Ishikawa diagrams are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention to identify potential factors causing an overall effect; each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are grouped into major categories to identify and classify these sources of variation; the defect is shown as the fish's head, facing to the right, with the causes extending to the left as fishbones. Ishikawa diagrams were popularized in the 1960s by Kaoru Ishikawa, who pioneered quality management processes in the Kawasaki shipyards, in the process became one of the founding fathers of modern management; the basic concept was first used in the 1920s, is considered one of the seven basic tools of quality control. It is known as a fishbone diagram because of its shape, similar to the side view of a fish skeleton. Mazda Motors famously used an Ishikawa diagram in the development of the Miata sports car.
Visual brainstorming tool which can spark further examples of root causes Quickly identify if the root cause is found multiple times in the same or different causal tree Allows one to see all causes Good visualization for presenting issues to stakeholders Complex defects might yield a lot of causes which might become visually cluttering Interrelationships between causes are not identifiable Root-cause analysis is intended to reveal key relationships among various variables, the possible causes provide additional insight into process behavior. The causes emerge by analysis through brainstorming sessions, are grouped into categories on the main branches off the fishbone. To help structure the approach, the categories are selected from one of the common models shown below, but may emerge as something unique to the application in a specific case; each potential cause is traced back to find the root cause using the 5 Whys technique. Typical categories include: Originating with lean manufacturing and the Toyota Production System, the 5 Ms is one of the most common frameworks for root-cause analysis:Man / mind power Machine Material Method Measurement / medium These have been expanded by some to include an additional three, are referred to as the 8 Ms: Mission / mother nature Management / money power Maintenance This common model for identifying crucial attributes for planning in product marketing is also used in root-cause analysis as categories for the Ishikawa diagram:Product Price Place Promotion People Process Physical evidence PerformanceThe 8 Ps are used in product marketing.
An alternative used for service industries, uses four categories of possible cause: Surroundings Suppliers Systems Skill A recurring theme in a lean or Six Sigma transformation is removing the clutter to reveal waste or opportunities for improvement. A fishbone diagram aims to break down and organise the Causes of an issue to reveal what elements have the greatest impact. Grouping the “causes” means you can think about the different elements of the problem as separate from the overall process. One or two of these “causes” will have a greater effect than the others and will guide you to the root of the problem; this structure allows you to tackle smaller chunks which have a large impact on the problem. Looking at elements of the problem and not the whole process will make finding your solution less daunting and problem solving more manageable. After you have determined your root cause, prioritise or screen the causes to determine which are having the largest effect. Once identified focus on these.
An easy Cause screening method involves looking at each one and asking two questions: How is this cause to be the major source of the issue or variation? V - Very Likely S - Somewhat Likely N - Not LikelyHow easy would it be to fix or control? V - Very Easy S - Somewhat Easy N - Not EasyPut the answers of the two questions together. Work on the Causes that have a result of VV, VS, SV. Seven Basic Tools of Quality Five whys Kaoru.
Harriet Burns was an American artist and designer. Burns was the first woman hired in the Walt Disney Imagineering department within the Walt Disney Company. Burns was born Harriet Tapp in San Antonio, Texas, on August 20, 1928, raised in Seguin, Texas, she earned her bachelor's degree from Southern Methodist University in Dallas and studied advanced design at the University of New Mexico. Harriet Tapp married William Burns, the couple moved to Los Angeles with their infant daughter in 1953. William Burns died in 1986. Burns' first job in Los Angeles was at Dice Display Industries Cooperative Exchange, she designed props and sets for television shows, including the Colgate Comedy Hour, as well as interiors and sets for floor shows and hotels in Las Vegas, including The Dunes. She worked at a tourist attraction theme park in Lake Arrowhead, called Santa's Village during the mid-1950s; when the attraction closed, a friend advised Burns to apply for open positions at Disney. Burns began working at Disney Studios in 1955 as a set painter for the Mickey Mouse Club.
She helped to design and build the famed Mouse Clubhouse, a featured fixture on the show. Her appearance caused her to stand out on the set, as she dressed in high heels and a skirt to work with the hardware and tools, such as the drill press and sanders. Burns shared a workstation at the Disney Studio with a fellow Disney employee named Fred Joerger. Joerger was a model builder for WED Enterprises, now known as Walt Disney Imagineering, he was working on prototype models for the future Disneyland theme park. In addition to her job as a set builder, Burns began working with Joerger in Disney's model shop building miniature prototypes of Disneyland buildings and attractions. WED Enterprises consisted of just three members — Harriet Burns, Fred Joerger and Wathel Rogers — and became known as the WED Model Shop. WED Enterprises was renamed to Walt Disney Imagineering, which alluded to the engineering and imagination needed to design Disney theme park attractions. Burns contributed to the development of Disneyland at WED Enterprises by creating both miniature models and actual theme park attractions.
One of Burns's first assignments was to craft a model of Sleeping Beauty Castle, a Disneyland landmark which opened with the theme park on July 17, 1955. She continued to work on Disneyland expansions after the park's grand opening. Burns designed models of the Matterhorn Bobsleds attraction as a 1/100th scale replica of the famous Matterhorn in Switzerland. Another of Burns's job at Disneyland was what is called "figure-finishing." Figure-finishing involves applying paint and other finishes to Disneyland attractions and mannequins to create a "finished" look. Burns designed and painted the set pieces and underwater figurines for the Submarine Voyage ride, she applied individual feathers to the animatronic birds in Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room, which opened in 1963. Burns confessed in a 2005 interview with The Hollywood Reporter that the Tiki Room birds were one of her most challenging projects ever. "When they breathed out, it would be fine. They looked like they had mites." She managed to fix the look of the birds and maintained the Tiki Room attraction after its opening.
She created the birds for the film, Mary Poppins. Burns helped with the models and final designs of New Orleans Square, one of the themed lands at Disneyland, she designed the attractions within New Orleans Square. She built an exact model of the entire Pirates of the Caribbean dark ride, which opened in 1967, was a figure finisher on the pirates mannequins, she designed The Haunted Mansion, which opened to the public in 1969. Outside of Disneyland, Burns was part of a team of Disney employees, which included Joyce Carlson, which created several Disney attractions for the 1964 New York World's Fair. Burns contributions to the World's Fair including designing Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, which opened at Disneyland, the Carousel of Progress, her work earned the attention of Walt Disney. He featured Burns on several episodes of The Wonderful World of Color, a 1960s television show which gave a behind-the-scenes look at the Walt Disney Company, including its theme parks. Burns retired from Walt Disney Imagineering in 1986.
She was honored in 1992 with a window display of her work on Main Street, U. S. A. in Disneyland with a commemorative plaque that reads, "The Artisans Loft, Handmade Miniatures by Harriet Burns." She was the first woman in Disney history to receive this honor. Burns was designated a Disney Legend by the Walt Disney Company in 2000, as an employee "whose imagination and dreams have created the Disney magic." Harriet Burns died of complications from a heart condition at USC University Hospital in Los Angeles on July 25, 2008, at the age of 79. Burns was survived by Pam Burns-Clair, she was a resident of Santa Barbara, California where she had been active in the arts and music community. Imagineer Harriet website The official website of Disney's first female Imagineer, Harriet Burns
The Louisiana State University System is a system of public colleges and universities in Louisiana. It is budgetarily the largest public university system in the state. F. King Alexander is president of the LSU system, serves as chancellor of its flagship campus and namesake, Louisiana State University. Administrative headquarters are located in the University Administration Building on the property of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College Louisiana State University Agricultural Center - Baton Rouge Louisiana State University of Alexandria Louisiana State University at Eunice Louisiana State University Shreveport LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport Paul M. Hebert Law Center - Baton Rouge Pennington Biomedical Research Center - Baton Rouge Lallie Kemp Regional Medical Center, Independence; the LSU System has a presence in all 64 Louisiana parishes through its cooperative extension service.
This service assists farmers and other businesses in dealing with some of Louisiana's unique environmental challenges. List of colleges and universities in Louisiana List of hospitals in Louisiana Official website