The Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries F3 is a low bypass turbofan engine developed in Japan by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries for the Kawasaki T-4 jet trainer aircraft. The first prototype engine, the XF3, was manufactured in 1981 and first flew in the XT-4 in July 1985. About 550 have been built. Ishikawajima-Harima began developing a small turbofan engine in the late 1970s as a competitor for the new jet trainer aircraft being developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries; the developmental engine was named the XF3, it was selected over the SNECMA Turbomeca Larzac in 1982 to power the XT-4 trainer. The early developmental models of the engine produced 2,600 pounds-force of thrust, but models produced 3,600 lbf of thrust; the production engine was designated the F3-30, it first flew in the XT-4 aircraft in 1985. Production of the qualified engine began in 1985. After the engine and aircraft were in production there were several incidents where one or two of the high pressure turbine blades failed, forcing the aircraft to make emergency landings.
An investigation revealed that the turbine section was suffering from a vibration resonance problem, leading to the turbine blade failures. The blades were modified to dampen the vibrations; the engine, the aircraft, returned to service in 1990. Beginning in 1999, IHI began upgrading the fielded engines with a new high-pressure turbine to increase their service life; this variant of the engine was known as the F3-IHI-30B. In 2003, IHI began updating the engine with a more advanced Full Authority Digital Engine Control; this updated engine was designated the F3-IHI-30C. Soon after IHI began working on the XF-3, they began developing a more powerful variant of the engine as a technology demonstrator for a theoretical supersonic fighter; this engine was designated the XF3-400. It was designed to be a higher performance, afterburning version of the XF-3, producing around 7,600 lbf of thrust. One distinctive quality of this engine was that it was to have a thrust-to-weight ratio of 7:1, higher than any sized engine.
Work on this engine began in earnest in 1986, a demonstrator engine was built and tested in 1987. IHI was formally awarded a contract for the engine in 1992, after spending the previous years developing and testing the engine internally; the primary difference between the XF3-400 and the standard F3-30 is the inclusion of an afterburner. Adding the afterburner is the primary reason why the maximum thrust of the -400 is much higher than the -30. Other changes included compressor and turbine blades that were aerodynamically optimized using 3D computational fluid dynamics techniques, improved temperature performance in the high-pressure turbine. A 1998 report revealed that thrust vectoring was being integrated into the XF3-400; the F3 is a two-shaft low-bypass turbofan. It features a two-stage fan on the low-pressure shaft, followed by a five-stage high-pressure compressor on the high-pressure shaft; the engine uses an annular combustor, which feeds a single-stage high-pressure turbine followed by a single-stage low-pressure turbine.
The XF3-400 variant includes an afterburner after the low-pressure turbine, the production F3 does not. The two-stage fan uses wide chord blades, both the production F3 and the advanced XF3-400 use the same fan. Unlike the fan, the five-stage compressor differs between the F3 and the XF3-400, with the advanced XF3-400 benefiting from 3D computational fluid dynamics improvements; the high-pressure turbine blades are single-crystal blades, they are cooled by a thin film of air from inside of the blades. The low-pressure turbine blades, like the high-pressure compressor, were improved between the F3 and the XF3-400 using 3D CFD. Both the F3 and the XF3-400 use a FADEC for engine control. XF3 Early developmental designation of what became the F3-IHI-30. Several different configurations were considered in this phase of the program. F3-IHI-30 Production variant of the engine. Used by the Kawasaki T-4. F3-IHI-30B Production version of the engine with an upgraded high pressure turbine. F3-IHI-30C Production version of the engine with an improved FADEC.
IHI-17 XF3-400 Supersonic technology demonstrator variant of the engine. Much higher thrust than the production F3. Includes an afterburner and several aerodynamic upgrades. Kawasaki T-4 Data from Type: Twin-spool Turbofan Length: 79 in Diameter: 25 in Dry weight: 750 lb Compressor: Axial, 2 stage, low pressure compressor, 5 stage high pressure compressor Combustors: Annular Turbine: Single stage high pressure turbine, two stage low pressure turbine Maximum thrust: 3680 lbf Overall pressure ratio: 11:1 Bypass ratio: 0.9:1 Specific fuel consumption: 0.7 lb/ Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.9:1 Related development IHI Corporation XF5 IHI Corporation F7 Comparable engines SNECMA Turbomeca Larzac NPO Saturn AL-55Related lists List of aircraft engines
A flying bomb is a manned or unmanned aerial vehicle or aircraft carrying a large explosive warhead, a precursor to contemporary cruise missiles. In contrast to a bomber aircraft, intended to release bombs and return to its base for re-use, a flying bomb crashes into its target and is therefore itself destroyed in its attack; the term flying bomb is most associated with two specific Second World War weapons, the German V-1 and the Japanese Ohka. The former was unpiloted, as the first known cruise missile deployed in combat; the Sphere of March 13, 1915 published an article on "The Possibilities of an Aerial Torpedo Controlled by Wireless", suggested by a "correspondent to the Sphere" and declared feasible by an "aviation expert". The first attempt to build a flying bomb was undertaken by Elmer Sperry for the US Navy in 1916, called the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane, was based on a Curtiss N-9 seaplane; this led to a mission-specific Curtiss design, the Curtiss-Sperry Flying Bomb, completely unsuccessful.
The US Army tried to develop a flying bomb in World War I, the Kettering Bug, but the war ended before the program could mature. The functioning but unsuccessful German Mistel flying bomb was an enormous shaped charge mounted on a repurposed twin-engined medium bomber's airframe in place of the cockpit, guided by a fighter sitting on top; the fighter first took a course towards the target released the Mistel which would continue to its target. The best known example of a flying bomb is the German V-1, many of which targeted London in 1944 during World War II. Flying bombs may be powered or unpowered, piloted or unpiloted, although unpowered flying bombs such as the United States Navy Bat and German Hagelkorn and Fritz X designed during World War II are referred to as glide bombs. Flying bombs are analogous to modern cruise missiles such as the jet-powered Tomahawk and rocket-powered Exocet, in that they are equipped with wings to provide lift over a long distance and have engines that operate up until impact.
This is different from ballistic missiles, which are launched on a ballistic trajectory and do not rely on lift to reach their targets. Aerial torpedo Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg, the "R IV" version of, intended to be a piloted flying bomb V1 Flying Bomb Curtiss/Sperry "Flying Bomb" Developing the Flying Bomb
The Hitachi Hatsukaze known as the Hitachi model GK4, was Hitachi's fourth design in a series of aircraft engines built in Japan prior to and during World War II. The original Hatsukaze was a license-built Hirth HM 504. Hatsukazi engines were air-cooled, four-cylinder, inverted inline engines developing around 82 kW. Hatsukaze engines were produced in large numbers, as the powerplant for the license-built Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann variants that were the standard primary trainers for the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army; the naval version of the engine was designated GK4, the army version as Ha-47. The Hatsukaze Model 12 was the power section linked to a compressor to create a primitive jet engine called a motorjet; the standard Hatsukaze 11 engine was modified at a Navy arsenal by replacing the propeller drive shaft and engine front crankcase cover with a step-up gearbox. The gearbox increased engine output shaft RPM at a 1:3 ratio. At engine speed of 3,000 RPM, the compressor section was operating at 9,000 RPM.
The compressed air was ducted into a combustion chamber where a liquid fuel was sprayed. The heated compressed air exits through the tailpipe providing static thrust of 180 kg, it is that about 1/3 of the total thrust was contributed by adding the combustion chamber aft of the compressor. The Tsu-11 was selected to power the Yokosuka MXY-9 Shuka, a trainer intended to prepare pilots for the Mitsubishi J8M rocket-powered interceptor. Neither of these aircraft entered service, however, as their development took place too late in the war. GK4 Hatsukaze license-built Hirth HM 504 inverted inline four-cylinder aviation engine. GK4A Hatsukaze 11 82 kW IJN version, 339 built GK4A Ha-47 11 82 kW IJA version, 1,037 built Hatsukaze Toku Model 13 power section for the Ishikawajima Tsu 11 Motorjet engine Kyushu K9W1 Type 2 Momiji license built Bücker Bü 131s. Kokusai Ki-86 Type 4 license built Bücker Bü 131s. Type: 4-cylinder air-cooled inline piston engine Bore: 110 mm Stroke: 125 mm Displacement: 4,752 cm3 Length: 1,070 mm Width: 200 mm Dry weight: 115 kg Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 82 kW Compression ratio: 5.8:1 Related development Hirth HM 504 Ishikawajima Tsu-11 Related lists List of aircraft engines Bridgeman, Leonard.
"The Bücker Bü 131B'Jungmann'." Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0. Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5 Francillon, R. J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London, Putnam, 1970. ISBN 0-370-00033-1
IHI Corporation XF5
The Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries XF5 is a low bypass turbofan engine developed in Japan by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries for the Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin. Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin Data from Type: Afterburning Turbofan Length: 3 m Diameter: 0.6 m Dry weight: 644 kg Compressor: Axial, 3 stage fan, 6 compressor stage Combustors: Annular Turbine: 1 stage high pressure turbine, 1 stage low pressure turbine Maximum power output: 49kN/5,000 kg Overall pressure ratio: 26:1 Turbine inlet temperature: 1,600 °C Thrust-to-weight ratio: 7.8:1 Related development Ishikawajima-Harima F3 IHI Corporation F7 IHI Corporation XF9 Comparable engines GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri Ivchenko-Progress AI-222 Honeywell/ITEC F124 Rolls-Royce Turbomeca AdourRelated lists List of aircraft engines
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word