British Parliament enacted punitive measures which Colonists called the Intolerable Acts. Harrison and 88 members of the Virginia Burgesses signed a new association on May 24, 1774 condemning the action of the Parliament, they invited other colonies to convene a Continental Congress.
Harrison was selected on August 5, 1774 as one of seven delegates to represent Virginia at the Congress. He set out that month, leaving his home state for the first time, arrived in Philadelphia on September 2, 1774 for the First Continental Congress. Harrison gravitated to the older and more conservative of his fellow delegates in Philadelphia, was more distant with the New Englanders and the more radical John and Samuel Adams. John Adams described Harrison in his diary as "another Sir John Falstaff", "obscene", "profane", "impious", but he recalled Harrison saying that he was so eager to participate in the Continental Congress that "he would have come on foot." Their dislike for one another was due to differences in personality and party factionalism. The First Congress concluded in October with finalization of a Petition to the King, signed by all delegates including Harrison, requesting the King's attention to the colonies' grievances and restoration of harmony with the crown; the Second Continental Congress convened in May 1775.
Harrison resided in a house in north Philadelphia during the Congress with Peyton Randolph and George Washington. He remained there alone after Washington assumed command of the Continental Randolph died. Harrison was in attendance to the session's end in July 1776, serving as Chairman of the Committee of the Whole in the Congress, he presided over the final debates on the Lee Resolution offered by Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee, he presided over the debates and amendments to the final Declaration of Independence. The Committee of Five presented Jefferson's draft of the Declaration on June 28, 1776, the Congress resolved on July 1 that the Committee of the Whole should discuss its content; the Committee amended it on July 2 and 3 adopted it in final form on Thursday, July 4. Harrison duly reported this to the Congress, who unanimously resolved to have the Declaration engrossed and signed by those present. Harrison was known for his sense of humor. Elbridge Gerry had taken Harrison's place at the table to sign the Declaration, the rotund Harrison quipped: "I shall have a great advantage over you, Mr. Gerry, when we are all hung for what we are now doing.
From the size and weight of my body I shall die in a few minutes and be with t
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
William Randolph I was an American colonist, planter and politician who played an important role in the history and government of the English colony of Virginia. He moved to Virginia sometime between 1669 and 1673, married Mary Isham a few years later, his descendants include many prominent individuals including Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Paschal Beverly Randolph, Robert E. Lee, Peyton Randolph, Edmund Randolph, John Randolph of Roanoke, George W. Randolph, Edmund Ruffin. Genealogists have taken an interest in him for his progeny's many marital alliances, referring to him and Mary Isham as "the Adam and Eve of Virginia". William Randolph was baptized in Moreton Morrell, England on 7 November 1650, he was the son of Elizabeth Ryland. Richard Randolph was from Houghton Parva, a small village east of Northampton, where his father was a "steward and servant" to Edward la Zouche, 11th Baron Zouche, having served in that same capacity to Sir George Goring, a landowner in Sussex, his mother was a daughter of John Ryland of Warwick.
William was the second of seven Randolph children, all born in Moreton Morrell between 1647 and 1657. No record has yet surfaced as to William Randolph's residences until 1672. Although his father's older half-brother, the poet Thomas Randolph, attended Westminster School and Cambridge University, he did so on scholarship and there is no record of any other members of William's family having attended either public school or university. At some point in the late 1650s or 1660s, his parents moved to Dublin, where they both died, his mother around 1669 and his father in 1671, so William may well have spent the bulk of his formative years in Ireland, it is known that William's uncle, Henry Randolph, in 1669 traveled to Britain from Virginia, to which place he had emigrated around 1642. Henry encouraged his nephew at that time to return with him to the Chesapeake. In any case, William Randolph was in the colony by 12 February 1672 when he appears in the record as witness to a land transaction; the Chesapeake economy was centered around tobacco, grown within the English mercantile system for export to markets in Britain and Europe.
Randolph appears to have arrived in the province with little capital and few transatlantic connections. One historian suggests that he started off in the colony as an "undertaker" building houses, but there is no evidence for it. By 1674 he had acquired enough money to import 12 persons into the colony and thereby earned his first of many land patents. In years Randolph became a merchant and a planter, co-owned several ships used to transport tobacco to England and goods back to Virginia, he established several of his sons as merchants and ship captains. Around 1675 he married Mary Isham, whose father, Henry Isham, was from a gentry family in Northamptonshire. After arriving in Virginia, Henry had married in a wealthy widow, Katherina Banks Royall. Randolph acquired property by purchase, marital interest and land grant, his early acquisitions were in the neighborhood of Turkey Island, located in the James River about 20 miles southeast of present-day Richmond. This land had been settled for decades, was held by several owners, from whom he purchased.
His first purchase was 591 acres of land on Swift Creek, south of the James. In 1676 a Virginia colonist, Nathaniel Bacon, rebelled unsuccessfully against the colonial government and his estate was forfeited; this was Curles, located near Turkey Island. Randolph made an assessment of the property for Governor Berkeley and was allowed to buy it for his estimated price, adding 1,230 acres to Randolph's previous land holdings; this conflict of interest was criticized by his neighbors. In 1678 Mary Isham's brother died. William Randolph had married her before her brother's death, because the brother's will refers to her as "Mary Randolph". Around 1700, when Randolph's political career was at its peak, he received land grants to 10,000 acres of newly opened land near Richmond; this land became the basis of the Tuckahoe and Dungeness Plantations, which were founded by two of William Randolph's sons. William Randolph owned a considerable number of slaves; this reflected the rise of slavery during his business career.
Around 1675 Governor Berkeley reported the population of the colony as 40,000, with 4,000 indentured servants and 2,000 slaves. But as the supply of indentured servants declined late in the 17th century, the planters turned to slaves for workers in the labor-intensive tobacco cultivation, it is difficult to determine the number of slaves he owned at his death. His will has been transcribed and a copy appears on the internet. One estimate is, he paid property taxes on 1,655 acres in Surry County and 19,465 acres in Henrico County in 1704. Randolph held multiple official appointments. At the local level, he became clerk of Henrico County Court in 1673 and held the position until he was asked to serve as a justice o
Shadwell is a district in East London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, is located north of The Highway and south of Commercial Road, it is between Whitechapel and Wapping. It is located 3 miles east of forms part of the East End of London. In the 13th century, the area was known as Scadflet and Shatfliet – derived from the Anglo-Saxon fleot, meaning a shallow creek or bay – the land was a low lying marsh. A spring, issuing from near the south wall of the churchyard was dedicated to St Chad, filled a nearby well; the origin of the name is therefore confused, being associated with both the earlier use and the well. Shadwell was called Chadwelle. In 1975, archaeologists discovered evidence of a port complex between Ratcliff and Shadwell, used throughout Roman occupation of Britain, being most active in the 3rd century AD; the port seems to have been used for seagoing ships into the City of London, believed to have stopped between 250 and 270AD. A water level drop meant that the port was used for the public bath house near St George in the East, which existed from the first to fourth centuries.
Archaeologists found evidence of a late third-century signal tower in Shadwell. A Roman cemetery containing two coffins was discovered in Shadwell in around 1615. In the sixteenth century, Shadwell was an uninhabited hamlet in Stepney, although historian John Stow recalled that elm trees were removed from Shadwell in order to make way for tenements. Eastern Shadwell had been drained in the Middle Ages whilst Western Shadwell had been drained during the reign of King Henry VIII, by Cornelius Vanderdelf after an Act of Parliament; this had been caused by an increase in London's maritime activities in the 16th century. In 1650, Shadwell had 703 buildings, Of these houses, 195 were single-storey houses, 473 were two-storey houses, 33 were three-storey houses, although many were subdivided; the population of Shadwell in 1650 was around 3,500. In the 1660s, a hearth tax was introduced, although around 50% of residents in Shadwell were deemed too much in poverty to pay the tax. In 1669, Thomas Neale became a local landowner, buying some land reclaimed from the river, gained Shadwell parish status.
In addition, Neale built 289 homes, a mill, a market, established a waterworks on large ponds, left by the draining of the marsh. The area had been uninhabited and he developed the waterfront, with houses behind as a speculation, and in doing so provided fresh water for Shadwell and Wapping. Shadwell became a maritime hamlet with roperies, breweries, wharves and numerous taverns, built around the chapel of St Paul's. Seventy-five sea captains are buried in its churchyard. Shadwell's new houses were built in an orderly fashion, so that the streets ran between Ratcliff Highway and Wapping Wall. In 1674, Shadwell had a population of around 8,000; the prosperity in this period has been linked to the road connections into London, which were maintained by wealthy taxpayers from Middlesex, Essex and Surrey. By the mid-eighteenth century, Shadwell Spa was established, producing sulphurous waters, in Sun Tavern fields; as well as for medicinal purposes, salts were extracted from the waters. By the mid-eighteenth century, many houses in Shadwell had been rebuilt.
"Seamen and lightermen, coalheavers and shopkeepers, ropemakers, coopers and smiths, lived in small lathe and plaster or weatherboard houses, two storeys and a garret high, with one room on each floor". In 1768, London coal workers who were protesting for higher wages began shooting at the landlord of the Roundabout Tavern in Shadwell, their execution was witnessed by around 50,000 spectators, the largest crowd at a hanging since the hanging of Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers in 1760. in 1794, many houses on the Ratcliffe Highway were destroyed by a fire which "consumed more houses than any one conflagration has done since the Great Fire of London", destroyed many boats, around £40,000 of sugar. Shadwell Waterworks was sold in 1801 to the London Dock Company; the waterworks were sold to the East London Waterwork Company for £300,000 in 1808, after an Act of Parliament allowed the company to obtain a compulsory purchase order. The modern area is dominated by the enclosed former dock, Shadwell Basin, whose construction destroyed much of the earlier settlement – by this time degenerated into slums.
The basin once formed the eastern entrance to the London Docks, with a channel leading west to St Katharine Docks. It is two dock basins - the south basin was constructed in 1828-32 and the north basin in 1854-8. A new entrance to Shadwell dock was opened in 1832. Between 1854 and 1858, a 45 feet wide new entrance to the docks was constructed to allow larger ships into the dock. Shadwell Basin was one of three locked basins connecting the docks to the River Thames, is the only one of the three still in existence today. In 1865, HMS Amazon docked at Shadwell Basin in order to pick up around 800 Mormons who were emigrating to America, in 1869, the Blue Jacket clipper the fastest clipper in the world, began her journey to Canterbury, New Zealand in Shadwell Basin. In 1865 during excavation for the creations of some docks at Shadwell, four nearby houses were flooded. In 1844, Shadwell was recorded as having had a population of 10,060, having ten almshouses built using money from James Cook. Watney Mark
Early life and career of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, was involved in politics from his early adult years. This article covers his early life and career, through his writing the Declaration of Independence, participation in the American Revolutionary War, serving as governor of Virginia, election and service as Vice-President to President John Adams. Born into the planter class of Virginia, Jefferson was educated and valued his years at the College of William and Mary, he became an attorney and planter, building on the estate and 20–40 slaves inherited from his father. His father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor in Albemarle County, he was of possible Welsh descent. Thomas's paternal grandfather and great-grandfather were named Thomas. Other relatives were early settlers of Virginia. Taylor argues that the ancestors of the Jeffersons may have been associated with the time of the Norman Conquest, for "Jefferson" is derived from the Norman "Geoffrey." When Colonel William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, Peter assumed executorship and personal charge of Randolph's estate in Tuckahoe as well as his infant son, Thomas Mann Randolph.
That year the Jeffersons relocated to Tuckahoe, where they lived for the next seven years before returning to their home in Albemarle in 1752. Peter Jefferson was appointed to the colonelcy of an important position at the time. After he died in 1757, his son Thomas Jefferson inherited his estate, including about 20-40 slaves, they comprised the core of his labor force. In an 18th-century Presidential campaign, someone speaking against Jefferson's candidacy and in favor of that of John Adams accused Jefferson of being "half Injun, half nigger, half Frenchman" and born to a "mulatto father" or slave and "a half-breed Indian squaw", this birth to a mulatto and an Indian "well-known in the neighbourhood where he was raised" but otherwise unproven; the third of 10 children, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 at the family home in Shadwell, Goochland County, now part of Albemarle County. His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, a ship's captain and sometime planter, his wife.
Peter and Jane married in 1739. Thomas Jefferson was indifferent to his ancestry. Before the widower William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, he appointed Peter as guardian to manage his Tuckahoe Plantation and care for his four children; that year the Jeffersons relocated to Tuckahoe, where they lived for the next seven years before returning to Shadwell in 1752. Here Thomas Jefferson recorded his earliest memory, that of being carried on a pillow by a slave during the move to Tuckahoe. Peter Jefferson died in 1757 and the Jefferson estate was divided between Peter's two sons. Thomas inherited 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and between 20–40 slaves, he took control of the property after he came of age at 21. On October 1, 1765, when Jefferson was 22, his oldest sister Jane died at the age of 25, he fell into a period of deep mourning, as he was saddened by the absence of his sisters Mary, married several years to John Bolling III, Martha, who in July had wed Dabney Carr.
Both lived at their husbands' residences. Only Jefferson's younger siblings Elizabeth and the two toddlers, were at home, he drew little comfort from the younger ones, as they did not provide him with the same intellectual engagement as the older sisters had. According to the historian Ferling, while growing up Jefferson struggled with loneliness and abandonment issues that developed into a reclusive lifestyle as an adult. Jefferson began his childhood education under the direction of tutors at Tuckahoe along with the Randolph children. In 1752, Jefferson began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister. At the age of nine, Jefferson began studying Latin and French, he studied under the Reverend James Maury from 1758 to 1760 near Virginia. While boarding with Maury's family, he studied history and the classics. At age 16, Jefferson entered the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, first met the law professor George Wythe, who became his influential mentor. For two years he studied mathematics and philosophy under Professor William Small, who introduced the enthusiastic Jefferson to the writings of the British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton.
He improved his French and violin. A diligent student, Jefferson displayed an avid curiosity in all fields and graduated in 1762 with highest honors. Jefferson read law while working as a law clerk for Wythe. During this time, he read a wide variety of English classics and political works. Jefferson was admitted to the Virginia bar five years in 1767. Throughout his life, Jefferson depended on books for his education, he accumulated thousands of books for his library at Monticello. When Jefferson's father Peter died Thomas inherited, among his large library. A significant portion of Jefferson's library was bequeathed to him in the will of George Wythe, who had an extensive collection. Always eager for more knowledge, Jefferson continued learning throughout most of his life. Jefferson once said, "I cannot live without books." After practicing as a circuit lawyer for several ye