A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The Canadian Shield called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent. Composed of igneous rock resulting from its long volcanic history, the area is covered by a thin layer of soil. With a deep, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, it stretches north from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada. Human population is sparse, industrial development is minimal, while mining is prevalent; the Canadian Shield is a physiographic division, consisting of five smaller physiographic provinces: the Laurentian Upland, Kazan Region, Davis and James. The shield extends into the United States as the Superior Upland; the Canadian Shield is U-shaped and is a subsection of the Laurentia craton signifying the area of greatest glacial impact creating the thin soils. The Canadian Shield is more than 3.96 billion years old.
The Canadian Shield once had jagged peaks, higher than any of today's mountains, but millions of years of erosion have changed these mountains to rolling hills. The Canadian Shield is a collage of Archean plates and accreted juvenile arc terranes and sedimentary basins of the Proterozoic Eon that were progressively amalgamated during the interval 2.45 to 1.24 Ga, with the most substantial growth period occurring during the Trans-Hudson orogeny, between ca. 1.90 to 1.80 Ga. The Canadian Shield was the first part of North America to be permanently elevated above sea level and has remained wholly untouched by successive encroachments of the sea upon the continent, it is the Earth's greatest area of exposed Archean rock. The metamorphic base rocks are from the Precambrian and have been uplifted and eroded. Today it consists of an area of low relief 300 to 610 m above sea level with a few monadnocks and low mountain ranges eroded from the plateau during the Cenozoic Era. During the Pleistocene Epoch, continental ice sheets depressed the land surface creating Hudson Bay, scooped out thousands of lake basins, carried away much of the region's soil.
When the Greenland section is included, the Shield is circular, bounded on the northeast by the northeast edge of Greenland, with Hudson Bay in the middle. It covers much of Greenland, most of Quebec north of the St. Lawrence River, much of Ontario including northern sections of the Ontario Peninsula, the Adirondack Mountains of New York, the northernmost part of Lower Michigan and all of Upper Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northeastern Minnesota, the central/northern portions of Manitoba away from Hudson Bay, northern Saskatchewan, a small portion of northeastern Alberta, the mainland northern Canadian territories to the east of a line extended north from the Saskatchewan/Alberta border. In total, the exposed area of the Shield covers 8,000,000 km2; the true extent of the Shield is greater still and stretches from the Western Cordillera in the west to the Appalachians in the east and as far south as Texas, but these regions are overlaid with much younger rocks and sediment. The Canadian Shield is with regions dating from 2.5 to 4.2 billion years.
The multitude of rivers and lakes in the entire region is caused by the watersheds of the area being so young and in a state of sorting themselves out with the added effect of post-glacial rebound. The Shield was an area of large tall mountains with much volcanic activity, but over hundreds of millions of years, the area has been eroded to its current topographic appearance of low relief, it has some of the oldest volcanoes on the planet. It has over 150 volcanic belts; each belt grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, making the tally of volcanoes reach the hundreds. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes; the Sturgeon Lake Caldera in Kenora District, Ontario, is one of the world's best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, 2.7 billion years old. The Canadian Shield contains the Mackenzie dike swarm, the largest dike swarm known on Earth. Mountains float on the denser mantle much like an iceberg at sea; as mountains erode, their roots are eroded in turn.
The rocks that now form the surface of the Shield were once far below the Earth's surface. The high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. Although these mountains are now eroded, many large mountains still exist in Canada's far north called the Arctic Cordillera; this is a vast dissected mountain range, stretching from northernmost Ellesmere Island to the northernmost tip of Labrador. The range's highest peak is Nunavut's Barbeau Peak at 2,616 metres above sea level. Precambrian rock is the major component of the bedrock; the North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. The Canadian Shield is part of an ancient continent called Arctica, formed about 2.5 billion years ago during the Neoarchean era. It was s
Capreol is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. Situated on the Vermilion River, Capreol is the city's northernmost populated area. From 1918 to 2000, Capreol existed as an independent town. However, on January 1, 2001, the towns and cities of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury were amalgamated into the single-tier city of Greater Sudbury. Capreol formed around the Capreol railway station, a major divisional point on the Canadian National Railway line, its name comes from Frederick Chase Capreol, the original promoter of the Northern Railway of Canada. The first family to move into Capreol was Adolph and Margaret Sawyer, both of whom pioneered in farming. Although the town was an independent community with its own thriving economy, it became a satellite community to the more growing city of Sudbury 40 kilometres to the south. In 1916, there were thirty families in town, by 1919, sixty houses had been built, it was decided that Capreol would build its own YMCA. In 1920, the construction of the YMCA was in progress, but was damaged by fire, to the extent of $40,000.
The YMCA was rebuilt at double the cost and opened in 1921. In 1973, the boundaries of the town of Capreol were expanded to include the nearby villages of Sellwood and Milnet, the town was incorporated into the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. However, despite its status as part of the regional municipality, during this era Statistics Canada did not include the town in Sudbury's Census Metropolitan Area. On January 1, 2001, Capreol and the other cities and towns of the regional municipality were amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. In the Canada 2011 Census, Capreol was listed for the first time as one of six distinct population centres within the city, with a population of 3,276 and a population density of 537.7 km2. The community is part of Ward 7 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillor Mike Jakubo. Capreol is the location of the Northern Ontario Railroad Museum, a heritage attraction located in the former CN and CNoR superintendent's home and Prescott Park, taking up a large portion of the town's downtown core parallel to the railroad tracks.
From 1978 to 1986, Capreol had a Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League team called the Capreol Hawks, who won the league title in 1980-81. The former villages of Milnet and Sellwood, located within the area annexed by Capreol in 1973, are both now ghost towns. Milnet began as a stop along the Canadian Northern Railway. In 1917, after the railway was laid down, the Marshay Lumber Company built a mill and began a 22-year process of cutting trees from the area. Men from logging camps upstream would let the Vermilion River carry the logs to the mill in Milnet. From there the men at the mill would cut the wood on the blade and move it along to the planar mill. An open pit mine now stands. P. Kilgour - 1927-1928 B. M. Robinson - 1931 Willam Gibson - 1932-1935 James E. Coyne - 1936-1943 Willam Gibson - 1944-1946 Alistair MacLean - 1947-1952 William Gibson - 1953-1954 Harold Prescott - 1955-1969 Norman Fawcett - 1969-1973 Harold Prescott - 1973-1975 Frank Mazzuca Sr. - 1975-1997 Dave Kilgour - 1997-2000 Julian T.
Howe - 2000-2003 Jean Robert Beaulé, politician Fred Boimistruck, NHL hockey player Joffre Desilets, NHL hockey player Norman Fawcett, politician Pete Horeck, NHL hockey player Elie Martel, politician Rob MacDonald, mixed martial artist Shelley Martel, politician Frank Mazzuca Sr. politician Mike Miron, lacrosse player Doug Mohns, NHL hockey player Allan Patterson, politician Donald Bartlett Reid, politician Barbara Tyson, actress Capreol Online Capreol's Information Pages Ontario Abandoned Places: Milnet History of Capreol at Greater Sudbury Heritage Museums
Fire lookout tower
A fire lookout tower, fire tower or lookout tower, provides housing and protection for a person known as a "fire lookout" whose duty it is to search for wildfires in the wilderness. The fire lookout tower is a small building located on the summit of a mountain or other high vantage point, in order to maximize the viewing distance and range, known as view shed. From this vantage point the fire lookout can see smoke that may develop, determine the location by using a device known as an Osborne Fire Finder, call fire suppression personnel to the fire. Lookouts report weather changes and plot the location of lightning strikes during storms; the location of the strike is monitored for a period of days after in case of ignition. The typical fire lookout tower consists of a small room, known as a cab located atop a large steel, or wooden tower; the tops of tall trees have been used to mount permanent platforms. Sometimes natural rock may be used to create a lower platform. In cases where the terrain makes a tower unnecessary, the structure is known as a ground cab.
Ground cabs are called towers if they don't sit on a tower. Towers gained popularity in the early 1900s, fires were reported using telephones, carrier pigeons, heliographs. Although many fire lookout towers have fallen into disrepair as a result of neglect and declining budgets, some fire service personnel have made an effort to preserve older fire towers, arguing that a good set of human eyes watching the forest for wildfire can be an effective and cheap fire safety measure; the history of fire lookout towers predates the United States Forest Service, founded in 1905. Many townships, private lumber companies, State Forestry organizations operated fire lookout towers on their own accord; the Great Fire of 1910 known as the Big Blowup, burned 3,000,000 acres through the states of Washington and Montana. It is still arguably the largest forest fire in recorded history; the smoke from this fire drifted across the entire country to Washington D. C. — both physically and politically — and it challenged the five-year-old Forest Service to address new policies regarding fire suppression, the fire did much to create the fire rules and policies that we have today.
One of the rules as a result of the 1910 fire stated "all fires must be extinguished by 10 a.m. the following morning". To prevent and suppress fires, the U. S. Forest Service made another rule that townships and States would bear the cost of contracting fire suppression services, because at the time there was not the large Forest Service Fire Department that exists today; as a result of the above rules, early fire detection and suppression became a priority. Towers began to be built across the country. While earlier lookouts used tall trees and high peaks with tents for shelters, by 1911 permanent cabins and cupolas were being constructed on mountaintops. Beginning in 1910, the New Hampshire Timberlands Owners Association, a fire protection group, was formed and soon after, similar organizations were set up in Maine and Vermont. A leader of these efforts, W. R. Brown, an officer of the Brown Company which owned over 400,000 acres of timberland, set up a series of effective forest-fire lookout towers the first in the nation, by 1917 helped establish a forest-fire insurance company.
In 1933, during the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt formed the Civilian Conservation Corps, consisting of young men and veterans of World War I. It was during this time that the CCC set about building fire lookout towers, access roads to those towers; the U. S. Forest Service took great advantage of the CCC workforce and initiated a massive program of construction projects, including fire lookout towers. In California alone, some 250 lookout towers and cabs were built by CCC workers between 1933 and 1942; the heyday of fire lookout towers was from 1930 through 1950. During World War II, the Aircraft Warning Service was established, operating from mid-1941 to mid-1944. Fire lookouts were assigned additional duty as Enemy Aircraft Spotters on the West Coast of the United States. From the 1960s through the 1990s the towers took a back seat to new technology and improvements in radios; the promise of space satellite fire detection and modern cell phones tried to compete with the remaining fire lookout towers, but in several environments, the technology failed.
Fires detected from space are too large to make accurate assessments for control. Cell phones in wilderness areas still suffer from lack of signal. Today, some fire lookout towers remain in service, because having human eyes being able to detect smoke and call in the fire report allows fire management officials to decide early how the fire is to be managed; the more modern policy is to "manage fire", not to suppress it. Fire lookout towers provide a reduction in time of fire detection to time of fire management assessment. Idaho had the most known lookout sites. Kansas is the only U. S. state. A number of fire lookout tower stations located in New York State near the Adirondack Forest Preserve and Catskill Park, have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, they include Arab Mountain Fire Observation Station, Azure Mountain Fire Observation Station, Balsam Lake Mountain Fire Observation Station, Blue Mountain Fire Observation Station, Hadley Mountain Fire Observation Station, Kane Mountain Fire Observation Station, Loon Lake Mountain Fire Observation Station, Mount Tremper Fire Observation Station, Poke-O-Moonshine Mountain Fire Observation Station, Red Hill Fire Observation Station, St. Regis Mountain Fire
Gowganda is a Dispersed Rural Community and unincorporated place in geographic Nicol Township, Timiskaming District, in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is at the outlet of the Montreal River from Lake Gowganda, is on Ontario Highway 560. Gowganda profile at the James Bay Frontier Travel Association North Ontario Fishing Maps Angler's Atlas map download
Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater Provincial Park
Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater Provincial Park is a remote park in northeastern Ontario, near Lake Temagami. It is one of the several provincial parks located in the Temagami area; this park encompasses Smoothwater Lake, Makobe Lake, the Ishpatina Ridge, Maple Mountain, most of the Lady Evelyn River. It lies within the Eastern forest-boreal transition ecoregion, it is well known for its protection of some of the last remaining stands of old growth forest in Ontario, as well as the two fire towers on top of Ishpatina and Maple Mountain. As a wilderness park, there are few services offered to visitors but it is ideal for backcountry canoeing, nature exploration and wildlife viewing. Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater Provincial Park includes many waterfalls, such as Helen Falls, the highest and most impressive waterfall on the Lady Evelyn River. List of Ontario parks Official website Friends of Temagami