click links in text for more info

Ishihara test

The Ishihara test is a color perception test for red-green color deficiencies, the first in a class of successful color vision tests called pseudo-isochromatic plates. It was named after its designer, Shinobu Ishihara, a professor at the University of Tokyo, who first published his tests in 1917; the test consists of a number of colored plates, called Ishihara plates, each of which contains a circle of dots appearing randomized in color and size. Within the pattern are dots which form a number or shape visible to those with normal color vision, invisible, or difficult to see, to those with a red-green color vision defect. Other plates are intentionally designed to reveal numbers only to those with a red-green color vision deficiency, be invisible to those with normal red-green color vision; the full test consists of 38 plates, but the existence of a severe deficiency is apparent after only a few plates. There are Ishihara tests consisting of 10, 14 or 24 test plates; the plates make up several different test designs: Demonstration plate.

For demonstration purposes only, not considered in making a score for screening purposes. Transformation plates: individuals with color vision defect should see a different figure from individuals with normal color vision. Vanishing plates: only individuals with normal color vision could recognize the figure. Hidden digit plates: only individuals with color vision defect could recognize the figure. Diagnostic plates: intended to determine the type of color vision defect and the severity of it. Born in 1879 to a family in Tokyo, Shinobu Ishihara began his education at the Imperial University where he attended on a military scholarship. Ishihara had just completed his graduate studies in ophthalmology in Germany when war broke out in Europe and World War I had begun. While holding a military position related to his field, he was given the task of creating a color blindness test. Ishihara studied existing tests and combined elements of the Stilling test, named after the German ophthalmologist Jakob Stilling, with the concept of pseudo-isochromaticism to produce an improved, more accurate and easier to use test.

Being a printed plate, the accuracy of the test depends on using the proper lighting to illuminate the page. A "daylight" bulb illuminator is required to give the most accurate results, of around 6000–7000 K temperature, is required for military color vision screening policy. Fluorescent bulbs are many times used in school testing, but the color of fluorescent bulbs and their CRI can vary widely. Incandescent bulbs should not be used, as their low temperature give inaccurate results, allowing some color vision deficient persons to pass. Proper testing technique is to give only three seconds per plate for an answer, not allow coaching, touching or tracing of the numbers by the subject; the test is best given in random sequence, if possible, to reduce the effectiveness of prior memorization of the answers by subjects. Some pseudo-isochromatic plate books have the pages in binders, so the plates may be rearranged periodically to give a random order to the test. Since its creation, the Ishihara Color Blindness Test has become used worldwide because of its easy use and high accuracy.

In recent years, the Ishihara test has become available online in addition to its original paper version. Though both media use the same plates, they require different methods for an accurate diagnosis; the United States Navy uses the Ishihara plates for color vision screening. The current passing score is 12 correct of 14 red/green test plates. Research has shown that scores below twelve indicate color vision deficiency, twelve or more correct indicate normal color vision, with 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity; the sensitivity of the Ishihara test varies by the number of plates allowed to pass, which can vary by institutional policy. Sensitivity may be influenced by test administration and testing errors. Ishihara color test information


Virgiconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. In the latest classification of the family Conidae by Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P. Virgiconus has become a subgenus of Conus as Conus Cotton, 1945: synonym of Conus Linnaeus, 1758 Virgiconus berdulinus represented as Conus berdulinus Veillard, 1972 Virgiconus coelinae represented as Conus coelinae Crosse, 1858 Virgiconus emaciatus represented as Conus emaciatus Reeve, 1849 Virgiconus flavidus represented as Conus flavidus Lamarck, 1810 Virgiconus frigidus represented as Conus frigidus Reeve, 1848 Virgiconus kintoki represented as Conus kintoki Habe & Kosuge, 1970 Virgiconus moreleti represented as Conus moreleti Crosse, 1858 Virgiconus spiceri represented as Conus spiceri Bartsch & Rehder, 1943 Virgiconus terebra represented as Conus terebra Born, 1778 Virgiconus tethys Petuch & Sargent, 2011: synonym of Conus tethys Virgiconus thalassiarchus represented as Conus thalassiarchus G. B.

Sowerby I, 1834 Virgiconus virgo represented as Conus virgo Linnaeus, 1758 To World Register of Marine Species

Rene Strange

Rene Strange known as Renee Strange, was a comic entertainer known as the "singing cartoonist" and for her risqué show using marionettes, which she performed wearing black stockings. She appeared as part of variety performances, on ice, in pantomime. Rene Strange was the daughter of Leslie Strange known as Wilfred St Clair, who performed comic Dickensian pieces and impersonated famous figures of his time such as Adolf Hitler and Stan Laurel. Strange's act included drawing caricatures while singing, for which she became known as "the singing cartoonist," and the use of marionettes to perform comic routines to which she added a risqué element by wearing black stockings that showed off her legs. In 1940, Strange was filmed by British Pathé drawing a caricature of Winston Churchill and singing a patriotic song, she appeared in the Royal Variety Performance in 1946. In 1951, she was filmed by British Pathé performing with puppets Annie Pride of the Rockies. In 1952, she appeared with Norman Wisdom in a Val Parnell and Bernard Delfont production Paris to Piccadilly, described as a new Folies Bergère revue, at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London.

The same year, she appeared in Pulling Strings with Ann Hogarth, operator of Muffin the Mule, in a film for New Realm Pictures produced by Harold Bairn. Strange's marionettes employed adult themes and in 1953 she commissioned Bob Pelham of Pelham Puppets to make the Opera Singer with a heaving bosom, the Drunken Singer with wobbly legs, the Choirboy who had a halo but a catapult, the Can-Can Dancer, a Strip-tease Artist. In 1955, she performed with her marionettes at Liseberg amusement park in Gothenburg, Sweden, as part of a variety performance headlined by the trampoline act Paulette and Renee that featured plate-spinners and shadowgraphs. In 1958, she starred with Benny Hill, Jack Beckitt, Peter Vernon in a production at the Floral Theatre, Scarborough, she was principal boy in pantomime, appeared in ice shows and "ice pantomimes". Rene Strange sketching a picture of Winston Churchill, British Pathé, 1940 Rene Strange puppet show Silent footage from British Pathé, 1951

Rafael Redwitz

Rafael Redwitz is a Brazilian volleyball player of French citizenship, a member of France men's national volleyball team and French club Narbonne Volley, four-time French Champion. In 2013 Redwitz signed a contract with Montpellier UC. On July 1, 2015 he signed a contract with Polish club AZS Częstochowa. 2005/2006 French Championship, with Paris Volley 2006/2007 French SuperCup 2006, with Paris Volley 2006/2007 French Championship, with Paris Volley 2007/2008 French Championship, with Paris Volley 2009/2010 Polish Championship, with Asseco Resovia Rzeszów 2010/2011 French Cup 2011, with Tours VB 2010/2011 French Championship, with Tours VB 2011/2012 French Championship, with Tours VB PlusLiga player profile

Punta Cumplida Lighthouse

Punta Cumplida Lighthouse is an active 19th century Spanish lighthouse on the Canary island of La Palma in the municipality of Barlovento. Punta Cumplida is the oldest of the four main lighthouses on La Palma, each one being located near to a different cardinal point of the island. Punta Cumplida marks the north-eastern tip; the need for a lighthouse on La Palma was included in the first maritime lighting plan for the Canaries produced in 1857, although the site for the first light was given as Puntagorda on the north western side of the island, subsequent studies determined that it was more convenient to construct a lighthouse on the north east coast instead. The project was given approval in 1861, the contract was awarded to Jose Rodriguez Gonzalez, a resident of Santa Cruz de la Palma at a cost of just over 500,000 reales; the lighthouse first entered service in 1867, was built in a similar style to other 19th century Canarian lights, consists of a whitewashed single storey keeper's house, with dark volcanic rock used for the masonry detailing.

A plain masonry tower rises from the side of the house facing the Atlantic Ocean. The cylindrical tower supports two galleries and a lantern dome, which contained a second order Fresnel lens. In 1982, the tower was extended by 4 m to its current height of 34 m. Punta Cumplida, was depicted as part of a set of six commemorative stamps by the Spanish postal service Correos in 2010; the five other lighthouses included the Ciutadella Lighthouse of Menorca. The Fresnel lens from the lighthouse, displayed inside the ferry terminal at the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife on Tenerife, returned to La Palma in 2013, it was installed within a specially designed structure of glass and stainless steel, is now on view at the crossroads in Barlovento. In 2017 it was announced that as part of the Faros de España project, the unused keeper's house at the lighthouse would be developed into high quality tourist accommodation; the Port Authority of Santa Cruz de Tenerife will renovate the building adapting it for use as tourist accommodation, but retaining certain areas for equipment needed for the operation of the lighthouse as an aid to navigation.

In 2011 the lighthouse was converted to operate using Light-emitting diode bulbs, the first lighthouse in Europe to do so. The new lighting system consists of six vertical panels each with four bulbs. Punta Cumplida was chosen for the new system, due to its high electrical consumption, reduced by installing the 24 LED lamps; the nominal range of the new system is 24 nautical miles, although it was seen 40 nautical miles away during good atmospheric conditions by a local ferry. List of lighthouses in the Canary Islands List of lighthouses in Spain Media related to Faro de Punta Cumplida at Wikimedia Commons Comisión de faros Autoridad Portuaria de Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Duncan Webb

Duncan Alexander Webb is a New Zealand politician and Member of Parliament in the House of Representatives for the Labour Party. Webb moved to Christchurch from London in 1974 when he was six years old, coinciding with the Commonwealth Games being held in the city, his father had attended Bible college before becoming a pastor at the Maori Evangelical Fellowship Church in Wainoni. After living in Aranui, Webb's family moved to South Brighton where he grew up along with his four siblings, he left before finishing his final year. Webb attended the University of Canterbury, studying law. Webb graduated Bachelor of Laws with Honours in 1989 before being awarded a Doctor of Laws in 2007. Webb lives in Christchurch and has worked as a lawyer and as a law professor at University of Canterbury. Webb has worked for the Public Interest Project, which seeks to get innocent people out of jail, for the Howard League, which promotes prisoners’ rights, he is a long-time member of the Labour party, joining in 1999.

He has three sons. He split from his wife, Tania, in 2016. A long-time member of Labour, Webb was Brendon Burns' campaign chairman during the 2011 election. Webb first stood for office in the 2017 election, he was nominated by the party in June 2016 to contest the electorate of Christchurch Central. This seat had been held by National party MP Nicky Wagner since 2011. Webb's campaign chair was ex-Mayor of Christchurch Garry Moore. Webb was ranked 43 on Labour's party list. During the 2017 general election, Duncan Webb defeated Wagner by 2,871 votes and reclaimed the Christchurch Central seat for Labour. Following a cabinet reshuffle in late June 2019, Webb was appointed as a Chair of the Environment Select Committee. In his maiden speech, Webb identified himself as a socialist. Webb has defended the Boycott and Sanctions campaign as a form of non-violent protest against Israeli policies towards the Palestinians. In early June 2018, Webb presented a petition on behalf of Palestinian solidarity activist Donna Miles the New Zealand Superannuation Fund to divest from "illegal" Israeli settlements in the West Bank.

In August 2018, Webb hosted a meeting with Unite Union Director Mike Treen, who participated in the International Freedom Flotilla's attempt that year to breach the Israeli blockade of the Gaza Strip. Webb's Palestinian activism has drawn criticism from Zionist advocacy groups including the Israel Institute of New Zealand and the Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council